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首页 罗马和希腊世界的魔力、魔法、鬼怪

罗马和希腊世界的魔力、魔法、鬼怪

罗马和希腊世界的魔力、魔法、鬼怪

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Magic,Witchcraft,andGhostsintheGreekandRomanWorlds:ASourceBookDANIELOGDENOXFORDUNIVERSITYPRESSMagic,Witchcraft,andGhostsintheGreekandRomanWorldsDANIELOGDENMagic,Witchcraft,andGhostsintheGreekandRomanWorldsASOURCEBOOKOxfordNewYorkAucklandBangkokBuenosAiresCapeTownChennaiDaresSalaamDelhiHongKongIstanbulKarachiKolkataKualaLumpurMadridMelbourneMexicoCityMumbaiNairobiSãoPauloShanghaiSingaporeTaipeiTokyoTorontoandanassociatedcompanyinBerlinCopyright©byOxfordUniversityPress,IncPublishedbyOxfordUniversityPress,IncMadisonAvenue,NewYork,NewYorkwwwoupcomOxfordisaregisteredtrademarkofOxfordUniversityPressAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orotherwise,withoutthepriorpermissionofOxfordUniversityPressLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataOgden,DanielMagic,witchcraft,andghostsintheGreekandRomanworlds:asourcebookDanielOgdenpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBNXISBN(pbk)Magic,GreekMagic,RomanITitleBFO′dcPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaonacidfreepaperAcknowledgmentsThankstomycolleagueByronHarriesforhismoralsupportandhelpofdifferentkindswithanumberofthemoreobscureliterarytextsinthiscollection,tomycolleagueStephenMitchellforApphia,andtoProfesssorDavidBainofManchesterUniversityforhelpwiththetextofCyranidesIamparticularlyindebtedtomyfriendsRenaGeorgiouandPanosVassiliufortheirhelpinsecuringfigureformeOnceagaindeepgratitudegoestoDrSimonPriceandDrPeterDerowofOxfordUniversityfortheircontinuingsupportThanksalsotomyeditorsatOxfordUniversityPress,MsSusieChangandMsElissaMorrisIdedicatethebooktomyparentsUniversityofWalesInstituteofDOClassicsandAncientHistoryandUniversityofWales,SwanseaContentsAbbreviationsixIntroductionGreekSorcerersSHAMANSSORCERERS,MAGES,BEGGARPRIESTSAND(ORPHIC)INITIATORSEVOCATORSVENTRILOQUISTSAlienSorcerersPERSIANMAGESCHALDAEANSANDSYRIANSEGYPTIANSTheRivalsofJesusAPOLLONIUSOFTYANAALEXANDEROFABONOUTEICHOSSIMONMAGUSMedeaandCirceMEDEACIRCEWitchesinGreekLiteratureTHEDEIANEIRATRADITIONSOMEMINORWITCHESSIMAETHAANDHERTRADITIONWitchesinLatinLiteratureCANIDIAANDERICTHOTHEWITCHTHEMEINLATINPOETRYWITCHESINTHELATINNOVELSGhostsTHEUNTIMELYDEADANDTHEDEADBYVIOLENCEHAUNTEDHOUSESGHOSTLAYINGEXORCISMTHEEXPLOITATIONOFBOYS’SOULSWEREWOLVESNecromancyEVOCATIONORACLESOFTHEDEADREANIMATIONFURTHERVARIETIESOFDIVINATIONCursesBINDINGCURSESPRAYERSFORJUSTICETHEEVILEYEEroticMagicSEPARATIONCURSESATTRACTIONCURSESDRAWINGDOWNTHEMOONIUNXANDRHOMBOSHIPPOMANESABORTIONANDCONTRACEPTIONVoodooDollsandMagicalImagesAmuletsEROTICAMULETSHEALINGANDEXORCISTICAMULETSPROTECTIVEANDLUCKYAMULETSMagicandtheLawLEGISLATIONAGAINSTMAGICANDITSREPRESSIONAPULEIUSANDLIBANIUSINCOURTBibliographiesTEXTLISTGUIDETOFURTHERREADINGWORKSCITEDIndicesviiiCONTENTSAbbreviationsABBREVIATIONSFORCORPORAOFMAGICALDOCUMENTSCTGagerDTAudollentDTAWünschPDMBetzPGMPreisendanzandHenrichs–SGDJordancSupplMagDanielandMaltomini–TabSulisTomlinOTHERABBREVIATIONSAAAAthensAnnalsofArchaeologyAfOArchivfürOrientforschungAJAAmericanJournalofArchaeologyAJPAmericanJournalofPhilologyAMMitteilungendesdeutschnarchäologischenInstitutsAthenischeAbteiliungANRWAufstiegundNiedergangderrömischenWeltArchEph∆Arcaiologikh∆Efhmeriv~ARWArchivfürReligionswissenschaftASGAbhandlungenderSächsichenGesellschaftenPhilologischhistorischeKlasseBCHBulletindecorrespondancehelléniqueBICSBulletinoftheInstituteofClassicalStudiesBJBonnerJahrbucherBOBiblothecaOrientalisBSAAnnualoftheBritishSchoolatAthensCAClassicalAntiquityCCCCiviltàclassicaecristianaCILCorpusInscriptionumLatinarum,consilioetauctoritateAcademiaelitterarumregiaeBorussicaeeditumvolsBerlin–CJClassicalJournalCMClassicaetMediaevaliaCPClassicalPhilologyCPGLeutsch–CQClassicalQuarterlyCRClassicalReviewCRAIComptesrendusdeséancesdel’AcadémiedesInscriptionsetBellesLettresCWClassicalWorldDKHDielsandWKrantz,edsDieFragmentederVorsokratikerthedBerlinEMCCVEchosdumondeclassiqueClassicalviewsixENSÉcolenormalesupérieureEPROÉtudespréliminairesauxreligionsorientalesdansl’empireromaineFGHFJacoby,ed–DieFragmentedergriechischerHistorikervolsBerlinGRBSGreek,RomanandByzantineStudiesHSCPHarvardStudiesinClassicalPhilologyHTRHarvardTheologicalReviewIGInscriptionesGraecae–BerlinILSHDessau,–InscriptionesLatinaeselectaeBerlinJbACJahrbuchfürAntikeundChristentumJHSJournalofHellenicStudiesJNESJournalofNearEasternStudiesJOAIJahresheftedesösterreichischenarchäologischenInstitutsinWienJRAJournalofRomanArchaeologyJWCIJournaloftheWarburgandCourtauldInstitutesLCMLiverpoolClassicalMonthlyLIMCLexiconIconographicumMythologiaeClassicaeLSCTLewisandCShort,edsALatinDictionaryOxfordMÉFRAMélangesd’archéologieetd’histoiredel’ÉcolefrançaisedeRomeMGHMonumentaGermaniaeHistoricavols–NJKlANeueJahrbücherfürdasklassischeAltertumOMRLOudheidkundigeMededelingenuithetRijksmuseumvanOudhedenteLeidenPBSRProceedingsoftheBritishSchoolatRomePCPSProceedingsoftheCambridgePhilologicalSocietyPGJPMigne,ed–PatrologiaecursuscompletusSeriesGraecaParisPLJPMigne,ed–PatrologiaecursuscompletusSeriesLatinaParisPOPatrologiaOrientalis–ParisPPParoladelPassatoQUCCQuaderniurbinatidiculturaclassicaRACReallexikonfürAntikeundChristentumREPaulyetal–REARevuedesétudesanciennesREGRevuedesétudesgrecquesRELRevuedesétudeslatinesRGVVReligionsgeschichtlicheVersucheundVorarbeitenRhMRheinischesMuseumfürPhilologieRHRRevuedel’histoiredesreligionsRIBRGCollingwood,–TheRomaninscriptionsofBritainSundryvolumesOxfordRPRevuedephilologieRSORivistadeglistudiorientaliSEGSupplementumEpigraphicumGraecum–LeidenSIFCStudiitalianidifilologiaclassicaSOSymbolaeOsloensesSylWDittenberger,ed–SyllogeinscriptionumgraecarumrdedvolsLeipzigTAPATransactionsoftheAmericanPhilologicalAssociationTrGFSnell,B,RKannicht,andSRadt,ed–TragicorumGraecorumFragmentavolsGöttingenVCVigiliaeChristianaeWSWienerStudienZPEZeitschriftfürPapyrologieundEpigraphikxABBREVIATIONSMagic,Witchcraft,andGhostsintheGreekandRomanWorldsIntroductionTHEAIMOFTHISBOOKTheaimofthisbookistoprovideaselectionofsourcesintranslationformagicandghostsinGraecoRomanantiquitythatdoesthefollowing:•Providesaveryfullaccountoftherichrepresentationsofsorcerersandwitchesandtheirritesinancientliterature•Providesagoodrangeoftheghoststoriesandothersourcesforghostsandideasaboutthemfromancientliterature•Providesausefulselectionfromthemanyhundredsofcursetabletsfromantiquity,whichcanbestrikingintheirlanguageandtheirgoals,includinganumberofrecentlydecipheredonesofgreatimportanceTextsbearinguponthecloselyrelatedphenomenonofvoodoodollsarealsorepresented•Providesasimilarlyusefulselectionofamulettexts•ProvidesameaningfulselectionofrecipesandspellsfromtheoftendauntingcorpusoftheGreekmagicalpapyri•Attemptstoexposesuchconnectionsastherearebetweenthedocumentaryevidenceformagicanditsrepresentationinhighliterature,andtodothesameforghosts•Selectsandpresentssourceswithaneyetoimportantdevelopmentsinthenewscholarshiponthesesubjects•ExploitspreChristianandespeciallyarchaicandclassicalGreekevidencetothefull,withoutneglectingthelaterperiod•Presentsthismaterialinafashionthatisreadilyaccessibletoundergraduatesandinterestedamateurs(whetherapproachingthematerialfromaninterestinancientsocialhistoryorfromamoregeneraloneinthesocalledoccult)•Allowsthematerial,sofaraspossible,to“speakforitself,”throughcarefulsequencingofpassagesandthroughheavyuseofcrossreferencing•Givesclearlyandsystematicallyforallpassagestheirchiefsignificance,theirauthorship(orprovenance),theircitation,theirdateofcomposition,andtheiroriginallanguage•ProvidesallsourcesinoriginaltranslationsParticularcarehasbeentakenintheselectionoftexteditionsforthemagicaldocuments•Includesasubstantial,uptodate,guidetofurtherreadingInthelastdecadetherehasbeenanexplosionininterestinancientmagicandtherelatedfieldofghostsamongscholarsofclassicalantiquityThishasgeneratednewinsightsintotheseinherentlyfascinatingsubjectsand,beyondthis,intothebroadersocialhistoryoftheancientworldThenewinteresthasbeencombinedwithaneagernesstowidentheaccessibilityofthechallengingsourcematerialonwhichthesubjectsdepend,asisexemplifiedintheworkofHansDieterBetz,DavidJordan,ChristopherFaraone,JohnGager,FritzGraf,SarahJohnston,andtheircollaborators(seethebibliography)SuchworkhasunderstandablygivenrisetoaproliferationofundergraduatecoursesonancientmagicthroughoutUnitedStatesandUnitedKingdomuniversitiesButthesecourseshavebeenhamperedbythelackofasinglevolumesourcebookthatmeetsallthedesirablecriterialistedabove,theneedthisvolumeaspirestofillTheclosestthingtosuchasourcebookalreadyavailableisGeorgLuck’sArcanaMundi(),atitlehetranslatesasSecretsoftheUniverseThisbook,compiledbeforetheappearanceofwhatwemaycallthe“newscholarship”ofancientmagic,remainsahugelyimportantachievementItcan,however,beadifficultvolumeforabeginnertofindhisorherwayaroundItspreadsitspurviewverywide,withthetextsitclassesas“magic”onlyoccupyingasinglechapteroutofsix(largechaptersaredevotedtomorespecializedandlateantiquecenteredsubjectssuchasastrologyandalchemy)ThedocumentaryevidenceformagicandghostsisweaklyrepresentedSpaceisgivenonlytoafewoftheGreekmagicalpapyri,whilethecursetablets,theobjectofthemostexcitingdevelopmentsinscholarshipoverthelastdecade,arealmostentirelyneglected,asareamuletsForthedocumentarymaterialonemustdependonmorespecializedsourcebooksJohnGager’sCurseTabletsandBindingSpellsfromtheAncientWorld()isextremelyusefulbutisinevitablylimitedtothegenreitservesThesameistrueofHansDieterBetz’sGreekMagicalPapyriinTranslation(nded,),whichprovidescomprehensivetranslationsofthefundamentalcorpusoftheGreekmagicalpapyriThislargevolume,whichhasroomforonlysparingfragmentsofexegesis,isscarcelylessbafflingtonovicestudentsofthepapyrithantheirGreekoriginalsareForobviousreasons,anumberofthetextstranslatedhereoverlapwiththosetobefoundinthesethreebooks,buttherearealsomanythatwillbefoundinnoneofthem,andindeedsometextsofconsiderableimportancethatarenot,tomyknowledge,availableinEnglish,suchasthemajorpiecewithwhichIclosethevolume,Libanius’sspeechAgainsttheLyingMage,THEPARAMETERSOFTHEBOOKANDITSSTRUCTUREThepassagescollectedheretranslateliteraryanddocumentarytextswritteninGreekorLatin(occasionallyboth)producedthroughouttheGraecoRomanworldbetweenthebeginningoftheGreekarchaicperiod,BC,andtheendoftheRomanEmpire,AD(withafewrunovers)TheprimaryfocusisonmagicinitspagancontextChristiansourcesareincludedwheretheyshedimportantlightonthis,buttherehasbeennosystematicattempttocoverChristianity’sreceptionofmagicAparticularattempthasbeenmadetogiveheavycoveragetomaterialfromtheearlierendofthisperiod,thatfromarchaicandclassicalGreeceThedefinitionof“magic”isfamouslyproblematic,andauthorsofbooksonMAGIC,WITCHCRAFT,ANDGHOSTSINTHEGREEKANDROMANWORLDSthesubjectusuallyfeeltheneedformanypagesofphilosophicalreflectionontheissueintheirintroductionsItisobviouslydesirablethatasourcebook,particularlyonedesignedtobeusedbyundergraduates,amongothers,shouldavoidtheexpressionofanydogmaticviewonthematterandleaveitsreaderstomakeuptheirownmindsonitAtthesametime,itwouldbenaïvetosupposethatsuchabookcouldbecompiledinthefirstplacewithoutanycriteriaofselectionofmaterial,andthesecriteriamustproceedfrom,orleadto,somesortofdefinitionofmagic,howeverinexplicit,inchoate,orhalfbakedTheprimarycriterionIhaveinfactadoptedfortheselectionofpassagesforthisbookisthatofrelevancetothesubjectmatterofrecentscholarlybooksonantiquitywithsuchwordsas“magic”intheirtitlesIamawarethatthiswillappeartobeadisappointingsleightofhandtomanyofaphilosophicalbent,butitwouldhavebeenpedagogicallyirresponsibletotakeanyothercourseofactionSomerecentdiscussionsonthedefinitionalproblemsofmagicinancientcontextcanbefoundinAGuidetoFurtherReadingIItwouldalsobenaïvetosuppose,runningcommentariesaside,thatthesourcepassages,onceselected,couldbegroupedandsequencedwithinthebookwithouttheentailingofaseriesofargumentsabouttheconfigurationofancientmagicIfthereisoneoverridingargumentimplicitinthebook,itis,asthetitleitselfindicates,thecontentionofthecentralityofghoststoancientmagic:theywerenotitsonlymotor,butitisfairtosaythattheywereitschiefoneTheimportanceoftheroleofghostsinancientmagichasparticularlycometotheforeinrecentworkoncursetabletsThechapterizationofthebookhasbeendevelopedtotakethisimportanceintoaccountOtherwisethebookhasbeenstructuredatchapterlevelinaccordancewithanumberofoverlappingcategories:inpartinaccordancewithsorcerertype(shamans,mages,Egyptians,neoPythagoreans,witches,etc)inpartinaccordancewithtypeofmagicaldocument(literaryaccount,cursetablet,voodoodolls,papyrusrecipesthesebeingconcentratedinchapter,amulets,andlaws)inpartinaccordancewithtypeofmagicalactivity(necromancy,cursing,eroticattraction,etc)HeavycrossreferencingbetweenthepassagesreproducedextendstherangeofeachchapterCrossreferencinghasalsobeenusedtodrawtogethergroupsofpassagesunitedbythemesunaddressedatchapterorsubsectionlevelInthiswayonecanquicklyassemblepassagesrelevanttothegoddessHecate,forexample,ortohealingmagic,ortothetechniqueofsnakeblastingWhereparticularlydesirable,chronologicalfactorshavealsobeenusedinsequencingSomeofthesourcebook’sfocalsubjectsaretreatedinconsiderabledetail,withthereproductionofseriesofpassagesonsimilarthemes,inordertoaffordthereaderopportunitiesforagreaterdepthofengagementTheadvantagesofsuchopportunities,inmyopinion,outweighthecorollaryretractionintherangeofsubjectscoveredThebookbeginswithaseriesofchapters,–,onsorcerertypes,focusingfirstonmen,thenonwomenThesechaptersincludemanynarrativesofaparticularlyappealingandaccessiblenatureandsoaffordarelativelycongenialentryintothestudyofancientmagicChapterlooksattheearlierhomegrownGreeksorcerersofvariouskindsFirst,considerationisgiventothePythagoreaninspiredtraditionsofagroupofmenthatsupposedlyflourishedinthearchaicperiod,whomwenowcalltheGreek“shamans”Thesemenhadanumberofmiraculouscapacities,manyofwhichproceededfromtheirabilitiestodetachtheirsoulsfrombodiesduringlifeIntheclassicalperiodarangeoflargelyhostilesourcesconstructsforus,undersuchtermsasgoêtes(“sorcerCHAPTER:INTRODUCTIONers”)andmagoi(“mages”),animpressionofanebulousgroupofsupposedlyfraudulentandbeggarlymagicalprofessionalswhoconcernedthemselveswithsuchthingsasthecuringofillness,themanufactureofcursetablets,andthewellbeingofthesoulintheafterlifeAmongtheseasubgroupof“evocators”(psuchagôgoi)isidentifiableAlsointheclassicalperiodisfoundthephenomenonofthe“ventriloquists”(engastrimuthoi,etc),menorwomenwithpropheticdemonsintheirstomachsthatusetheirhostsasmouthpiecesButalreadytoointheclassicalperiodtheGreekswerebeginningtoprojecttheideaofthemalesorcererontoalienraces,primarilyOrientalones,andmanyofthemostexcitingportraitsofmalepractitionersintheGraecoRomantraditionbelonginthiscategoryThedevelopingtrendintherepresentationofmalesorcerersasMedianorPersianmages,asBabylonianChaldaeans,andasEgyptiansisthesubjectofchapterChapterlooksingreaterdepthatthreesorcerersfromthefirstandsecondcenturiesADforwhomsubstantialanddevelopedliteraryportraitssurviveTwoofthese,ApolloniusofTyanaandAlexanderofAbonouteichos,wereneoPythagoreansandrevivedtheworkoftheshamansThefirstisknownprimarilyfromthepositiveportraitofPhilostratusthesecondisknownalmostexclusivelyfromtheextremelyhostileportraitofLucianThesetwopiecesaccordinglyconstituteausefulantithesisAlsoincludedhereisasubstantialportraitofSimonMagus,supposedlythegreatrivalofSaintPeterOuraccountsofhimmaybealmostentirelyfictionalChapterturnstothewomentowitches,therepresentationofwhomintheGraecoRomantraditionisalmostentirelyfictiveFirstareaseriesofportraits,someofthemextended,ofthetwogreatwitchesofGreekmythology,thekindredMedeaandCirceThetalesaboutthesewomen,alreadywellestablishedintheArchaicperiod,bestowafullrangeofpowersuponthemChapterlooksatotherwitchesandwitchlikewomeninGreek(andrelatedLatin)literature,suchasDeianeira,thewifeofHeraclesChapterisdevotedtotheLatinresponsetosuchimaginarywitches,firstinpoetry,inwhichwitchfiguresbecamecommonplace,andsecondinnovelsTheRomanslikedtoimaginetheirwitchesasaltogethermorebloodthirsty,gruesome,andmorbidfiguresReaderswhoprefertheirmagicin“Gothic”styleshouldturnstraighttothesectionsgiventoHorace’sCanidia,Lucan’sErictho,andApuleius’sMeroeGhostsandcadaverousmaterialplayanimportantroleintheunlovelycraftoftheLatinwitches,whichleadsconveniently

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罗马和希腊世界的魔力、魔法、鬼怪

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