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首页 Neil Postman-Amusing Ourselves to Death.pdf

Neil Postman-Amusing Ourselves to Death.pdf

Neil Postman-Amusing Ourselves …

上传者: 逐智wz 2017-07-24 评分 5 0 189 26 860 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Neil Postman-Amusing Ourselves to Deathpdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含AmusingOurselvestoDeathPublicDiscourseintheAgeofShowBusinessNeilPostmanNew符等。

AmusingOurselvestoDeathPublicDiscourseintheAgeofShowBusinessNeilPostmanNewIntroductionbyAndrewPostmanPENGUINBOOKSPENGUINBOOKSPublishedbythePenguinGroupPenguinGroup(USA)Inc,HudsonStreet,NewYork,NewYork,USAPenguinGroup(Canada),EglintonAvenueEast,Suite,Toronto,Ontario,CanadaMPY(adivisionofPearsonPenguinCanadaInc)PenguinBooksLtd,Strand,LondonWCRRL,EnglandPenguinIreland,StStephen#sGreen,Dublin,Ireland(adivisionofPenguinBooksLtd)PenguinGroup(Australia),CamberwellRoad,Camberwell,Victoria,Australia(adivisionofPearsonAustraliaGroupPtyLtd)PenguinBooksIndiaPvtLtd,CommunityCentre,PanchsheelPark,NewDelhi,IndiaPenguinGroup(NZ),cnrAirborneandRosedaleRoads,Albany,Auckland,NewZealand(adivisionofPearsonNewZealandLtd)PenguinBooks(SouthAfrica)(Pty)Ltd,SturdeeAvenue,Rosebank,Johannesburg,SouthAfricaPenguinBooksLtd,RegisteredOffices:Strand,LondonWCRRL,EnglandFirstpublishedintheUnitedStatesofAmericabyVikingPenguinIncPublishedinPenguinBooksThiseditionwithanintroductionbyAndrewPostmanpublishedCopyrightcopyNeilPostman,IntroductioncopyrightcopyAndrewPostman,AllrightsreservedGratefulacknowledgmentismadetoTheNewYorkTimesCompanyforpermissiontoreprintfromCombiningTV,Books,ComputersbyEdwardFiske,whichappearedintheAugust,,issueofTheNewYorkTimesCopyrightcopybyTheNewYorkTimesCompanyAsectionofthisbookwassupportedbyacommissionfromtheAnnenbergScholarsProgram,AnnenbergSchoolofCommunications,UniversityofSouthernCaliforniaSpecifically,portionsofchapterssixandsevenformedpartofapaperdeliveredattheScholarsConference,CreatingMeaning:LiteraciesofOurTime,FebruaryTHELIBRARYOFCONGRESSHASCATALOGEDTHEHARDCOVEREDITIONASFOLLOWSPostman,NeilAmusingourselvestodeathBibliography:pIncludesindexMassMediamdashInfluenceITitlePP#ISBNXPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaSetinLinotronMeridienExceptintheUnitedStatesofAmerica,thisbookissoldsubjecttotheconditionthatitshallnot,bywayoftradeorotherwise,belent,resold,hiredout,orotherwisecirculatedwithoutthepublisher#spriorconsentinanyformofbindingorcoverotherthanthatinwhichitispublishedandwithoutasimilarconditionincludingthisconditionbeingimposedonthesubsequentpurchaserThescanning,uploadinganddistributionofthisbookviatheInternetorviaanyothermeanswithoutthepermissionofthepublisherisillegalandpunishablebylawPleasepurchaseonlyauthorizedelectroniceditions,anddonotparticipateinorencourageelectronicpiracyofcopyrightedmaterialsYoursupportoftheauthor#srightsisappreciatedContentsIntroductiontotheTwentiethAnniversaryEditionviiInxviiForewordxixPartITheMediumIstheMetaphorMediaasEpistemologyTypographicAmericaTheTypographicMindThePeekaBooWorldPartIITheAgeofShowBusinessNowThisShuffleOfftoBethlehemReachOutandElectSomeoneTeachingasanAmusingActivityTheHuxleyanWarningNotesBibliographyIndexIntroductiontotheTwentiethAnniversaryEditionNowthisAbookofsocialcommentarypublishedtwentyyearsagoYou#renotbusyenoughwritingemails,returningcalls,downloadingtunes,playinggames(online,PlayStation,GameBoy),checkingoutWebsites,sendingtextmessages,IM#ing,Tivoing,watchingwhatyou#veTivoed,browsingthroughmagazinesandnewspapers,readingnewbooksmdashnowyou#vegottostopandreadabookthatfirstappearedinthelastcentury,nottomentionthelastmillenniumComeonLikeyouroutlookontodaycouldseriouslyberockedbythisplainspokenprovocationaboutTheWorldof,aworldyettobeinfiltratedbytheInternet,cellphones,PDAs,cablechannelsbythehundreds,DVDs,callwaiting,callerID,blogs,flatscreens,HDTV,andiPodsIsitreallyplausiblethatthisslimvolume,withitsonceurgentpremonitionsaboutthenuancedanddeepseatedperilsoftelevision,couldfeeltimelytoday,theAgeofComputersIsitreallyplausiblethatthisbookabouthowTVisturningallpubliclife(education,religion,politics,journalism)intoentertainmenthowtheimageisunderminingotherformsofcommunication,particularlythewrittenwordandhowourbottomlessappetiteforTVwillmakecontentsoabundantlyavailable,contextbedamned,thatwe#llbeoverwhelmedbyinformationglutuntilwhatistrulymeaningfulislostandwenolongercarewhatwe#velostaslongaswe#rebeingamusedCansuchabookpossiblyhaverelevancetoyouandTheWorldofandbeyondviiIntroductiontotheTwentiethAnniversaryEditionviiiIthinkyou#veansweredyourownquestionI,too,thinktheanswerisyes,butasNeilPostman#sson,I#mbiasedWherearewetofindobjectivecorroborationthatreadingAmusingOurselvestoDeathin,inasocietythatworshipsTVandtechnologyasoursdoes,isnearlyanactofdefiance,oneofthoseIdidn#trealizeitwasdarkuntilsomeoneflippedtheswitchencounterswithanilluminatingintellectLet#snottakethewordofthosewhostudiedundermyfatheratNewYorkUniversity,manyofwhomhavegoneontoteachintheirowncollege(andoccasionallyhighschool)courseswhathearguesinthesepagesThesefinemindsare,asmyfather#swas,ofabygoneera,adifferentmediaenvironment,andtheirbiasesmaymakethem,astheymadehim,hostageofanothertime,perhapsincapableofseeingthepresentworldasitisratherthanasthey#dlikeittobe(Oneman#sRratingisanother#sPG)Andjusttomakeacleanslateofit,let#snotrely,either,ontheopinionsofthenumerousreadersoftheoriginaleditionofAmusingOurselvestoDeath(translatedintoadozenlanguages,includingGerman,Indonesian,Turkish,Danishand,mostrecently,Chinese),somanyofwhomwrotetomyfather,orbuttonholedhimatpublicspeakingevents,totellhimhowdeadonhisargumentwasTheirsupport,whilegenuine,wasexpressedoverthelasttwodecades,sosomeofitmightbeoutdatedWe#lldisregardtheviewsoftheseteachersandstudents,businesspeopleandartists,conservativesandliberals,atheistsandchurchgoers,andallthoseparents(We#llalsodisregardRogerWaters,cofounderofthelegendarybandPinkFloyd,whosesoloalbum,AmusedtoDeath,wasinspiredbythebookGo,Dad)SowhoseopinionmattersInrereadingthisbooktofigureoutwhatmightbesaidaboutittwentyyearslater,Itriedtothinkthewaymyfatherwould,sincehecouldnolongerHediedinOctober,atageseventytwoChannelinghim,IrealizedimmediatelywhoIntroductiontotheTwentiethAnniversaryEditionixoffersthebesttestofwhetherAmusingOurselvestoDeathisstillrelevantCollegekidsToday#seighteentotwentytwoyearoldsliveinavastlydifferentmediaenvironmentfromtheonethatexistedinTheirrelationshiptoTVdiffersBackthen,MTVwasinitslateinfancyToday,newsscrollsandcornerofthescreenpromosandrealityshowsandinfomercialsandninehundredchannelsarethenormAndTVnolongerdominatesthemedialandscapeScreentimealsomeanshoursspentinfrontofthecomputer,videomonitor,cellphone,andhandheldMultitaskingisstandardCommunitieshavebeenreplacedbydemographicsSilencehasbeenreplacedbybackgroundnoiseIt#sadifferentworld(It#sdifferentforallofus,ofcoursemdashchildren,youngteens,parents,seniorsmdashbutcollegekidsformanespeciallyrichgrouping,poisedbetweeninnocenceandsophistication,respectandirreverence)Whentoday#sstudentsareassignedAmusingOurselvestoDeath,almostnoneofthemhaveheardofNeilPostmanorbeenexposedtohisideas(hewrotemorethantwentybooks,onsuchsubjectsaseducation,language,childhood,andtechnology),suggestingthattheirviews,besidesbeingpertinent,arerelativelyuncorruptedIcalledseveralofmyfather#sformerstudentswhoarenowteachers,andwhoteachAmusingOurselvestoDeathincoursesthatexaminesomecrosssectionofideasaboutTV,culture,computing,technology,massmedia,communications,politics,journalism,education,religion,andlanguageIaskedtheteacherswhattheirstudentsthoughtofthebook,particularlyitstimelinessTheteacherswerekindenoughtosharemanyoftheirstudents#thoughts,frompapersandclassdiscussionInthebookPostmanmakesthepointthatthereisnoreflectiontimeintheworldanymore,saidastudentnamedIntroductiontotheTwentiethAnniversaryEditionxJonathanWhenIgotoarestaurant,everyone#sontheircellphone,talkingorplayinggamesIhavenoabilitytositbymyselfandjustthinkSaidLiz:It#smorerelevantnowInclassweaskedif,nowthatthere#scable,whichtherereallywasn#twhenthebookwaswritten,aretherechannelsthatarenotjustaboutentertainmentWetriedtofindonetodisprovehistheoryOnekidsaidtheWeatherChannelbutanothermentionedhowtheyhaveallthoseshowsontornadoesandtrytomakeweatherfunTheonlygoodexamplewecameupwithwasCSPAN,whichnoonewatchesCara:Teachersarenotconsideredgoodiftheydon#tentertaintheirclassesRemarkedBen(whoseprofessorcalledhimtheclassskeptic,andwho,whenthebookwasassigned,groaned,Whydowehavetoreadthis):PostmansaysTVmakeseverythingaboutthepresentmdashandtherewewere,criticizingthebookbecauseitwasn#tpublishedyesterdayReginald:ThisbookisnotjustaboutTVSandra:ThebookwasabsolutelyontargetaboutthepresidentialelectioncampaignanddebatesOnestudentpointedoutthatArnoldSchwarzeneggerannouncedhiscandidacyfortheCaliforniagovernorshiponTheTonightShowMarianotedthattheoversimplificationandthinkingfragmentationpromotedbyTVwatchingmayhavecontributedtoourRedStateBlueStatepolarizationAnothernotedtheemergenceofanewseriesofBiblemagazines,whosecoverformatismodeledonteenmagazines,withcoverlineslikeTopTipstoGettingClosertoGodmdashit#sreligionmimickinganMTVkindofworld,saidthestudentOtherswonderediftherecentsurgeinchildrendiagnosedwithattentiondeficitdisorderwasanindicationofaneedtobeconstantlystimulatedKaitlinswitchedhermajortoprintjournalismafterreadingthebookAndreawouldrecommendittoanyoneconcernedwithmediaethicsMikesaideventhosewhowon#tagreewiththebook#sargumentsmdashashedidnotmdashshouldstillreadit,tobeprovokedManystudents(leftwingersandrightwingersboth,saidtheprofessor)wereespeciallytakenwithmyfaIntroductiontotheTwentiethAnniversaryEditionxither#sNowthisidea:thephenomenonwherebythereportingofahorrificeventmdasharapeorafivealarmfireorglobalwarmingmdashisfollowedimmediatelybytheanchor#scheerfullyexclaimingNowthis,whichseguesintoastoryaboutJanetJackson#sexposednippleoracommercialforlitebeer,creatingasequencingofinformationsorandom,sodisparateinscaleandvalue,astobeincoherent,evenpsychoticAnotherteacherremarkedthatstudentslovehowthebookistoldmdashbyawriterwho#satheartastorytellerTheylovethathereferstobooksandpeoplethey#veheardof,shesaidAlison:Hedoesn#tdumbitdownmdashhemakesallusionstogreatartandpoetryMattsaidthat,ironically,PostmanprovesyoucanbeentertainingmdashandwithoutasinglepictureOfherstudents#impressions,oneteachersaid,Hespeakstothemwithoutjargon,inawayinwhichtheyfeelrespectedTheyfeelhe#sjusthavingaconversationwiththem,butinspiringthemtothinkatthesametimeAnotherprofessornotedthatkidscometotheconclusionthatTVisalmostexclusivelyinterestedinpresentingshowbusinessandsensationalismandinmakingmoneyAmazingasitseems,theyhadneverrealizedthatbeforeItnodoubtappearstoyouthat,afterallmygrandtalkofobjectivity,I#vestackedthedeckinfavorofthebook#svirtueButthat#shonestlytheoverwhelmingreactionmdashatleastamongasliceofGenerationY,apopulationsegmentthatonecanimaginehasasmanyreasonsnottolikethebookastolikeitOneprofessorsaidthatinatypicalclassoftwentyfivestudentswhoreadthebook,twentythreewillwritepapersthateitherpraise,orareanimatedby,itsideastwowillsaythebookwasastupidwasteoftimeApercentratingThere#snoonewhoexpressesanideamdashcertainlynopoliticianmdashwhowouldn#ttakethatnumberOfcourse,studentshadcriticismsofthebook,tooManydidn#tappreciatetheassaultontelevisionmdashacompaniontothem,asourceofpleasureandcomfortmdashandfeltasiftheyhadtodefendtheircultureSomeconsideredTVtheirparents#IntroductiontotheTwentiethAnniversaryEditionxiiculture,nottheirsmdashtheyareoftheInternetmdashsothebook#stheseswerelessrelevantSomethoughtmyfatherwasantichange,thathesoexaltedthevirtuesfosteredbythewrittenwordanditsculture,hewasnotopentoacknowledgingmanyofthepositivesocialimprovementsTVhadbroughtabout,andwhatademocraticandlevelingforceitcouldbeSomedisagreedwithhisassessmentthatTVisincompletecharge:remotecontrol,anabundanceofchannels,andVCRsandDVRsallenableyoutocustomizeyourprogramming,eventoskipcommercialsAcommoncritiquewasthatheshouldhaveofferedsolutionsyoucan#tputthetoothpastebackinthetube,afterall,sowhatnowAndtherewasthis:Yeah,whathesaidinhadcomestartlinglytrue,wehadamusedourselvestodeathsowhyreaditOneprofessorusesthebookinconjunctionwithanexperimentshecallsanemediafastFortwentyfourhours,eachstudentmustrefrainfromelectronicmediaWhensheannouncestheassignment,shetoldme,percentofthestudentsshrug,thinkingit#snobigdealButwhentheyrealizeallthethingstheymustgiveupforawholedaymdashcellphone,computer,Internet,TV,carradio,etcmdashtheystarttomoanandgroanShetellsthemtheycanstillreadbooksSheacknowledgesitwillbeatoughday,thoughforroughlyeightofthetwentyfourhoursthey#llbeasleepShesaysiftheybreakthefastmdashiftheyanswerthephone,say,orsimplyhavetocheckemailmdashtheymustbeginfromscratchThepapersIgetbackareamazing,saystheprofessorTheyhavetitleslike#TheWorstDayofMyLife#or#TheBestExperienceIEverHad,#alwaysextreme#IthoughtIwasgoingtodie,#they#llwrite#IwenttoturnontheTVbutifIdidIrealized,myGod,I#dhavetostartalloveragain#Eachstudenthashisorherownweaknessmdashforsomeit#sTV,somethecellphone,sometheInternetortheirPDAButnomatterhowmuchtheyhateabstaining,orhowharditistohearthephoneringandnotanswerit,theytaketimetodothingstheyIntroductiontotheTwentiethAnniversaryEditionxiiihaven#tdoneinyearsTheyactuallywalkdownthestreettovisittheirfriendTheyhaveextendedconversationsOnewrote,#IthoughttodothingsIhadn#tthoughttodoever#TheexperiencechangesthemSomearesoaffectedthattheydeterminetofastontheirown,onedayamonthInthatcourseItakethemthroughtheclassicsmdashfromPlatoandAristotlethroughtodaymdashandyearslater,whenformerstudentswriteorcalltosayhello,thethingtheyrememberisthemediafastLikethemediafast,AmusingOurselvestoDeathisacalltoactionItis,inmyfather#swords,aninquiryandalamentation,yes,butitaspirestogreaterthingsItisanexhortationtodosomethingIt#sacounterpunchtowhatmyfatherthoughtdailyTVnewswas:inert,consistingofinformationthatgivesussomethingtotalkaboutbutcannotleadtoanymeaningfulactionDadwasaloverofhistory,achampionforcollectivememoryandwhatwenowquaintlyrefertoascivilizinginfluences,buthedidnotliveinthepastHisbookurgesustoclaimawaytobemorealertandengagedHisideasarestillhere,heisn#t,andit#stimeforthereinstobegrabbedbythoseofanewgeneration,nativesofthisbravenewworldwhounderstanditbetterTwentyyearsisn#twhatitusedtobeWhereonceitstoodforasinglegeneration,nowitseemstostandforthreeEverythingmovesfasterChangechanged,myfatherwroteinanotherbookAlothaschangedsincethisbookappearedNewsconsumptionamongtheyoungiswaydownNetworknewsandentertainmentdivisionsarefarmoreentwined,despiteprotests(somegenuine,someperhapsnot)bythenewsdivisionsWhenJonStewart,hostofComedyCentral#sTheDailyShow,wentonCNN#sCrossfiretomakethisverypointmdashthatseriousnewsandshowbusinessoughttobedistinguishable,forthesakeofpublicdiscourseandtherepublicmdashthehostsseemedincapableofevenunderstandingthewordscomingoutofhisIntroductiontotheTwentiethAnniversaryEditionxivmouthThesoundbiteisnowmorelikeasoundnibble,andit#srare,evenpetulant,tohearsomeonechallengeitsabsurdinsubstantialitythequestionofhowtelevisionaffectsushasrecededintothebackground(Dad#swords,notmine,from)FoxNewshasestablisheditself,andthrivedCorporateconglomerationisup,particularlyamongmediacompaniesOurownmediacompaniesdon#tprovidetrulygruesomewarimagesaspartofthedailynews,butthentheydidn#tdosotwentyyearsagoeither(thoughfortyyearsagotheydid)Thequalityofgraphics(ie,therealityquotient)ofcomputerandvideogamesiswayupCommunitiesexistthatdidn#t,thankstotheInternet,particularlypeertopeercomputingAnewkindofcollaborativecreativityabounds,thankstotheopensourcemovement,whichgaveustheLinuxoperatingsystemHowever,othercommunitiesarecollapsing:Farfewerpeoplejoinclubsthatmeetregularly,fewerfamilieseatdinnertogether,andpeopledon#thavefriendsoverorknowtheirneighborsthewaytheyusedtoMoreschooladministratorsandpoliticiansandbusinessexecutiveshankertowireschoolsforcomputers,asifthatisthekeytoimprovingAmericaneducationThenumberofhourstheaverageAmericanwatchesTVhasremainedsteady,ataboourandahalfhoursaday,everyday(byagesixtyfive,apersonwillhavespenttwelveuninterruptedyearsinfrontoftheTV)ChildhoodobesityiswayupSomethingsconcernourchildrenmorethantheyusedto,somenotatallMaybethere#smorehopethantherewas,maybelessMaybetheamountisaconstantSubstantiveasthisbookis,itwaspredicatedonahook:thatoneBritishwriter(GeorgeOrwell)withafrighteningvisionofthefuture,avisionthatmanyfearedwouldcometrue,wasmostlyoffbase,whileanotherBritishwriter(AldousHuxley)withafrighteningvisionofthefuture,avisionlesswellknownandlessfeared,wasscarilyontargetMyfatherarguedhispoint,persuasively,butitwasapointforanothertimemdashtheAgeofTelevisionNewtechnologiesandmediaareIntroductiontotheTwentiethAnniversaryEditionxvintheascendancyFortunatelymdashandthis,morethananything,iswhatIthinkmakesAmusingOurselvestoDeathsoemphaticallyrelevantmdashmyfatheraskedsuchgoodquestionsthattheycanbeaskedofnontelevisionthings,ofallsortsoftransformingdevelopmentsandeventsthathavehappenedsince,andsincehisdeath,andofthingsstillunformed,forgenerationstocome(thoughgenerationstocomemaysomedaymeanaspanofthreeyears)HisquestionscanbeaskedaboutalltechnologiesandmediaWhathappenstouswhenwebecomeinfatuatedwithandthenseducedbythemDotheyfreeusorimprisonusDotheyimproveordegradedemocracyDotheymakeourleadersmoreaccountableorlesssoOursystemmoretransparentorlesssoDotheymakeusbettercitizensorbetterconsumersArethetradeoffsworthitIfthey#renotworthit,yetwestillcan#tstopourselvesfromembracingthenextnewthingbecausethat#sjusthowwe#rewired,thenwhatstrategiescanwedevisetomaintaincontrolDignityMeaningMyfatherwasnotacurmudgeonaboutallthis,assomethoughtItwasneveroptimismhelackeditwascertaintyWemustbecarefulinpraisingorcondemningbecausethefuturemayholdsurprisesforus,hewroteNordidhefearTVacrosstheboard(assomethought)JunktelevisionwasfineTheATeamandCheersarenothreattoourpublichealth,hewroteMinutes,EyewitnessNews,andSesameStreetareAstudentofDad#s,ateacherhimself,sayshisownstudentsaremoreresponsivetoAmusingOurselvestoDeath,notless,thantheywerefiveortenyearsagoWhenthebookfirstcameout,itwasaheadofitstime,andsomepeopledidn#tunderstanditsreach,hesaysIt#satwentyfirstcenturybookpublishedinthetwentiethcenturyIn,soonafterthebookwaspublishedandhadstartedtomakeripples,DadwasonABC#sNightline,discussingwithTedKoppeltheeffectTVcanhaveonsocietyifweletitcontrolus,ratherthanviceversaAsIrecall,atonejuncture,toillustratehispointthatourbriefattentionspanandourappetiteforIntroductiontotheTwentiethAnniversaryEditionxvifeelgoodcontentcanshortcircuitanymeaningfuldiscourse,Dadsaid,Forexample,Ted,we#rehavinganimportantdiscussionabouttheculturebutinthirtysecondswe#llhavetobreakforacommercialtosellcarsortoothpasteMrKoppel,oneoftherareseriousfiguresonnetworktelevision,smiledwrylymdashorwasitfatigueActually,DrPostman,hesaid,it#smoreliketensecondsThere#sstilltimeAndrewPostmanBrooklyn,NewYorkNovemberInIfyouwerealertbackthen,thisrefreshermaybeunnecessary,evenlaughableIfyouwerenotalertthen,thismayjustbelaughableButitalsomayhelptoclarifyreferencesinthebookaboutthingsofthatmomentIn:TheUnited

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