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首页 恐龙大百科.pdf

恐龙大百科.pdf

恐龙大百科.pdf

上传者: 用户esok04qplg 2017-07-10 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《恐龙大百科pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含eguidesDinosaurWrittenbyDougalDixonandJohnMalamFEEDINGDIGESTIVESYSTEMSATTA符等。

eguidesDinosaurWrittenbyDougalDixonandJohnMalamFEEDINGDIGESTIVESYSTEMSATTACKDEFENSEWINNINGAMATEBODYTEMPERATUREBRAINSANDINTELLIGENCESENSESGROWINGUPDEATHANDDISEASEPACKHUNTERSHUNTERORSCAVENGERHERDINGDINOSAURSNESTINGCOLONIESCHANGINGFACESDINOSAURSONDISPLAYREFERENCESECTIONEVOLUTIONCLASSIFICATIONPROFILESBIOGRAPHIESGLOSSARYINDEXACKNOWLEDGMENTSHOWTOUSETHEWEBSITEWHATISADINOSAURTHEBIRDCONNECTIONERAOFTHEDINOSAURSUPINTHEAIRBELOWTHEWAVESDINOSAURHABITATSTHEENDOFTHEDINOSAURSTURNINGTOSTONEEARLYDISCOVERIESFOSSILSITESINTHEFIELDBODYFOSSILSTRACEFOSSILSEXAMININGFOOTPRINTSINTHELABCOMPUTERRECONSTRUCTIONDATINGFOSSILSRECONSTRUCTINGTHEPASTBIPEDALCARNIVORESLONGNECKEDHERBIVORESBIPEDALHERBIVORESHORNEDANDARMOREDMOVINGAROUNDCONTENTShttp:wwwdinosaurdkeguidescomHowtousetheWebsiteeguidesDinosaurhasitsownWebsite,createdbyDKandGoogletradeWhenyoulookupasubjectinthebook,thearticlegivesyoukeyfactsanddisplaysakeywordthatlinksyoutoextrainformationonlineJustfollowtheseeasystepsYoucanonlyusethekeywordsfromthebooktosearchonourWebsiteforthespeciallyselectedDKGooglelinksEnterthisWebsiteaddresshellipFindthekeywordinthebookhellipEnterthekeywordhelliphttp:wwwdinosaurdkeguidescomNOTE:DorlingKindersleyhasmadeeveryefforttolinktoexternalWebsitesthatarereputable,relevant,andappropriate,however,neitherDKnorGoogleareinanywayresponsiblefororabletocontrolthecontentoftheseWebsitesIf,however,youdofindanybrokenorincorrectlinks,orifyoufindcontentthatyouthinkisinappropriate,orifyoujustwanttosendusyourcomments,pleaseemailusfossilsTopsearchtipsfromGoogleInternetsafelyChoosingtherightsiteParentandteacheradviceOurPrivacyPolicyEnteranykeywordfromthebookintheboxbelowthisboxappearsthroughouttheWebsiteDownloadandprintoreeimagestouseinyourprojectsAddress:DKandGooglebringtoyouthebestoftheWebFindoutabouthowtousethebookandtheWebsiteEnteryournextkeywordhereSignupforournewsletterUsefulinformationforonlineresearchersSIGNUPFOROURNEWSLETTERcopyDorlingKindersleyyouandtheInternetTERMSCONDITIONSeexploredinosaureexploredinosaurInternetzoneMailPrintHomeRefreshStopForwardgoAddress:http:BackfossilsbullAlwaysgetpermissionfromanadultbeforeconnectingtotheInternetbullNevergiveoutpersonalinformationaboutyourselfbullNeverarrangetomeetsomeoneyouhavetalkedtoonlinebullIfasiteasksyoutologinwithyournameoremailaddress,askpermissionfromanadultfirstbullDonotreplytoemailsfromstrangersmdashtellanadultParents:DorlingKindersleyactivelyandregularlyreviewsandupdatesthelinksHowever,contentmaychangeDorlingKindersleyisnotresponsibleforanysitebutitsownWerecommendthatchildrenaresupervisedwhileonline,thattheydonotuseChatRooms,andthatfilteringsoftwareisusedtoblockunsuitablematerialLinksincludeanimations,videos,soundbuttons,virtualtours,interactivequizzes,databases,timelines,andrealtimereportsThepicturesarefreeofcharge,butcanbeusedforpersonal,noncommercialuseonlyGobacktothebookforyournextsubjectBesafewhileyouareonline:ClickonyourchosenlinkDownloadfantasticpicturesWatchhowfossilsformTriceratopsskeletonNOTE:DorlingKindersleyhasmadeeveryefforttolinktoexternalWebsitesthatarereputable,relevant,andappropriate,however,neitherDKnorGoogleareinanywayresponsiblefororabletocontrolthecontentoftheseWebsitesIf,however,youdofindanybrokenorincorrectlinks,orifyoufindcontentthatyouthinkisinappropriate,orifyoujustwanttosendusyourcomments,pleaseemailusPictures|DinosaursTopsearchtipsfromGoogleInternetsafelyChoosingtherightsiteParentandteacheradviceOurPrivacyPolicyPlayafossilquizClickhereforrelatedlinksyoumayfindusefulExaminetwodinosaurslockedincombatUsefulinformationforonlineresearchersFindoutmoreaboutdinosaureggsWatchhowfossilsformFossilslink,pagesndash,ndashFreeimagestodownloadandprintEnteryournextkeywordhereyouandtheInternetSIGNUPFOROURNEWSLETTERclickonthetextbelowcopyDorlingKindersleyPictures|SpaceeexploredinosaurTERMSCONDITIONSInternetzonegoHOMEMailPrintHomeRefreshStopForwardAddress:http:eexploredinosaurresearchersrecommendhellipBackGoogleDirectory|SpaceWHATISADINOSAURInthemiddleofthes,thefirstfossilskeletonsofsomeextraordinarycreatureswereunearthedTheseskeletonsareofthedinosaursmdashprehistoricreptilesthathavecapturedtheimaginationsofpeopleeversinceDinosaurs,whichmeansldquoterriblelizards,rdquoruledtheworldformorethanmillionyearsbeforetheydiedoutmillionyearsagoEverythingweknowaboutthemhascomefromtheexaminationofskeletons,orbitsofskeletons,foundbypaleontologists,thedinosaurhuntersofthemodernworld,andbyotherscientistsgeGIGANOTOSAURUSTofindoutmoreabouttheremainsthatarefound,scientistsreconstructdinosaurs,sometimesfromonlyafewfragmentsoffossilizedboneoraskullThefossilsofthisGiganotosaurushavetoldscientistsagreatdealabouthowthiscreaturelivedThewaythatthehipsandlegsareputtogethershowsthatitwasabletorunafterpreyTheclawedfeetandrowsofteethareevidencethatonceGiganotosaurushadcaughttheprey,thecarnivorewasequippedtotearitapartleLEGBONESDinosaurswerearchosaursmdashagroupofreptilesthatcontainedcrocodiles,alligators,andflyingpterosaursHowever,thelegsofmostreptilesstickoutatthesideandthebodyisslungbeneathThoseofadinosauraremorelikethoseofamammalTheyarevertical,supportingtheweightofthebodyabovethemThereisaballshapedplugattheheadofthethighbone(femur)thatprotrudessidewaysThisfitsintoasocketinthesideofthehipbonesAshelfofboneabovethesocketpreventsthelegfrompoppingoutleHIPBONESDinosaursaredividedintotwoseparategroupsbasedonthestructureoftheirhipbonesThegroupsarecalledtheldquosaurischiansrdquoandtheldquoornithischiansrdquoThesaurischianshadhipboneslikeamodernlizardmdashthethreehipbonesradiatingawayfromthesocketthatheldtheleg,andthepubisbonepointingdownandforwardTheornithischianshadhipboneslikeamodernbirdmdashthepubissweepingbackalongtheischium,whileapairofextensionstothepubisreachedforwardHipsandlegsalloweddinosaurtomovefeeteasilyforwardandbackwardHYPSILOPHODONORNITHISCHIAN(ldquoBIRDHIPPEDrdquo)TYRANNOSAURUSHINDLIMBSHeadoffemurfitsintohipsocketGALLIMIMUSSAURISCHIAN(ldquoLIZARDHIPPEDrdquo)Femur(thighbone)HipboneTibia(shinbone)leSKULLSDinosaurskullswereusuallyopenlatticeworksofbonystrutsThatiswhytheyareraremdashtheyfelltopiecestooeasilyandhavebeenlostOnlythehorneddinosaurshadsolidskullsThesaurischiansandtheornithischianshadroughlythesamearrangementofbonesintheskullTheornithischianskullhadanextraboneatthefrontofthelowerjawcalledthepredentaryThisusuallyheldthelowerhalfofabirdlikebeakFORELIMBSDifferentspeciesofdinosaurshaddifferentkindsofforelimbsThecarnivores,suchasBaryonyx,usuallyhadlong,graspingclawsonthefingersforkillingortearingfleshTheherbivores,suchasIguanodon,mayhavehadgraspingfingerstoholdtheirplantfoodwhenstandingontheirhindlegsTheywouldalsohavehadweightbearinghoovesformovingaroundonallfoursTheheavy,longneckedherbivores,suchasDiplodocus,hadstrongforefeetlikethehindfeet,neededforbearingthehugebodyweightFrontlimbswereshorterthanthehindlimbsinthisgroupofcarnivoresIGUANODONHANDThreeweightbearinghoovesLightbutstrongskullBARYONYXCLAWSpikeonthumbforuseasaweaponoratoolCurvedclawforslashingpreyPrehensiblefifthfingerforgraspingWeightbearingtoesPSITTACOSAURUSSKULL(ORNITHISCHIAN)ALLOSAURUSSKULL(SAURISCHIAN)ToothrowsetinfromedgeDIPLODOCUSFORELIMBSmallclawsforgraspingTeethflushwithedgeofjawPredentaryboneEyesocketNostrildinosaursTHEBIRDCONNECTIONTherearedinosaursflyinginourskiestodaymdashdespitemorethanacenturyofarguments,mostscientistsnowbelievethatsmallmeateatingdinosaursevolvedintobirdsThedevelopmentoffeathersturneddinosaursthatcouldrunorclimbintobirdsthatcouldflyTheearliesttruebirdisArchaeopteryx,whichlivedduringthelateJurassicintheareaknowntodayassouthernGermanyAsmallhuntingdinosaurcalledCompsognathusalsolivedinthatareaatthattimeArchaeopteryxlookedlikeacrossbetweenareptileandabird,andithadstronglegsandfeathersthatitwouldhaveusedtoflyCompsognathuswasbirdlike,withlongbacklegsandhollowbonesCOMPSOGNATHUSSKELETONCompsognathuswasoneofthefirstdinosaursdiscoveredThefirstskeletonwasunearthedinIthadlongjaws,sharpteeth,asmallbody,stronghindlegswiththreetoedfeet,andaheavytailItslonghindlegswerebuiltforrunning,andtheclawsandteethshowittohavebeenahunterItlooksjustliketheskeletonofanyothermeateatingdinosaurleEFFICIENTHUNTERCompsognathus(ldquoprettyjawrdquo)lookedlikeatinyversionofthehugemeateatersthatlivedduringthelateJurassicYet,despiteitssharpclawsandteeth,itwasonlythesizeofachickenItwasanagilehunter,chasingsmallanimalsthatincludedinsectsandfastmovinglizardsItranswiftlyalongonitstwobacklegs,itslongtailbalancingitasitmadefastturnsinpursuitofitspreySIMILARITIESBETWEENCOMPSOGNATHUSANDARCHAEOPTERYXBonytailcoreAnklejointLonglegsShortbodyEnlargedbreastboneTeethinlong,slimjawsSlim,flexibleneckLong,clawedfingersTailhadaboutbonesIschiumInthesaurischian(lizardlike)hip,orilium,thepubisanglesforwardBackboneheldstraightSlimbodyElongatedfootboneThreetoedfeetwithclawstoholddownpreyLongfingersforgraspingpreyTailusedtobalanceKeeneyesighttospotpreySlenderheadNeatjawswithsharpteethLong,slenderlegboneperfectforrunningPubisleFLYINGDINOSAURArchaeopteryxhadwings,withflyingfeathersarrangedjustlikethoseofamodernbird,anditsbodywascoveredinfeathersHowever,ithadthehead,clawedhands,andlong,bonytailofadinosaurItlivedontropicaldesertislandsandwalkedandflutteredafteritsflyinginsectpreyItcouldnothaveflownveryfarorveryfastasitdidnothavestrongflightmusclesARCHAEOPTERYXSKELETONTheskeletonofArchaeopteryxcloselyresemblesthatofCompsognathusOnlyafewexamplesofArchaeopteryxskeletonshavebeenfound,andoneofthesewasonlyidentifiedinmdashalthoughithadbeeninaGermanmuseumformanydecades,paleontologistshadthoughtitwasaCompsognathusThepresenceofawishboneandthelengthofthearmsarethemaindifferencesbetweenthesetwoanimalsTothemoderneye