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首页 博士生入学考试英语辅导(写作部分)

博士生入学考试英语辅导(写作部分).ppt

博士生入学考试英语辅导(写作部分)

雨林沐风1234 2017-08-12 评分 0 浏览量 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《博士生入学考试英语辅导(写作部分)ppt》,可适用于领域,主题内容包含博士生入学考试英语辅导(写作部分)黄年根解放军理工大学工程兵工程学院LectureonWritingForNonEnglishMajorDoctor符等。

博士生入学考试英语辅导(写作部分)黄年根解放军理工大学工程兵工程学院LectureonWritingForNonEnglishMajorDoctorCandidatesByProfHuangEngineeringInstituteofEngineerCorps,PLAUniversityofScienceandEngineeringRequirement:writeapassageofwordsinminutesGradingCriterion:coherence(内容切题):relatedideas,topicsentencesinparagraphsconstruction:fulldevelopment,unity,logic,cohesion,beingclearandtothepointtransitionandvariationofsentencesgrammaranddictionSampleTopic:Doyouthinkitagoodideatohavethegraduatestudentsparticipateinmorephysicalactivitiesinthearmy,factoriesorthecountrysideinsteadofconcentratingontheirtextbooksaloneGiveyourreasonstosupportyouropinionsIthinkitagoodideatohavethegraduatestudentsparticipateinmorephysicalactivitiesinthearmy,factoriesorthecountrysideinsteadofconcentratingontheirtextbooksaloneItbasesonthefollowingreasonsThemostimportantofall,TheseactivitiesisgoodtoourhealthBymorephysicalactiviteisinthearmy,factoriesorthecountrysideOurbodycanbeexerciesedstrongerandmoreheathySoItcandealwithourpoorhealthafterlongtermstudyingSecondly,ItcanmakeusconnecttheknowledgewiththeproactiecesOurknowledgesareoftenlimitedtothetextbooksandweoftenfinditisimpractcableafterwegraduatefromcollegesSo,ItisusefultomakeoutknowledgemorereasonableThirdly,IthelpusdevelopthepatrocismideaAndrecognizeournationrsquosrealsitualtionBasedontheabovereasons,IthinkweshouldparticipateinmoresuchactivitiesAppraisementIthinkitagoodideatohavethegraduatestudentsparticipateinmorephysicalactivitiesinthearmy,factoriesorthecountrysideinsteadofconcentratingontheirtextbooksaloneItbasesonthefollowingreasonsThemostimportantofall,TheseactivitiesisgoodtoourhealthBymorephysicalactiviteisinthearmy,factoriesorthecountrysideOurbodycanbeexerciesedstrongerandmoreheathySoItcandealwithourpoorhealthafterlongtermstudyingSecondly,ItcanmakeusconnecttheknowledgewiththeproactiecesOurknowledgesareoftenlimitedtothetextbooksandweoftenfinditisimpractcableafterwegraduatefromcollegesSo,ItisusefultomakeoutknowledgemorereasonableThirdly,IthelpusdevelopthepatrocismideaAndrecognizeournationrsquosrealsitualtionBasedontheabovereasons,IthinkweshouldparticipateinmoresuchactivitiesParajustacopyofthetopicdirectionMistakeinldquoItbasesonhelliprdquoItshouldbecorrectedasldquoItisbasedonhelliprdquoCapitalization:SpellingmistakesGrammarmistakesIllogicPoordictionSample:NotjustonyourtextbooksAsagraduatestudent,youcannotjustpayattentiontoyourtextbooksYoushouldparticipateinmorephysicalactivitiesinthearmy,factoriesorcountrysideFirstofall,weareinasocietythatisfullofallkindsofknowledgeItisnecessaryforustolearntheminthesocietyThen,ifyouwanttobecompetitiveinapplyingajobaftergraduation,youhadbetterparticipateinmorephysicalactivitiesForacompany,yoursocialexperiencemaybemoreimportantthanyourknowledgefromyourtextbooksNotjustonyourtextbooksFinally,takingsuchactivitiescanhelpyougraspyourtextbookbetterWhenyousolvethepracticalproblemwithyourknowledge,youimproveitalsoIwouldliketogivethesuggestion:Donrsquotmissinganyopportunitytoparticipateinphysicalactivities评析:观点明确文字连贯。