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首页 English Prepositions Explained

English Prepositions Explained.pdf

English Prepositions Explained

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2017-05-30 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《English Prepositions Explainedpdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

EnglishPrepositionsExplainedEnglishPrepositionsExplainedRevisededitionSethLindstrombergHilderstoneCollege,UKJohnBenjaminsPublishingCompanyAmsterdamPhiladelphiaThepaperusedinthispublicationmeetstheminimumrequirementsofAmericanNationalStandardforInformationSciencesmdashPermanenceofPaperforPrintedLibraryMaterials,ANSIZLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataLindstromberg,Seth,EnglishprepositionsexplainedSethLindstrombergRevedpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexEnglishlanguagePrepositionsITitlePELdcisbn(Hbalkpaper)isbn(Pbalkpaper)isbn(Eb)copyndashJohnBenjaminsBVNopartofthisbookmaybereproducedinanyform,byprint,photoprint,microfilm,oranyothermeans,withoutwrittenpermissionfromthepublisherJohnBenjaminsPublishingCompanyPOBoxmeAmsterdamTheNetherlandsJohnBenjaminsNorthAmericaPOBoxPhiladelphiaPAUSATMForTessaTableofcontentsAcknowledgementsixPrefacetothesecondeditionxiSymbols,abbreviationsandfeaturesofformatxiiichapterIntroductionandorientationchapterToward(s),to,ininto,inward,outward,through,out(of),from(vsoff),away(from)chapterOn,off,on:Ontheinoutside,ontop(of),back,forward,ahead,toontherightleft(of),off,away,along,out,toward(s),about,around,concerning,under,upon,onthebackofchapterIn,on,out,into:During,inside,withinchapterBeside,along,against,alongside,aside:Toontherightleft(of)chapterBetween,among(st):Inbetween,amid(st),inthemidst(of),inthemiddle(of),interchapterAcross(from),opposite(from),ontheotherside(of),beyond:Behind,over,attheotherend(of)chapterBehind,ontheotherside(of),inback(of),infront(of):Before,after,aheadof,inthefrontback(of)chapterAbove,over:Across,through,via,during,throughoutviiiEnglishPrepositionsExplainedchapterAroundRound,by,past:Over,allaround,allover,allacross,about,on,roundaboutchapterBy,near,past:Nearto,nearby,close(to),nextto,aroundchapterUnder,below:Beneath,underneath,atonthebottom(of),inchapterBack,backward(s):On,forward,aheadchapterAt:In,on,to,toward(s),by,near,withchapterAgainst:Near,by,on,into,atchapterUp,down:Off,outchapterOf:Off,with,at,in,about,fromchapterWith:For,to,without,together,apart(from)chapterFor:To,ofchapterTo:With,for,againstchapterSurveyandIndexofimportantabstractnotionsexpressedbyprepositionsReferencesGlossaryGeneralindexAcknowledgementsInwritingthisbook,Ihavedrawnsomuchontheworkofotherlinguiststhatfewifanyofmyideas,exceptperhapsanymistakenones,areoriginalwithmeIoweaparticulardebttoPaulPauwelsforleadingmetoLangacker()atitsplaceonalibraryshelfinAntwerpsomeyearsagoandfortellingmeitwasthebookIhadtoreadIamalsoindebtedtoRaymondGibbs,jrandtoSallyRiceformailingmearticles(papercopies!)inthedaysbeforethiskindofthingwasroutinelydonebyemailIoweotherdebtstoauthorswhohavemadesomuchoftheirworkavailableontheWebandhopetheyfindespeciallycosylocalesreservedfortheminHeaven,manyyearsfromnow,KennyCoventry,VyvyanEvansandAndreaTylerattheirforefrontAdditionally,thefactthatthissecondeditionismoreevidencebasedandmorecircumspectinitsclaimsthanthefirstedition,isdueveryconsiderablytotheexampleofmyfriendandoccasionalcoauthor,FrankBoers,whoalsokindlyreadandcommentedonseveralofthechapters,andhelpedwithtipsandreadingmaterialFinally,Iwouldliketothankmywife,TessaWoodwardforreadingtheentirebook,forhelpingmereducethetremendousnumberoftypingandpresentationalerrorsthatIwouldotherwisehaveleftin,andforintroducingmeaquarterofacenturyagotoMetaphorsWeLiveBy(LakoffJohnson,),whichwasthebeginningofeverythingasfarasmyjourneyintotheworldofprepositionsisconcernedWithouthersupportthisbookwouldnothavebeenpossiblePrefacetothesecondeditionThisneweditionretainsmostofthestructureofthefirsteditionbutvirtuallytheentiretextisnew,partlytoreflecttheimpressiveamountofresearchdoneinthefieldsinceandpartlytogivemoreinformationaboutmoreprepositions(Onlyoneprepositionhasbeendropped,theappealingbutrarecattycornerlsquodiagonallyoppositersquo)Allofthefigureshavebeenredone,andtherearemanymorethanbeforeOverall,thiseditionreliesoncorpora(includingfrequencydata)toafargreaterextentthanbeforeVirtuallyalloftheexamples(whicharealmostentirelynew)havebeendrawnfromtheWorldWideWebaftersearchesinformedbyanalysisofconcordancesThelatterhavebeengenerouslyfurnishedonlinebyorundertheauspicesoftheBritishNationalCorpus(wwwnatcorpoxacuk),theCorpusofContemporaryAmericanEnglish(wwwamericancorpusorg),andtheCollinslsquoWordbanksOnlinersquoEnglishcorpussampler(wwwcollinscoukCorpusCorpusSearchaspx)IwouldliketomentiontwootherdifferencesbetweenthiseditionandthefirstOneisthatIhavebeenmuchlessconcernedthanbeforewithidentifyingaprototypical(ormostfundamental)meaningforeachprepositionGiventhepurposesofthisbook,whichdonotincludeadvancingthefrontiersofresearch,itisnotclearthatverymuchdependsbeingcertainaboutwhichsense(ifany)isprototypicalinthetechnicalsenseofthewordMychoicesofsocalledlsquobasicrsquosensesarebasedonpedagogicalratherthanpsycholinguisticconsiderationsFinally,inthisneweditionIreferlessoftentothedifferentsensesofprepositionsandmoreoftentotheirusages(typesofuse)Whilethereismuchgoodevidencethatmanyprepositionsdohavetwoormorepsychologicallydistinctsenses(egBeitel,etal,),thereisnowherenearenoughspaceinabookofthissizeforalltheevidenceandargumentthatwouldbeneededtosayinaprincipledwaywhereeachsenseofeveryprepositionmightbeginandendSymbols,abbreviationsandfeaturesofformatBrEBritishEnglishCflsquoComparewithrsquoBNCBritishNationalCorpusCOCACorpusofContemporaryAmericanEnglishCCCSCobuildCorpusCollocationsSamplerGlsquoLookintheGlossary(whichprecedesthebibliographyinthebackofthebook)rsquoNAmNorthAmericanEnglishODETheOxfordDictionaryofEnglishOxfordDictionaryofEnglish,ndrevisededitionOxford:OxfordUniversityPressOEDTheOxfordEnglishDictionaryOxford:ClarendonPressSOEDShorterOxfordEnglishDictionary,rdedOxfordClarendonPressononasin,avaseonatableonAdverbialonasin,DonrsquotstopDriveonnpNounornounphraserelsquoregarding,withreferencetorsquoSblsquosomebodyrsquo,asin,Throwaballtosb(T)ESOL(Teaching)EnglishtoSpeakersofOtherLanguagesW(superscript)lsquoThisexamplewasfoundontheWebviaGooglersquowwlsquoBothversionsfoundontheWebrsquo,egPushonagainstitWWxlsquoSomeoneorsomethingrsquo,egSeex=Seesomeoneorsomething�(superscript)lsquoUngrammaticalorsemanticallyodd,eg�Stepawaythecar(superscript)lsquoThisexampleisOKrsquo,egStepawayfromthecarlsquosimilarinmeaningtorsquoAdditionally:smallcapitalsdenoteasystemicmetaphorsuchasupismore,asin:highprices,putpricesupTheyalsohighlightgenericelementsinconstructions,egnounprepositionnounlsquoSinglequotesrsquodenotemeaningsofwordsandphrases,andsometimestheyhighlightnewtermsitalicizedsmallcapitalsdenoteapreposition(itsform,itsmeaning,orboth)Forexample:Towardmeanslsquointhedirectionof,nearerandnearerrsquoDatesaregivenintheorderdaymonthyearChapterIntroductionandorientationWhoisthisbookforEnglishPrepositionsExplained(EPE)isforpeoplewhohavefoundthatprepositionsarenotexplainedindictionariesquitewellenoughItisaddressedto:teachersofEnglishndashtranslatorsandinterpretersintrainingndashundergraduatesinEnglishlinguisticsprogramsndashstudiousadvancedlearnersandusersofEnglishndashEFLESLmaterialswritersndashanyonewhoisinquisitiveabouttheEnglishlanguagendashBecauseEPEwasnotwrittenforresearchers,theaccountoftheoryisrelativelysimpleand,onsomepoints,deliberatelynoncommittalWhynotjustconsultagrammarhandbookordictionaryAsforgrammarhandbooks,thenamealonetellsyouthattheyaremainlyaboutgrammar,notmeaningAsfordictionaries,mostofthemordertheirentriesalphabetically,whichmeansthatinformationaboutprepositionsisscatteredacrosshundredsoreventhousandsofpagesBesidesthatPairsofprepositions(egininside)mayseemtomeanthesamethinginsomecontextsDictionariesseldomexplainthatsuchappearancesarealmostalwaysdeceptive:TwoprepositionsrarelyifeverhavepreciselythesamecommunicativeeffectArelatedweaknessofdictionariesistheyseldomexplainthelimitsofaprepositionrsquosusageForinstance,ifapenciliscompletelycoveredbysheetofpaper,wemightsaythatthepencilislsquounderrsquoorlsquounderneathrsquothepaperButsupposenowthatthepencilisonlyhalfcoveredbythepaperInthiscaseitismorenaturaltosaythepencilislsquounderrsquothepaperandmuchlessnaturaltosayitislsquounderneathrsquoInshort,underneathismorelimitedinusagethanunderChapterIntroductionandorientationManyprepositionshavemorethanoneusageAlmostalldictionarieslistthese,butrarelydotheyexplainhowtheusagesarerelatedsemanticallyeventhoughsuchinformationcanbeveryhelpfultolearners(BoersDemecheleer,)andtoteachersaswellConsider,forinstance,theprepositionoutinSpitoutthatgumandIrsquomtiredoutWhatdothesetwousagesofouthaveincommonAdictionaryisunlikelytotellyouOnedictionarywhichfrequentlydoesgivesomeinformationofthiskind(TheOxfordEnglishDictionary,http:wwwoedcom)isexpensive,huge,andquiteevidentlynotwrittentoaddresstheparticularneedsofforeignlearnersAllinall,thepurposeofEPEistopresentinformationthatdictionariesandgrammarhandbookstypicallyomitandtodosoinarelativelycompactandsurveyableformPrepositionscoveredinthisbookEPEdiscussesoverdifferentprepositionsincurrentusethroughouttheEnglishspeakingworldItsmainfocusisonthoseshort,highfrequencywordsthatpeopletendtothinkoffirstwhenaskedtonameafewEnglishprepositionsndashegat,by,down,for,from,in,near,of,off,on,out,upandtoTheseshortprepositionshaveonaveragebeenintheEnglishlanguageforagooddeallongerthanlongerprepositionsndashsincetheverydawnofEnglishinsomecasesSomuchtimehasallowedmostofthemtodeveloparangeofdifferentusagesandsometimesevenquitedifferentmeaningsAlsoimportantareacoupleofdozenoftwoandthreesyllablewordswhichclearlybelonginthefamilyofprepositionsaswell:above,before,behind,beneath,between,beyond,over,toward(s),under,underneath,andsoonSomeofthese,likeoverandunder,arealsoancientandcorrespondinglyvariedinusageFinally,therearephraseswhichbehavemoreorlessasiftheyweresinglewordprepositionsndasheginback(of)NAm,infront(of),ontheotherside(of),ontop(of),andsoforthEPEconcentratesontheshorterprepositionsndashespeciallyonthosewhichare,orappeartobe,lsquopolysemousrsquo(lsquowithseveralmeaningsrsquo)ItistheseprepositionswhichtendtobethehardestforpostchildhoodlearnersofEnglishtomasterndashevenwhentheirmothertongueisanotherGermaniclanguagesuchasDutchorSwedish(althoughthisdoesseemtomakethejobeasier)Thedifficultyoftheseprepositionsresidesonlypartlyinthefactthattheyhavemultiplemeaningsandusages(egat,by,on)Problemsarepresentedalsobymeaningswhicharedifficulttodemonstrateorvisualize(egat,forandofbutsometimesalsoby,toandwith)Butinordertobringoutthemeaningsofthesehardprepositions,itisnecessarytoshowhowtheycontrastinmeaningwithotherprepositions,manyofwhichareinfactPrepositionsnotfocusedonnotparticularlyproblematicinthemselvesThisisonereasonwhyEPEcoversoverprepositionsinsteadofonlyadozenorsoPrepositionsnotfocusedonThereareafewmediumfrequencyprepositionswhosemeaningsandusagesEPEdoesnotdiscussbecausetheyaresatisfactorilycoveredinanygoodlearnerrsquosdictionary(egaboard,onboard)NordoesEPEsaymuch,ifanything,about:lowfrequency,archaicprepositionssuchasndashbetwixt(=lsquobetweenrsquo)prepositionsusedonlyinanoccupationaljargonlikendashabaft(lsquotowardthesternofashiprsquo)onesusedinarelativelysmallgeographicalareandashegScottishndashoutwith(=lsquowithoutrsquo)wordswhichareclassedasprepositionsonsyntacticgroundsbutwhichhavendashnothingmuchtodowithtalkingaboutspaceortimendashegas,except,like,minus,plus,than,worthprepositionsderivedfromverbsEnglishhasalotofthese(egndashbarring,following,including,pending),butItouchononlyafew(concerning,regarding)Formoreonthesesocalledlsquodeverbalrsquoprepositions(lsquoprepositionsthatderivefromverbsrsquo),seeKoumlnigandKortmann()Latinprepositionsusedonlybyafewmembersoftheeducatedelitendashegndashcirca(lsquoaboutretimersquo),cum(lsquowithrsquo),qua(lsquoasrsquo)andper(lsquothrough,bymeansofrsquo)PrepositionsrecentlyborrowedfromFrenchndashegsanslsquowithoutrsquondasharealsoomitteddialectalusagesofstandardEnglishprepositionsndashegtheIrishusageofndashafter,asin,Irsquomafterhittinghimwiththecar!(lsquoIrsquovejusthithimrsquo)SeelsquoHibernoEnglishrsquo,WikipediaobsoletemeaningsndasheginOldEnglishndashonmeantnotonlylsquoonrsquobutalsolsquoinrsquoForinformationofthiskind,seetheOEDoranOldEnglishdictionarysuchasHall()LatinandGreekderivedprepositionalprefixessuchasndashcircumandperi(lsquoaroundrsquo),whicharefromLatinandGreek,respectively)However,ChaptertouchesonsensesoftheprefixexwhileinChapterthereisasectiononinter(lsquobetween,amongrsquo),thelatterinordertoshowhowasingleLatinorGreekprefixmayexpressthemeaningofmorethanonefreestandingprepositionofEnglishAlso,apartfromthissentence,EPEsaysnothingaboutthefactthatasmallnumberofprepositionscanbeusedaspostpositionsndashegfivemilesawayfiveyearsonhence(vsfiveyearsago),thewholenightthroughChapterIntroductionandorientationWherehavetheexamplesentencesandphrasescomefromThisbookincludesmanylsquofoundrsquoexamplesofhowparticularprepositionsareusedMostoftheseexampleswerecollectedinearlyfromtheWeb(viaGoogle),orfromtheBritishNationalCorpus(http:wwwnatcorpoxacuk),theCorpusofContemporaryAmericanEnglish(COCA:http:wwwamericancorpusorg),orfromtheCobuildCorpusandCollocationsSampler(CCCS)(http:wwwcollinscoukCorpusCorpusSearchaspx)ExamplesfoundontheWebaremarkedwithasuperscriptlsquowrsquowhilethosetakenfromBNC,COCAandCCCSarelabelledaccordinglyAdditionally,Ihaveusedthesefourfacilities(especiallythelastthree)toinformallysurveytypicalcollocationsandgaugetherelativefrequenciesofdifferentusagesndashegoverandaboveincertainkindsoftimeexpressionFromsomeoftheexamples,IhavedeletedirrelevantwordsThus,IreducedThecatonthematisflatwtoThecatonthematSquarebracketsindicatewhereIsuppliedawordthatwasnrsquotintheoriginalexcerptbutwaselsewhereinthewidercotext,eg:TheverywordchemotherapyconjuresupimagesofsufferingCOCAItisonlywhenacollectedexampleisquiteunusualthatIhavegivenfullerdetailsofexactlywhosaiditandwhyIfanexampleisnotmarkedashavingbeenfound,thenitisonethatIinventedItissometimesnecessarytoinventanexampleinordertobeabletoshow,forinstance,howaprepositionmightoccurinonepositioninastatementandinadifferentpositioninacloselycorrespondingquestionPrepositionsinwhosemindsOurtotalexperienceofaworddetermineswhatitmeanstousThismeaning,inturn,stronglyinfluencesourusesofthewordBecausenotwopeoplehaveeverhadpreciselythesameexperiences,weareallboundtounderstandandusemanywordsdifferentlyForcommonwordsndashegmostprepositionsndashsuchdifferencesareprobablyveryslightButthemoretwopeopledifferinage,interests,education,class,ethnicity,homearea,andproficiencyinEnglish,themorenoticeablethedifferenceswillbebetweenhoweachofthemunderstandsandusescertainwords,prepositionsincludedTherefore,whenIspeakinthisbookaboutthemeaningsandusagesofprepositions,Irefertomeaningsandusagesthatarewidelysharedratherthanuncommon,letaloneidiosyncraticFurther,theunderstandingsandusagesthatIhavetriedtodescribearethoseofnativespeakersofmoreorlessstandardandcontemporaryBritishorNorthAmericanEnglishndashbynomeansonlyoneswhoarewelleducated(BecauseIhavenoadequatefamiliaritywithothervarietiesofCollocations,strongcollocations,fixedexpressionsEnglishsuchasAustralian,Indian,Irish,NewZealand,orSouthAfrican,Ihavesaidlittleornothingaboutthem)Collocations,strongcollocations,fixedexpressionsWhentwoormorewordscombinequitenaturally,wemaysaythattheylsquocollocatersquoorthattheyformalsquocollocationrsquo(lsquowordpartnershiprsquo),suchasheavyrainIfthesewordscooccuralotmoreoftenthanwouldbeexpectedbychance,wemaysaytheyformalsquostrongcollocationrsquo,suchasheartylaughSomecombinationsofwordshavetheirownparticularmeaningtosuchanextentthatifanyofthewordsisreplacedndashevenbyanearsynonymndashthatmeaningdisappearsandorthenewcombinationseemsoddForinstance,replacingtheinofintroubleeitherwithinsideorwithwithinwouldproduceaveryoddresultndashie�insidetroubleor�withintroubleOntheotherhand,itispossibletoaddsomethingintointroubleeginbigtroubleButtherearealsomeaningfulcombinations(egatrandom)whichcannotbealteredinanyway,evenbyaddition(eg�atextremerandom)thesearesaidtobelsquofixedrsquoPrepositionsareinvolvedinavastnumberofcollocations,includingmanythatarestrongorfixedIncollocationswhichare(moreorless)fixed,prepositionsmayoccuratthebeginning(introuble),attheend(dependon),orinthemiddle(onebyone)Eventhoughprepositionsndashespeciallythemostcommononesndashtendtobesmall(bothinwritingandinsound),encounteringanunnaturalcollocationcanbeveryjarringThiscanbetrueevenwhenthewrongandthecorrectprepositionaresometimesquitecloseinmeaning(egbyattheseasidebut�byrandom,�atchance)LearnersseemtomakemistakeswithprepositionsforvariousreasonsSomeofthesereasonshavetodowithEnglishitselfForexample,alearnermaysay�byrandom,insteadofatrandom,becausebyandataresometimessimilarinmeaning,andorbecauserandomandchancecanbesimilarinmeaning(egarandomresultachanceresult),orbecausethephrasesbychanceandatrandomaresimilarenoughinmeaningtoinduceunintentionalcrossassociation(lsquocrossswappingrsquo)ofwordsTogiveanotherexample,inandonmightbeconfusedinpartjustbecausetheyarephonologicallyandorthographicallysmallandsimilarInfact,infastspeech,theymaysoundvirtuallyidenticalThus,theninDonrsquotsitlsquonthatchaircouldbeinoronMoreoftenperhaps,mistakesstemfromdifferencesbetweenEnglishandthemothertongueForinstance,Japanesehaspostpositionsnotprepositions(andnotmanyofthem)whileKoreanhasnosuchwordsatallThismusthinderlearningthemanyprepositionsofEnglishTogiveanotherexample,Spanishspeakershavetroubleknowingwhentousein,onandatbecausetheSpanishprepositionenencompassescommonusagesofallthreeEnglishprepositions(andothersbesides)ChapterIntroductionandorientationSometimesthesourceofLinfluencedmistakescanbeveryspecificindeedLetrsquostake,forexample,theexpressiondependonIfyouknowabitofLatinoraLatinderivedlanguagesuchasFrenchorItalian,pendmaywellsuggesttoyouthemeaninglsquohanghangingrsquoWemayseethismeaninginotherexpressionsaswellndashsuspendedfrom(theceiling)andpendulum,forinstanceSinceitisnaturaltospeakofsomethinghangingfromsomething,itisnotsurprisingthatFrenchandItalianspeakers(amongothers)arequitelikelytomakethemistakeofsayinginEnglishthatoneactionlsquodepends�fromrsquoanother,becauseFrenchpendreandItalianpenderemeanlsquo(to)hangrsquoInitself,thiserrorisaveryminorone,yetbecausetheexpressiondependonissofrequent,itcanbecomedistractingtoalistenerAswewillseeinChapter,),thereisagoodreasonwhywesaydependoninsteadof�dependfromor�dependof(anothercommonmistake)Indeed,oneaimofthisbookistohelpbothlearnersofEnglishavoidorovercomesucherrorsthroughseeingwhythisorthatprepositionisconventionalinparticularstrongcollocationsandfixedexpressionsThelsquoSubjectsrsquoandlsquoLandmarksrsquoofprepositionsThebasicsThemosttypicalprepositionisawordwhichsayswhereonephysicalthingislocatedinrelationtoanother:()ThereisacandleonthetableWAboutthisexamplethefollowingcanbesaid:onndashfunctionsasalsquoprepositionofplacersquoThephrasendashacandlereferstoathingwhoselocationthespeakerwantstoindicateThisthingIwillcalltheSubjectoftheprepositionThephrasendashthetablereferstoanotherthing,theLandmarkoftheprepositionTheprepositionlocatestheSubject(thecandle)inrelationtotheLandmark(thetable)Thus,theprepositiontellsusaboutthendashstructureofaphysicalsceneIn()boththeSubjectandtheLandmarkaretangiblethings,sowecansayherethatndashonisbeingusedspatially,andalsoliterallyratherthanfiguratively(egmetaphorically)Asis

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