,birdsdonotlooklikedinosaurs,despitetheirancestryTheskeletonsofbirdshaveevolvedovertime,becomingmuchmorelightweightthanthatofeitherCompsognathusorArchaeopteryxThismeansthatthemodernbirdneedstousemuchlessenergytostayairborneTheheronisthemodernbirdwhoseshapemostresemblesCompsognathusandArchaeopteryxMODERNBIRDTailwithbones,fewerthanCompsognathusdinosaursClawedfingersaresupportsforthefeathersSharpteethlostandreplacedbyalightweightbeakRibcageisarigidcasing,givingsupporttothemuscleactionofthewingsTailisashortstump,withafanoftailfeathersHorntippedclawsonfrontofwingsforgraspingbranchesSharpteethLightweightskullFurcula(wishbone)likemodernbirdsElongatedlegbones,likeCompsognathusFullyreversed(opposable)firsttoeusedtoperchinallbirdsAtypicalbird,suchasthisheron,haslostsomefeaturesthatwerecommontoCompsognathusandArchaeopteryxItdoesnothavehandclaws,toothedjaws,orabonytailbecausetheywouldnothelpittoflyInstead,thehandonlysupportsthewingfeathers,alightweighthornybeakhasreplacedtheteeth,andthetailisamuscularstumpcontrollingabroadsurfaceoffeathersLargeeyesocketLargeeyesocketSkullislightweightbecauseithashollowbonesHipbonesLongerarmsthanCompsognathusUpperfootbonesfusedintoasingleboneHERONSKELETONGRAYHERONERAOFTHEDINOSAURSDinosaursroamedtheplanetforaboutmillionyears,duringatimeintheEarthrsquoshistorycalledtheMesozoicEraItisdifficultforustoimaginehowlongthiswas,untilwecompareitwithourselves:humanshavelivedonEarthforlessthantwomillionyearsDuringtheMesozoicEra,theEarthrsquoslandmasseschangeddramatically,newseaswereformed,andplantsandanimalsevolvedleGEOLOGICALTIMESCALEGeologistsdivideEarthrsquoslonghistoryintoaseriesoftimezones,fromtheoriginoftheplanet,aboutbillionyearsago,rightuptothepresentdayThemajordivisionsarecallederasThesearesubdividedintosmallertimezonescalledperiodsWithineachperiodaresmallerdivisionscalledAges(notshowninthisdiagram)DinosaurslivedintheMesozoicEra,whichisdividedintotheTriassic,Jurassic,andCretaceousPeriodsHumansliveintheQuaternaryPeriodoftheCenozoicEraTRIASSICANIMALSThefirstdinosaurslivedintheearlyTriassicOtherreptilesalsolivedinthisperiod,suchasplanteatingrhynchosaursFishandturtlesswaminthesea,pterosaursflappedtheirleatherywingsinthesky,andthefirstmammalsappearedJURASSICANIMALSDinosaurscolonizedtheland,fromhugeplanteatingspeciestosmallermeateatingonesPterosaursruledthesky,thefirstbirdsappeared,andicthyosaursandhorseshoecrabsswamintheseasJURASSICPLANETPangaeasplitintonorthernandsouthernlandmassesintheJurassicPeriod,dividedbytheoceanIntime,thetwonewcontinentsmovedapartCRETACEOUSPLANETDuringtheCretaceousPeriod,LaurasiaandGondwanabrokeupintoseveralsmallerparts,beginningtheformationofthecontinentswehavetodayTRIASSICPLANETIntheTriassicPeriod,alllandwasjoinedtogetherasonegreatlandmassScientistscallthissupercontinentPangaea,whichmeansldquoAllEarthrdquoTRIASSICPERIOD:ndashMILLIONYEARSAGOJURASSICPERIOD:ndashMILLIONYEARSAGOCRETACEOUSPERIOD:ndashMILLIONYEARSAGOFOSSILIZEDHORSESHOECRABFOSSILIZEDRHYNCHOSAURUSFOSSILIZEDDRAGONFLYPANGAEATETHYSSEATETHYSSEALAURASIAGONDWANATETHYSSEAINDIAWESTAFRICALAURASIAAFRICAASIASOUTHAMERICANORTHAMERICAEUROPEANTARCTICALAURASIAMesozoicEraCENOZOICERA(ldquoRECENTLIFErdquo)PALAEOZOICERA(ldquoANCIENTLIFErdquo)MESOZOICERA(ldquoMIDDLELIFErdquo)CRETACEOUSPERIODJURASSICPERIODCARBONIFEROUSPERIODPRECAMBRIANPERMIANPERIODSILURIANPERIODORDOVICIANPERIODQUATERNARYPERIODmyandashpresentdayndashmyandashmyandashmyandashmyandashmyandashmyandashmyandashmyandashmyandashmya,ndashmillionyearsago(mya)TERTIARYPERIODDEVONIANPERIODCAMBRIANPERIODTRIASSICPERIODDINOSAURSCRETACEOUSPLANTSFloweringplantsappeared,whichweretheancestorsoftodayrsquosherbs,flowers,andbroadleavedtreesTheybecamethemaintypeofplantlifeOak,maple,walnut,magnolia,andbeechtreesgrewalongsidethestillabundantconifers,cycads,andtreefernsTherewasstillnograssCRETACEOUSANIMALSFiercepredatorydinosaurshuntedandscavengedformeatPlanteatingdinosaursgrewbodyarmorforprotectionCrocodiles,turtles,andlizardsflourished,andthefirstsnakesappearedInsects,birds,andpterosaursflewinthesky,andsmallmammalsranonthegroundTRIASSICPLANTSFerns,ginkgoes,andpalmlikecycadeoidsandcycadsgrewnearstreamsScatteredforestsofconifersgrewondrierlandsTherewasnograss,andtherewerenofloweringplantsInlandareaswerecoveredinhot,barrendesertswithlittleornoplantlifeJURASSICPLANTSConiferousforestscoveredvastareasoflandGinkgoes,monkeypuzzletrees,cycads,talltreeferns,andgianthorsetailswerecommonFernsandmossesgrewontheground,buttherewerestillnofloweringplantsorgrassesPerfectimpressionofaconiferleafwaspreservedinthisfossilBETULITESLEAFINIRONSTONENODULEPINEWITHCONESConesproducedtheearliestseedsFossilizedleafissimilartothemodernversionHORSETAILFOSSILIZEDGINKGOPASSIONFLOWERMONKEYPUZZLEFERNMAGNOLIAFLOWERFOSSILIZEDCONIFERSPRIGUPINTHEAIRSoaringhighabovethelandlivingdinosaurswerethepterosaurs,whichmeansldquowingedreptilesrdquoThepterosaurswererelativesofdinosaurs,buttheywerenotdinosaursthemselvesAllhadslim,hollowbonesandwingsmadeofskinthatstretchedbetweenlongfingerbonesandthelegsPterosaursfirstappearedatthesametimeasthedinosaursandlivedalongsidethemuntiltheytoodiedoutattheendoftheCretaceousPeriodTheywerethesupremerulersofEarthrsquosprehistoricskies,flappingtheirwingsoverlandandseaPTERODACTYLUSPterodactyluswasanagileflyerthatprobablyfedoninsectsUnlikeotherpterosaursthathadlongtails,thetailofPterodactyluswaslittlemorethanashort,stubbypointJustin(cm)long,ithadalightlybuiltskeletonandthin,hollowbonesPerhapstheseweightsavingfeaturesweredesignedtogivePterodactylusgreaterflightcontrol,helpingittoflyfastandgivingittheabilitytoswoopandturnwitheaseleFOSSILIZEDPTERODACTYLUSFEATURESThisfossilskeletonembeddedinlimestoneshowsPterodactylusrsquosdelicateskullandfinebonesThepterosaurrsquosfourfingerscanbeseenclearlyThreefingersoneachofitshandswereshortandhooklike,anditispossibletheywereusedfordefenseThefourthfingercanbeseenhererunningdiagonallyfromthehandontherighttothelegontherightPterodactylusrsquoswingswereattachedtoeachoftheseextremelylongfingersanditslegsPterodactylusbelongedtothePterodactyloidbranchofthepterosaurfamilytreeThesepterosaursallhadshorttailsLived:millionyearsago(Cretaceous)Habitat:rivers,seas,lakesWingspan:uptoft(m)Length:uptoin(cm)Diet:fish,insectsSeveralspeciesofpterosaursportedcrestsontheirheadsandbeaksTheyweremadefromhardboneorsofttissueItisnotyetknownifthecrestsweregrownbymalesorfemales,orbybothsexesTheirfunctionisalsouncertainAstheshape,size,andpossiblythecolorofcrestsdifferedbetweenspecies,theymayhavehelpedpterosaursrecognizetheirownkindTheymayalsohavebeenusedincourtshipdisplaysorasstablilizersduringflightFLAMBOYANTHEADSPTERODACTYLUSPROFILEFurmayhavegrownontheirbodiesFibersinsidetheskinwingsmadethemstiffTROPEOGNATHUSPTERANODONANHANGUERADSUNGARIPTERUSBeakwaspackedwithmanysmallteethLegswereshortandprobablyhadweakmusclesRHAMPHORHYNCHUSWithitslongtailtrailingbehinditasitflew,RhamphorynchuswasaformidablepterosaurAfisheatinganimal,itprobablycaughtitspreybyswoopinglowoverthewaterandsnappingitupwithitsbeakItslongfrontteethpointedforwardinitsbeak,inanarrangementcalledaldquofishgrabrdquoTheyweredesignedtospearandholdontofishAftercatchingafish,Rhamphorynchusprobablyreturnedtothelandwhereitateitsmealmdashheadfirst,asmanyseabirdsdowiththeirpreytodayleFOSSILIZEDRHAMPHORHYNCHUSFEATURESFoundinGermany,thisfossilizedRhamphorynchusispreservedinlimestoneThepreservationissogoodthattheghostlyoutlineofitswingmembranecanbeseen,ascanthediamondshapedskinmembranethatgrewalongitstailThefossilalsorevealsthepresenceofapelicanlikethroatpouch,whichwaspossiblyusedtostrainwateroutbeforeswallowingitspreywholeRhamphorhynchusbelongedtotheRhamphorhynchoidbranchofthepterosaurfamilytreeThesepterosaursallhadlongtailsLived:millionyearsago(Jurassic)Habitat:rivers,seas,lakesWingspan:uptofraslft(m)Length:uptofraslft(m)Diet:fish,insectsMuchcanbelearnedaboutpterosaursrsquolifestylesbystudyingtodayrsquosanimalsthatappeartosharesimilarcharacteristicswiththemAlthoughpterosaurswerenotbirds,theirfisheatinghabitcanbecomparedwiththatofmodernpelicansManypterosaurshadlong,narrowheadsandthroatpoucheslikemodernpelicansPerhaps,likepelicans,thesepterosaurswereplungedivers,grabbingfishbythrustingtheirbeaksbelowthewaterrsquossurfaceRHAMPHORHYNCHUSPROFILEPELICANmdashTHEMODERNFISHGRABBERWingskinwasattachedtoitslongfourthfingerpterosaursForwardpointingteethwereidealforspearingfishPelicansdivefromheightsofft(m)Waterisstrainedfromthethroatpouch,thenthefishisswallowedTailwasstiffenedbybonyrodsBELOWTHEWAVESWhiledinosaursruledtheland,theoceanwasthedomainofmanydifferentfamiliesofmarinereptiles,suchasthenothosaurs,ichthyosaurs,pliosaurs,mosasaurs,andelasmosaursTheywerecarnivores,preyingonotherseacreaturesaswellaseachotherAlthoughthesereptilesspenttheirlivesinwater,theycouldnotstaybelowthewavesindefinitelyTheybreathedair,andhadtoswimtothesurfacetorefilltheirlungs,beforedisappearingbackintotheirunderwaterworldleSNAKENECKElasmosauruswasamemberofthelongneckedelasmosaurfamilyThisseagianthadvertebraeinitssnakingneck,anditslightskullwaslinedwithviciousinterlockingteethThenameElasmosaurusmeansldquoplatelizardrdquoandreferstothelarge,platelikeshoulderbonesthatcovereditschestandformeditsarmsocketsThehugemusclesthatpowereditsflipperswereanchoredtothesebonesFANGEDPREDATORNothosaurusbelongedtoafamilyofsmallamphibiouspredatorscalledthenothosaursIthadalong,flexibleneckanditsfangliketeethlineditsjawsallthewaybacktoitscheeksNothosaurusswambyflappingitspowerfulfrontlegsandusingitsbacklegsforsteeringFossilspecimenshavebeenfoundinsearocksinEuropeandtheMiddleEast,whichsuggeststheyweremainlyseagoingcreatures,buttheyprobablycameonlandtobreedleJURASSICSHARKLikeothermembersoftheichthyosaurfamily,IchthyosaurushadasharkshapedbodyFossilsfoundinEnglandandGermanyshowthatthisseareptilehadatriangulardorsalfin,twopairsofflippers,andaforkedverticaltaillikethatofashark

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