应得分。ParaandParacanbecombinedtohaveacloseknittedpassageToosimpleconclusionStylesOfWritingDescription:describingtheappearance,innerstructure,etcofcertainobjectsorthestepsorstagesofaprocess,amethod,etcSample:ThemostfamousoftheEgyptianpyramidsarethepyramidsofGizaThesepyramidswerebuiltmorethan,yearsagoThebiggestofthemistheGreatPyramidrdquo,thePyramidofKhufuItwasmetreshigh,andeachofthefoursidesmeasuredmetresandfacesexactlynorth,south,eastorwestItwasmadeofabout,,blocksofstone,allexactlythesameshapeTheweightofeachblockisabouttonsTheinsideblockswerecutoutofrocknearthepyramidhellipStylesOfWritingNarration:recordingaseriesofeventsthatoccuroneafteranotherEventsareoftenstatedornarratedintheirnaturaltimeorderSample:TheoriginsofNanjingEngineeringInstitutecanbetracedtoadepartmentofHarbinMilitaryEngineeringInstituteinthersquosInitwasmovedtoxirsquoanThereitwentthroughvariousdifficultiesandobstaclesyearslateritmergedwithNanjingEngineeringSchoolItstartedtoadmitstudentsfromthenationalexaminationinAttheThresholdofthestcenturyitwillseeanothermajorchangeandchallengeStylesOfWritingExposition:explainingorexpoundingaphysicslaw,anaturalorsocialphenomenon,orapplicationsofanewdiscovery,etcWiththeaimofgivingknowledgeorinformationSample:WhatisstressInsimplemedicalterms,stresscanbedefinedastheresponseofthebodytoanydemandStressisthestateyouarein,nottheagentthatproducesitwhichiscalledastressorColdandheat,forexample,arestressorsButinman,hellipDefinitionofstressandstressorStylesOfWritingArgumentation:raisingorarguingforviewstotrytoconvincethereaderoftruthandreasonsyouprovideSample:SomehavebeguntosuggestthattherearetoomanywomenintheworkforcetodayTosolvetheproblem,somehavesuggestedthatsomeworkingwomen,notall,stayathome,whiletheirhusbandsorbrothersweregivendoublewagesTheyarguethatunderthesecircumstances,familieswouldretaintheirsamelevelofincome,andwomencouldrunthehouseandraisechildrenmuchbetterThesuggestionhasbeenflatlyrejectedbyoutofpeoplepolledThisprovesthatmostpeoplerejecttheideaofwomenreturninghomeWomenrsquosliberationdependsinthefinalanalysis,oneconomicstatus,saidonewomanhumanrightsadvocatorWriteontheTitlegiveneitherinEnglishorinChineseUsuallyoutlinesareprovidedAndopeningsentencesmaybedisplayedforyoutocontinueEg  (题目):GoodHealth  (提纲):()Importanceofgoodhealth()Waystokeepfit()Myownpractices  Openingsentence(起始句):ThedesireforgoodhealthishellipPopularWritingintheExamWriteonthebasisofthesituations,conditions,eventsoraspecificsceneseteitherinEnglishorinChineseEg()A.Writeanessaydiscussingthetwooppositeopinionsgivenbelowgivebothsomereasonsandmakeyourcommentsorsuggestions.Therearetwomainopinionsconcerningwomen#sstatusinthesocietySomeadvicethatwomenshouldstayathomewhileotherssaymorewomenoughttogooutworking.B.TimelimitminutesC.Wordlimit:nolessthanwordsDYouressaymustbewrittenclearlyonANSWERSHEETII  PopularWritingintheExamWriteonthebasisofthesituations,conditions,eventsoraspecificsceneseteitherinEnglishorinChineseEg()ATitle:HowToPreventPollution.Youressayshouldbebasedontheinformationgivenbelow.  在我国环境污染问题非常严重。空气污染是我国城市存在的问题大部分城市的空气为mdash级有些城市达到级。这给人们带来了疾病植物的生长也受到一定的影响。