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首页 《乡土中国》英文版(From the Soil: the Foundation)

《乡土中国》英文版(From the Soil: the Foundation).PDF

《乡土中国》英文版(From the Soil: the Fo…

萝卜丝瓢儿糕
2016-12-25 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《《乡土中国》英文版(From the Soil: the Foundation)PDF》,可适用于人文社科领域

title:FromtheSoil,theFoundationsofChineseSociety:ATranslationofFeiXiaotong#sXiangtuZhongguo,WithanIntroductionandEpilogueauthor:Fei,Hsiaot谩ungHamilton,GaryGWang,Zhengpublisher:UniversityofCaliforniaPressisbn|asin:printisbn:ebookisbn:language:EnglishsubjectChinaSocialconditionspublicationdate:lcc:HNFebddc:subject:ChinaSocialconditionsPageiiiFromtheSoil:TheFoundationsofChineseSocietyATranslationofFeiXiaotong#sXiangtuZhongguo,withanIntroductionandEpiloguebyGaryGHamiltonandWangZhengUniversityofCaliforniaPressBerkeley路LosAngeles路LondonUniversityofCaliforniaPressBerkeleyandLosAngeles,CaliforniaUniversityofCaliforniaPress,LtdLondon,England漏byTheRegentsoftheUniversityofCaliforniaLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataFei,Hsiaot#ungHsiangt#uChungkuoEnglishFromthesoil,thefoundationsofChinesesociety:atranslationofFeiXiaotong#sXiangtuZhongguo,withanintroductionandepiloguebyGaryGHamiltonandWangZhengpcmTranslationof:Hsiangt#uChungkuoIncludesindexISBN(alkpaper)ISBN(pbk:alkpaper)ChinaSocialconditionsIHamilton,GaryGIIWang,ZhengIIITitleHNF#dcCIPPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaPagevContentsForewordviiIntroduction:FeiXiaotongandtheBeginningsofaChineseSociology,byGaryGHamiltonandWangZhengSpecialCharacteristicsofRuralSocietyBringingLiteracytotheCountrysideMoreThoughtsonBringingLiteracytotheCountrysideChaxugeju:TheDifferentialModeofAssociationTheMoralityofPersonalRelationshipsPatrilineagesBetweenMenandWomen,ThereAreOnlyDifferencesARuleofRitualASocietywithoutLitigationAnInactiveGovernmentRulebyEldersConsanguinityandRegionalismSeparatingNamesfromRealityPageviFromDesiretoNecessityEpilogue:SociologyandtheReconstructionofRuralChina,byGaryGHamiltonandWangZhengGlossaryIndexPageviiForewordThebulkofthisbookisatranslationofXiangtuZhongguo,asetofessayswrittenbyFeiXiaotongshortlyafterWorldWarIIInwritingsaboeiandhisworks,thebook#stitleisusuallyrenderedinEnglishasruralChina,butthisrenderingisinexactXiangmeanscountrysideandtumeansearthbutthecombination,xiangtu,isasetphrasemeaningone#snativesoilorhomevillageByusingxiangtutomodifyZhongguo(China),Feiisconveyingasubtlemeaningtohisreaders:thatChinesesocietyhasgrownoutofitstiestothelandShouldanyofhisreadersmissthesubtlety,Feiclarifiesthemeaningofthetitleinthebook#sfirstsentence,ChinesesocietyisfundamentallyruralFromthesoilcapturesFei#smeaninginawaythatruralChinadoesnotAlthoughthisbookisvirtuallyunknownintheWest,itisastandardtextinmanyChineseuniversitiesandcontainsideasthatareusefulforWesternreadersaswellInourintroduction,weexplainwhythisbookremainsasfreshandasintellectuallygrippingtodayasitwasoverfortyyearsago,whenitwasfirstwrittenInfact,itmaybeevenbettersuitedtotoday#sclimateofopinionthantotheearlierone,becauseFeiaddressesthestructuralfoundationsofsocialpluralismandculturaldiversityBydescribingthefundamentaldifferencesbetweenChineseandWesternsocieties,FeihelpsustounderstandthedistinctivenessofChinesesocietyandtolookatWesternmodernityinanewwayWedecidedtotranslatethisbookbecausewewereengagedinasimilarpursuitWe,too,werecontrastingChinaandtheWestinordertounderstandthedistinctivenessofChinesesocietyandonfirstreadingFei#sbook(HamiltoninandWangin),wewerestruckbytheparallelsbetweenwhatweweretryingtodoandwhatFeihadalreadydonefortyyearsearlierMoreover,oncewehadstudiedthebook,itbecameincreasinglyevidentthatoursubsequentworkwouldhavetobuildonFei#sinsightsForthisPageviiireason,werealizedthatwehadtoproduceanEnglishtranslationofthebookandtoexplainhowFei#sideasopenthewayforunderstandingChinaandindeedothernonWesternsocietiesinnewtermsThroughoutthebook,FeiisattemptingtoexplaintohisChinesereaderswhattheWestislike,sothathecanshowhowChinesesocietydiffersfromWesternsocietiesInourtranslation,wefindourselveshavingtocrosstheculturalbarrieroneadditionaltimeHerewehavehadtoconveyinEnglishwhattheWestislikefromaChinesepointofview,andtoshowhowthisChineseunderstandingoftheWestallowstheuniquequalitiesofChinesesocietytobecomevisibletotheveryChinesewhowouldotherwisetakethosequalitiesforgrantedMultiplelevelsofdiscourseneededtobeincludedsimultaneouslyThroughoutourtranslation,wehavetriedtoemphasizeFei#sChinesepointofviewandtoclarifythispointofviewforanEnglishreadingpublicAsFeihimselfhassaid,however,everyactoftranslationisnecessarilyanewinterpretationWeonlyhopethattheEnglishreadersofthisbookwillbrackettheirowntakenforgrantedworldtheirWesternnessandallowthemselvesnotonlytoenteradifferentsocialworldbutalsotounderstandthatthatsocialworldfunctionsasfullyastheworldtheythemselvesliveinXiangtuZhongguohasbeenreissuedmanytimesinTaiwanandHongKongForourtranslation,weusedtworeissuedcopiesoftheoriginaleditionOneofthereissuededitionswasprintedinTaiwanwithoutpublishinginformationordateofpublicationTheothereditionwaspublishedinHongKongwithpublishinginformationbutnodateofpublicationBotheditionswereidenticalwesubsequentlycheckedthisversionagainstamorerecenteditionpublishedinHongKongWithoneexception,whichwenoteinthetext,thisversionisidenticaltotheversionweusedinthetranslationFortheepilogue,wealsotranslatedshortpassagesfromFei#sXiangtuchongjian(ReconstructingruralChina)Inthepast,thisXiangtuZhongguo(Shanghai:Shanghaiguanchashe,)XiangtuZhongguo(Xianggang:Wenxuechubanshe,nd)XiangtuZhongguo(Xianggang:Sanlianshudian,)Xiangtuchongjian(ReconstructingruralChina)(Shanghai:Shanghaiguanchashe,)PageixbookhasoftenbeenpublishedinthesamevolumeasXiangtuZhongguo,andboththeTaiwanandHongKongvolumesthatweusedtotranslateXiangtuZhongguoalsocontainedthereissuededitionofXiangtuchongjian,whichweusedasthesourceofourtranslationWewishtoacknowledgetheassistanceofanumberofpeopleandtoexpressourthankstothemallThestudentsattheUniversityofCalifornia,Davis,inanumberofcoursesoncomplexorganizations,comparativemanagement,andChinesesocieties,encouragedusbytheirenthusiasticreactionstoourinitialtranslationsofchaptersandFindingthatpeoplewithnopreviousknowledgeofChinacouldenjoyandlearnfromthesechapterspromptedustotranslatetheentirebookThefollowingpeoplegavehelpfulcommentsonallorpartsofthisbook(althoughweincorporatedmanyoftheirsuggestions,wearestillresponsiblefortheresult):TaniBarlow,EleanorBender,NicoleBiggart,ThomasGold,LynLoftand,MausangNg,BenjaminOrlove,MarthaWinnacker,andespeciallyMarcoOrru,whoalsogaveusthebenefitofhiseditorialskillsWewanttosingleoutDavidArkushforaspecialacknowledgmentHisencouragementfromtheoutsethelpedkeeptheprojectgoing,andhislinebylinereadingofourtranslationsavedusfrommanymistakesFinally,wethankSashaBessomandJeanStratfordforassemblingthemanuscriptandputtingitintoitspresentformGGHWZPageIntroductionFeiXiaotongandtheBeginningsofaChineseSociologybyGaryGHamiltonandWangZhengThebooktranslatedhere,XiangtuZhongguo,beganinthesaslecturenotesforanintroductoryclassinChineseruralsocietyTheinstructorofthatclassandtheauthorofthisbookisFeiXiaotongThebookthatgrewoutofFei#sefforttointroducesociologytoChinesestudentsisnoordinarytextbook,andFeiisnoordinarysociologistHeisthefinestsocialscientisttoemergefromChinainthetwentiethcentury,andXiangtuZhongguoishischieftheoreticalstatementaboutthenatureofChinesesocietyThisisabookwrittenbyaChineseforaChineseaudienceaboutthedistinctivenessofChinesesocietyBecauseitpresentsaninsider#sviewofanonWesternworld,itisanunusualbookforWesternerstoreadButevenatthetimeofitsfirstpublicationin,itwasanunusualbookforChinesetoreadaswellFeirewroteandpublishedhislecturenoteschapterbychapterasaseriesofessaysinaleadingintellectualjournal,ShijipinglunIntheyearsimmediatelyafterWorldWarII,beforetheChineserevolutionof,FeiwasalreadyrecognizedasoneofChina#sleadingintellectualsandasapopularwriterwhoseessayswerewidelyreadandadmiredWhenFeipublishedtheserializedversionofXiangtuZhongguo,theessaysimmediatelyattractedattentionhequicklycollected,revised,andpublishedtheminbookForthediscussionofFei#slife,wehavedrawnextensivelyuponRDavidArkush#sexcellentbiography,FeiXiaotongandSociologyinRevolutionaryChina(Cambridge,Mass:HarvardUniversityPress,),andBurtonPasternak#sextensiveinterviewwithFei,AConversationwithFeiXiaotong,CurrentAnthropology,no(AugOct):AlsoseeJamesPMcGough#sFeiHsiaot#ung:TheDilemmaofaChineseIntellectual(WhitePlains,NY:MESharpe,)PageforminInthefollowingyear,hepublishedasecondbook,Xiangtuchongjian(ReconstructingruralChina)anothersetofessayswrittenoverthesameperiodandalsopublishedfirstinserializedformThetwobooks,oftenpublishedtogetherinthesamevolume,becameFei#smostwidelyreadworksinChineseInthefewyearsuntil(whentheCommunistgovernmentabolishedthedisciplineofsociologyonthemainland),thesebooksmadeFeifamousamongeducatedChineseandoneofthebestknownadvocatesinChinaforreformTheyearsbetweentheendofWorldWarIIandtheconsolidationofCommunistroleonthemainlandmarkawatershedinmodemChinesehistoryFei#sworksbarelysurvivedthetransitionAftertheCommunistgovernmentbannedsociologyin,itbegantoattackFeiandothersociologistswhoremainedinthePeople#sRepublicofChinaasrightist,bourgeois,andantiMarxistXiangtuZhongguoanditscompanionvolume,Xiangtuchongjian,wentoutofprintandceasedtobereadilyavailableinthePRCAcrosstheTaiwanStraits,inTaiwan,whereChiangKaishekandhisGuomindangarmiesfledin,writerswhoremainedinCommunistterritoryandexpressedloyaltytothenewgovernmenthadtheirworksofficiallyrestrictedFei#swritingsexistedinagrayzone,notreadilyavailableinbookstoresandyetnottotallyunavailableHisbooksweresoldinstreetstallswithouthisnameorwithhisnameshortenedtoFeiTong,anduniversitieswerenotallowedtoincludetheminofficiallyapprovedreadinglistsTherefore,beginninginthes,asidefromacontinuingreadershipinHongKong,thebooksthatFeihadwritteninChinesewerenotreadilyavailableandwerenolongerstudiedascloselyastheyhadbeenbeforethepoliticalclimatechangedIronically,inthesameyears,Fei#sbooksinEnglishwerewidelyreadandbecamequiteinfluentialSincethelates,thesituationhaschangedOnthemainland,beginningwithreformsafterMaoZedong#sdeathin,SeeMcGough,FeiHsiaot#ung,foradiscussionoftheseattacksandsometranslationsofthemostinfluentialcriticismsForalistingofthevariouseditionsofXiangtuZhongguobefore,seeArkush,FeiXiaotong,pSeenotebelowPageFeiandotherintellectualslabeledearlierasrightistsweregraduallyrehabilitatedIn,sociologywasreinstatedasanacademicdisciplineandtheChineseSocietyofSociologywasfounded,withFeiasitsfirstpresidentHowever,Fei#sprewritingswerenotimmediatelyreissuedFeievenhadtousemimeographedversionsofXiangtuZhongguoandXiangtuchongjianinhiscoursewhenhebeganofferinggraduatetrainingtoasmallgroupofstudentsatBeijingUniversityintheearlysAlthoughFeiXiaotongisonceagainawidelyknownfigureandalthoughsomeofhisprewritings,includingXiangtuZhongguo,arenowavailableinthePRC,thesewritingshaveonlyrecentlybecomeknownoutsideofasmallgroupofsociologistsInChinesespeakingareasoutsidethePRC,XiangtuZhongguoistodayregardedasaclassictextthatlaysafoundationforunderstandingChinesesocietyinitsowntermsInHongKong,mostofFei#sworks,includingXiangtuZhongguo,werereissuedafter,andXiangtuZhongguobegantoserveasastandardtextforunderstandingChinesesocietyInTaiwan,whereFei#sworksarestillnotofficiallyapproved,manyofFei#sprebooks,withfullattributiontohisauthorship,becamereadilyavailableinmarketbookstallsevenbeforethenewHongKongeditionsappearedInTaiwan,too,theideasfromXiangtuZhongguobecamepartoftheestablishedwisdomabouthowtointerpretChinesesocietyIntheXiangtuZhongguobecameavailableonlyin,whentheHongKongedition,publishedbySanlianPress,appearedSince,severalvolumesofFei#sselectedworkshavebeenpublishedinthePRC,includingFeiXiaotongxuanji(SelectedworksofFeiXiaotong)(Tianjin:RenminPublishingCo,)andFeiXiaotongxueshujinghualu(ThebestacademicwritingsofFeiXiaotong)(Beijing:NormalUniversityPress,)BothcontainselectedchaptersfromXiangtuZhongguoFeiisbetterknowninChinatodayforhispoliticalthanforhisintellectualrolesWhenhewasrehabilitatedaftertheCulturalRevolution,hebecameawellknownpoliticalfigureIn,hewasvicepresidentoftheNationalPeople#sCongressandpresidentoftheDemocraticLeagueofChinaHeisregardedasoneoftheleadingfiguresinthedemocraticpoliticalmovements,arolehehadalreadyplayedduringWorldWarIIInthepostperiodinthePRC,theDemocraticLeagueis,inprinciple,supposedtoconsultwithCommunityPartyleadersonpolicyissuesalthough,infact,itsrole,aswellasthatofitsleaders,seemslargelyhonorificDrawinguponhissmalltownresearch,FeidoesappeartohavehadsomeinfluenceonthedevelopmentofeconomicreformsafterForasurveyofthisresearch,seeFei#srecentbookSmallTownsinChina(Beijing:NewWorldPress,)FormoreonFei#sactivitiesintheearlyyearsoftheDemocraticLeague,seeArkush,FeiXiaotong,ppffPageEnglishspeakingworld,however,althoughFeiXiaotongisthebestknownChinesesocialscientist,XiangtuZhongguoisvirtuallyunknownTheMakingofaChineseSociologistXiangtuZhongguorepresentsFeiXiaotong#sfirstandonlyefforttoconstructanonWesterntheoreticalfoundationforasociologyofChinesesocietyOnlyafewyearsafterXiangtuZhongguoappearedinprint,MarxistsocialanalysisbecameintellectualorthodoxythroughoutChinaAllattemptstodevelopideasthatwouldruncountertothisorthodoxywereforbidden,andtransgressorswereseverelypunishedAswewilldiscusslaterintheintroductionandagainintheepilogue,Fei#ssociologyofChinesesocietyrunsdirectlycountertoaChineseMarxistinterpretationofChinesesocietyItoffersaverydifferentviewofthesocietyandrecommendsaverydifferentcourseofactionforfacingChina#seconomicandsocialproblemsConsequently,ithasnothadachanceforafullhearinginthePeople#sRepublicofChinaButevenwithoutthehearinginthePRC,Fei#sprewritingsandtheirtheoreticalcenterpiece,XiangtuZhongguo,arenowregardedaswellgroundedandchallengingattemptstodevelopasociologyofChinesesocietyInfact,Fei#sXiangtuZhongguorepresentsoneofthefewandcertainlyoneofthemostinsightfuleffortstobuildasociologyofanonWesternsocietyFei,thesonofaschoolteacherandtheyoungestoffivechildren,FeiisbestknownintheWestforaseriesofbooksandarticlespublishedinEnglishbetweenandearlythesSee,especially,PeasantLifeinChina(London:RoutledgeandKeganPaul,)EarthboundChina,writtenwithZhangZiyi(Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress,)PeasantryandGentry:AnInterpretationofChineseSocialStructureandItsChanges,AmericanJournalofSociology():andChina#sGentry(Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress,)SomeofFei#spostworkshavebeentranslatedinMcGough#sFeiHsiaot#ungand,mostrecently,inFei#sRuralDevelopmentinChina:ProspectandRetrospect(Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress,)ForFei#sbibliographyto,seeArkush,FeiXiaotongSeeFei#sdiscussioninPasternak,AConversationwithFeiXiaotongAnotherverysignificantandmorerecentefforttocreateasinifiedsociologyhasoccurredinTaiwanSee,inparticular,KuoshuYangandChungIWen(eds),ShehuijixingweikexueyanjiudeZhongguohua(ThesinicizationofsocialandbehavioralscienceresearchinChina),MonographSeriesB,no(Taipei:InstituteofEthnology,AcademiaSinica,)PagewasborninthecentralChineseprovinceofJiangsuinFollowingtheleadofhisoldersiblings,FeiattendedlocalmissionaryschoolsandeventuallyenteredthemissionarysponsoredSoochowUniversityAnhonorsstudent,Feibeganpreparingforamedicaldegree,butheswitchedtosociologyaftertransferring,asajunior,toanothermissionaryschool,YanjingUniversityinBeijingFiftyyearslater,talkingabouthisdecisiontochangehismajorfrommedicinetosociology,Feisaid,MyreasoningwasthatasamedicaldoctorImightcuretheafflictionsofafew,butnotthoseofhundredsofmillionsengenderedbyanirrationalsocietyWhatailssocietymustbecuredfirstTobeadoctorwehavetolearnphysiologyfirstlikewise,tocurethesocietywehavetostudysocialtheoriesfirstWiththepracticalgoalofunderstandingChinesesocietyinordertochangeit,FeistartedhislongjourneytowardestablishingasociologyofChinaAlthoughFeiXiaotongwasprimarilyconcernedwithChinesesocialproblems,histrainingwasmainlyWesternAtYanjingUniversity,heworkedwithAmericantrainedteachers,andinthefallofhissenioryear,in,hestudiedwiththeAmericansociologistRobertParkTeachinginChinaforoneterm,ParkhadrecentlyretiredfromthechairofthedepartmentofsociologyattheUniversityofChicago,thenthebestknownsociologydepartmentintheworldParkhadagreatinfluenceonthatdepartmentandplayedacentralroleincreatingwhathadbecomeknownastheChicagoschoolofsociologyHewasawellknowncriticofivorytowertheorizingandanoutspokenadvocateforasociologybasedonfieldresearchAdynamicteacher,ParkpreachedthatmessagetoFei,whothereafterturneddecisivelyfromlibraryresearchandreadingaboutWesterntheoriestoactualobservationofChinesesocietyEnteringgraduateschoolandnowattractedtofieldresearch,FeiSeeFeiXiaotong,TowardaPeople#sAnthropology(Beijing:NewWorldPress,),piandCongshishehuixuewushinian(Fiftyyearsinsociology)(Tianjin:People#sPress,nd),pWemightnotethatmodemChina#sgreatauthor,LuXun,andmodemChina#sfirstrenownedrevolutionary,SunYatsen,bothgaveupmedicineforthesamereasonsForadiscussionoftheChicagoschoolofsociologyandofPark#sroleinthatschool,seeFredHMatthews,QuestofanAmericanSociology:RobertEParkandtheChicagoSchool(Montreal:McGillQueen#sUniversityPress,),andMartinBulmer,TheChicagoSchoolofSociology(Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress,)Pageswitchedfocusonceagainfromsociology,whichinChinawasamorelibraryorienteddiscipline,toanthropologyFeitookhisgraduatetrainingwiththeRussiananthropologistSMShirokogoroffatQinghuaUniversityShirokogoroffwasdevotedtotheempiricalstudyofthesocialorganizationandphysicalcharacteristicsoftribalpeoplesinChina,andunderhisdirectionFeienhancedhisappreciationofempiricalresearchanddevelopedalifelonginterestinstudyingChina#sminoritiesAfterreceivinghismaster#sdegree,FeiwonaBritishBoxerIndemnityFundscholarshipand,inthefallof,attendedtheLondonSchoolofEconomicsandPoliticalScience,wherehestudiedanthropologyunderBronislawMalinowskiInthe

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