另外水环境的污染在全国也是很严重的。有的河流清水变成了黑水这影响了人们的吃水也破坏了鱼类的生存环境。解决这些问题已刻不容缓。我的意见是helliphellipPopularWritingintheExamWritewiththehelpoftables,figures,diagrams,pictures,statisticsoracombinationofthemPopularWritingintheExamSample:FOODYEARGrainMilkMeatFruitvegetablesTotalWritingonthehelpofgraphs,figuresortablesSample:Accordingtotheabovetable,wecanseethatsomechangeshavetakenplaceinpeoplersquosdietsince,whichclearlyindicatestheimprovementofpeopleprimeslivingstandardOneofthebigchangesisthedecreaseofgrainconsumptionwithpercentinandpercentinOnpeopleprimesdinnertablesthetraditionaldominantfoodmdashgrainhasgivensomewaytomilkandmeatwhichwereseldomseenondinnertablesbeforeSincetheeconomicreformin,variouskindsoffoodhavebecomepopularinChinesefamiliesWritingonthehelpofgraphs,figuresortablesSample:However,thereisasteadyreductionoffruitandvegetableswithpercentinandathreepointdropbyButthisisnotthemaintrendAsthelivingstandardoftheChinesepeopleisrising,welookforwardtofurtherchangesinpeoplersquosdietTheproportionoffruitandvegetablesaswellasmilkandmeatwilldefinitelyincreaseinthecomingyearsTypesofParagraphDevelopmentNarration:seriesofeventsthatbeginataparticulartimeandareorganizedchronologicallyProcess:explainhowsomethingisdoneormadeOftenatemporalelementmakesastepbystepchronologicalarrangementpossibleandnaturalTypesofParagraphDevelopmentClassification:consistenceanalysis:subjectsofanalysisisdividedintopartsandpartsarerelatedascausesoreffectsofthethinganalyzedDefinition:explainsborsth(formalorinformal)comparisonandcontrastexampledescriptionMethodofWritingDeterminingthetopicandthetheme审题avoiddigression,butkeeptothequestionMakingadraft(materialcollectingandoutlinelisting)收集材料、列出提纲calmdownatastrangeorunfamiliartopic,andbroadenyourviewanddeepenyourthinkingnarrowdowntothetopicwhenyouhavetoomuchinformationExpandingtheoutlinesintoapassage组织文章Polishingandimprovement修改MethodofWritingAllocationoftime:rsquoprepareanoutlinersquowriteintroductionrsquowritethebodyrsquowritetheconclusionrsquoreviewandreviseMethodofWritingKeywordsinthetopicsentencesKWUnusualexperienceSentWehadanunusualexperienceyesterdayKWImportantdecisionSentThecentralcommitteemadeanimportantdecisionthatwillinfluenceChinesediplomaticpolicyEx:threekindsofteachers,severalsimplesteps,Aseriousaccident,howtobecomeselfreliant,themostpopular,imaginative,differentreasons,MethodofWritingSampletopicsentences:AjobapplicanthastheresponsibilityforascertainingcertaintypesofinformationpriortotheinterviewLondonprimesweatherisverystrangeBabysittingwithmylittlebrotherisnofunFuturegenerationscanexpectalifespan(寿命)ofyearsMethodofWritingNoteintopicsentences:ThetopicsentencemustbeacompleteoneBesidesitshouldbeneithertoogeneralnortoospecificEgWilliamShakespeareisgreat(toogeneral)Thedictionaryissmall(toospecific)ThereshouldbecoherencebetweeneachtopicsentenceineachparagraphofthepassageEgSmokingisharmfulSmokingdoesnotonlyharmthesmokersbutalsopeoplearoundthemTherefore,smokingisabadhabitMethodofWritingExpandingatopicsentenceintoaparagraphSample:YoumaygothroughseveralsimplestepswhenyoucometopatchabicycletireFirstyouhavetofindthespotwheretheleakisThenscrapetheleakyplacesothegluewillstickwhenyoupatchtheholeNext,PutglueonthetirepatchWhiletheglueisdrying,checktohellipNowputthepatchonthetireLetthepatchdraybeforeyouSample:TherewasaseriousaccidentinthelanguagelablastweekAcarelessteacherhellipMethodofWritingExpandingatopicsentenceintoaparagraphSample:YoumaygothroughseveralsimplestepswhenyoucometopatchabicycletireFirstyouhavetofindthespotwheretheleakisThenscrapetheleakyplacesothegluewillstickwhenyoupatchtheholeNext,PutglueonthetirepatchWhiletheglueisdrying,checktohellipNowputthepatchonthetireLetthepatchdraybeforeyouSample:TherewasaseriousaccidentinthelanguagelablastweekAcarelessteacherhellipMethodofWritingAskingWhQuestionstoexpandthepassageegImportanceofgoodhealth(Why)Waysofkeepfit(how)Myownpractices(What)Model:)ThedesireforgoodhealthisuniversalMydesireistobehellip,suchas)ButhowtoputthedesireintopracticeTherearemanywaystokeepfit,forexample,)Irun,thoughslowly,forhalfanhourinthemorningeveryday,playhellipmakesmestronghellipmybestwishMethodofWritingWritingaconcludingsentenceoftheparagraphAnsweringtheimpliedquestionsifthereisanyButyourefficiencyinmakingsummarieswillincreaseinproportiontothetimeandeffortyouspendonperfectingyournotetakingtechniqueUsingsynonymstomakeitinconcertwiththekeywordsinthetopicsentenceSummarizingtheparagraphintheformofabstractegenvironment,goodsandservice:connectingthembytheconjunctivephrase,notonlyhellipbutalso(refP)MethodofWritingWritingaconcludingsentenceoftheparagraphConcludingtheparagraphbyaskingarhetoricquestionHowever,whathappensifpeopleskipbreakfastorsubstituteasimpleoneforahighqualifiedmealUsingthetransitionwordsegInbrief,tourism,accordingtomyopinion,shouldnotbeencouragedTransitionWordsAdditionandSequencebesides,also,moreover,furthermore,likewise,inaddition,first,second,then,next,later,finally,while,whenComparisonandContrastlike,inthesameway,similarly,too,both,also,equallyimportant,likewise,so,unlike,while,whereas,instead,incontrast,onthecontrary,ontheotherhandTransitionWordsCauseandEffectbecause,as,since,for,therefore,consequently,accordingly,hence,forthisreason,asaresult,whyso,TransitionWordsSummaryfinally,hence,thustosumup,toconclude,inshort,inbrief,insummary,inconclusion,onthewhole,atlast,TransitionWordsConcessionbut,however,yet,still,nevertheless,although,despite,afterall,inspiteof,insteadTransitionWordsSomesentencepatternscommonlyusedincontrolledwriting:关于利弊,优缺点的句型:Shave(orhas)alotofadvantagesover(与相比有许多优点)ComparedwithB,Ahas(orhave)manyadvantages译:)澳大利亚与中国相比,其优点是人口少)英语是她的长处beofgreatbenefittosbsth(对有益)译:你的计算机知识对你将来的工作十分有利benefitsbsth(对有好处)译:这家新医院对整个社区有利Benefitfromsth(由于而受益)译:我们将从技术发明中受益do(alotof)goodtosb(对有许多好处)译:早晨锻炼对你很有好处begoodforsbsth(对有益)译:蔬菜和水果有利于人的健康Somesentencepatternscommonlyusedincontrolledwriting:关于利弊,优缺点的句型:dodamagetosth(对造成损坏)译:这次地震对城市建筑损坏严重doharmtosht(对有害处)译:吸烟有害人的健康beas(notso)goodasWhathedoesisnotsogoodaswhathesaysnotsomuchas(与其说,不如说)HeisnotsomuchawriterasareporterSomesentencepatternscommonlyusedincontrolledwriting:说明原因的句型:TherearesometwomanygoodreasonsfortodoExample:Therearetworeasonsforthechangesinpeople#slivingconditionsFirst,wehavebeencarryingoutanopeningandreformpolicySecond,ournationaleconomyisdevelopingrapidlyandthebirthratehasbeenputundercontrolWehavetwogoodreasonsforExample:WehavemanygoodreasonstoobjecttosmokinginpublicplacesThereasonforisthat从句Example:ThereasonformybeinglatewasthatImissedthebusSomesentencepatternscommonlyusedincontrolledwriting:表示不同看法的句型:DifferentpeoplehaveholddifferentopinionsviewsonthequestionproblemmatterSomebelievethatOthersarguethatStillothersmaintainthatTheyarequitedifferentfromeachotherintheiropinionsSomepeopleholdtheopinionthatitisgoodtohaveasmallfamilyTheythinkquitedifferentlyonthisquestionExample:ParentsandchildrenthinkdifferentlyonthisquestionParentsholdthatchildrenshouldworkhardanddowellatschoolChildren,however,maintainthattheyshouldhavemorefreedomtospendtheirleisuretimeandtoplanfortheirownfutureSomesentencepatternscommonlyusedincontrolledwriting:表示必须,紧急,有困难做某事的句型:Itisimportant(necessary,urgent,difficult,easy,convenient,comfortable,expensive,desirable,advisable)forsbtodosthExample:)Itisexpensivetorunacar)Itisconvenienttogetroundinthecityifyouownacar)Itisurgentforthegovernmenttotakemeasurestocontrolthebirthrateinourcountry)Itisdesirabletobuildmorehospitals,shoppingcentres,recreationcentres,cinemas,andpublicfacilitiestomeettheincreasingneedsofthepeoplehavetroubledifficultyahardtimeadifficulttime(in)doingsth(有困难做某事)Theyhavetroublefindingasatisfactoryjobhavetroublewithsth(对有困难,不好对付)Somesentencepatternscommonlyusedincontrolledwriting:常用谚语(在议论文中)Asapopularsayinggoes,EverycoinhastwosidesAsaproverbsays,EverythinghastwosidesOntheonehand,physicalexerciseisgoodforyourhealthOntheotherhand,ifyoudon#tdealwithitproperly,itwilldoharmtoyouhealthSoweshouldlookatthematterfromtwosidesAsaproverbsays,Wherethereisawillthereisaway(有志者事竟成)Asapopularsayinggoes,Amanisknownbythecompanyhekeeps(观其交友,知其为人)Asisknowntoall,Nopains,nogains(没有苦,就没有甜)Somesentencepatternscommonlyusedincontrolledwriting:关于因果关系的句型ThecauseofreasonforhigherpriceswasanincreaseindemandBecauseAsNowthatSincethedemandhasincreased,thepricesarehigherAnincreaseindemandcausesresultsinleadstoproduceshigherpricesThedemandhasincreasedTherefore,(Asaresult,Forthisreason,Becauseofthis,Consequently,)thepricesarehigherIfthereisanincreaseindemand,thenpricesrise(goupboostarehigher)Somesentencepatternscommonlyusedincontrolledwriting:辩论中常用的句型ThereisnodoubtthatItisobviousclearthatAsisknowntoall,(It#s)nowonder(难怪)Hedidn#tworkhardandnowonderhelosthisjobItgoeswithoutsayingthat(不用说,不成问题,很自然)Whatismoreimportant,Iamconvincedthat(我深信)Somesentencepatternscommonlyusedincontrolledwriting:举例表示法:Forexample,thepeople#seconomicstatushasbeengreatlyimprovedForinstance,theeconomicstatusofthepeoplehasbeenimprovedLet#shaveanexampleTVsets,refrigeratorsandrecordershavebecomehouseholdnecessitiesSomesentencepatternscommonlyusedincontrolledwriting:概述(用于图表作文)Accordingtothefiguresgiveninthetable,ThischartshowsthatAsisshownbythegraph,ItcanbeseenfromthestatisticsthatItisgenerallybelievedthatacceptedthoughtheldThereisaslightslowsteadyrapidrise(increasedecreasedeclinereductionfalldrop)indemandincomepopulationpricesproductionBeontheincreasedecreaserisedecline(在不断的增加,减少,上升,下降)Example:ThenumberofstudentsinthecollegehasbeenontheriseinrecentlyyearsSomesentencepatternscommonlyusedincontrolledwriting:结尾句型:Inmyopinion,IaminfavorofowningacarPersonally,IprefertoworkinthecountryratherthaninthecityInshort,parentsandchildrenshouldlearntogetthroughtoeachotherOnlyinthiswaycanthemostdifficultproblemsbesolvedproperlyInconclusion,wecannotachievesuccesswithouteffortandhardworkAsfarasIamconcerned,IagreewiththeopinionthatNopainsnogainsSomesentencepatternscommonlyusedincontrolledwriting:结尾句型:Inmyopinion,IaminfavorofowningacarPersonally,IprefertoworkinthecountryratherthaninthecityInshort,parentsandchildrenshouldlearntogetthroughtoeachotherOnlyinthiswaycanthemostdifficultproblemsbesolvedproperlyInconclusion,wecannotachievesuccesswithouteffortandhardworkAsfarasIamconcerned,IagreewiththeopinionthatNopainsnogainsldquoChoosingACareerrdquoDirections:forthispart,youareallowedminutestowriteacompositiononthetopicldquoChoosingACareerrdquoYoumustwriteatleastwordsandyoushouldbaseyourcompositionontheoutlinegiven(inChinese)belowYoushouldwritethecompositionontheCompositionSheet择业是每个青年人面临的问题。择业的标准是什么。我们应持的态度ChoosingACareerAllpeopleintheworldhavetoworkinonewayoranother,fortheyspendmostoftheirlifeatjobsAndonlythroughworkcanpeopleearntheirliving,changetheworldandconquertheforcesofnatureThereforeyoungpeople,afterleavingschool,havetochooseacareerAgoodcareerhelpstodevelopthemselvesandbringshappinesstofamilyInshort,arightcareermeanseverythingtothemSincechildhoodpeopleusuallyhavemanyexpectationsintheircareersSomepeoplewanttobeteachers,doctorsorlawyersothersmayliketobecomesportsmen,filmstarsorartistsWhatevercareersyouchoose,you#dbetterpayattentiontosuchbasicquestionsasAreyouqualifiedforthecareerIsitinterestingandenjoyableIsitlawfulandbeneficialtothepeopleandthesocietyIsitrewardingwithsatisfactoryincomeWhenyouplanyourcareer,youmuststarttoprepareyourselfforitToreachyourgoals,youmustworkhardatschoolOfcourse,thingsarechangingrapidlynowCertainjobswhichyoudesiredmayhavedisappearedInthatcase,youhavetocontinueeducationandtrainingtomeetthenewchallengeInthejobmarketwherethereisfiercecompetition,youneedtoadoptaflexibleattitude,takeanyjobavailableIfitdoesnotsuityouinthelongrun,thendropitandlookfornewonesDirections:Forthispart,youareallowedminutestowriteacompositiononldquoAFewRemarksonCompetitionrdquoYourcompositionshouldbenolessthanwordsRemembertowriteclearlyYoushouldwritethiscompositionontheCompositionSheet竞争是存在于如今社会的普遍现象。竞争的好处。竞争的同时不要忘记合作。ldquoAFewRemarksonCompetitionrdquoInourmodernsocietyyoumayfeelcompetitioneverywhereTheathletesforexample,fightwitheachotherforchampionshipsThestudentscompeteforprizesandscholarshipsatschoolTheunemployedstruggleforanyopportunitiesavailableinthejobmarketAndeverydayinthebusinessworldthemostfiercecompetitionistakingplaceaseachenterprisetriestogetabiggersliceofthemarketldquoAFewRemarksonCompetitionrdquoHardascompetitionis,ithascertainadvantagesaswellFirstly,itprovidescitizens,whateversocialstatustheyhave,withopportunitiestoachievetheirgoalsEveryonewithhisowneffortsisequalonthewaytosuccessSecondly,peopleusuallyfeelstimulatedbythechallengesfromrivalsUndercompetitiononeturnsouttobemoreactiveandefficientFurthermore,competitiongivesimpetustothefastdevelopmentofthemodernworld,inwhicheachpersonshowsgreaterinitiativeatworkHowever,acompetitivesocietycanneverneglecttheimportanceofcooperation,forcompetitiondoesnotmeantheisolati

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