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首页 Issues in Supply Chain Scheduling and Contractin…

Issues in Supply Chain Scheduling and Contracting.pdf

Issues in Supply Chain Scheduli…

康隆
2014-03-11 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Issues in Supply Chain Scheduling and Contractingpdf》,可适用于生产运营领域

IssuesinSupplyChainSchedulingandContractingChristianAlexanderUllrichIssuesinSupplyChainSchedulingandContractingDrChristianAUllrichBielefeld,GermanyDissertationBielefeldUniversity,ISBNISBN(eBook)DOITheDeutscheNationalbibliothekliststhispublicationintheDeutscheNationalbibliografiedetailedbibliographicdataareavailableintheInternetathttp:dnbdnbdeLibraryofCongressControlNumber:SpringerGabler©SpringerFachmedienWiesbadenThisworkissubjecttocopyrightAllrightsarereservedbythePublisher,whetherthewholeorpartofthematerialisconcerned,specificallytherightsoftranslation,reprinting,reuseofillustrations,recitation,broadcasting,reproductiononmicrofilmsorinanyotherphysicalway,andtransmissionorinformationstorageandretrieval,electronicadaptation,computersoftware,orbysimilarordissimilarmethodologynowknownorhereafterdevelopedExemptedfromthislegalreservationarebriefexcerptsinconnectionwithreviewsorscholarlyanalysisormaterialsuppliedspecificallyforthepurposeofbeingenteredandexecutedonacomputersystem,forexclusiveusebythepurchaseroftheworkDuplicationofthispublicationorpartsthereofispermittedonlyundertheprovisionsoftheCopyrightLawofthePublisher’slocation,initscurrentversion,andpermissionforusemustalwaysbeobtainedfromSpringerPermissionsforusemaybeobtainedthroughRightsLinkattheCopyrightClearanceCenterViolationsareliabletoprosecutionundertherespectiveCopyrightLawTheuseofgeneraldescriptivenames,registerednames,trademarks,servicemarks,etcinthispublicationdoesnotimply,evenintheabsenceofaspecificstatement,thatsuchnamesareexemptfromtherelevantprotectivelawsandregulationsandthereforefreeforgeneraluseWhiletheadviceandinformationinthisbookarebelievedtobetrueandaccurateatthedateofpublication,neithertheauthorsnortheeditorsnorthepublishercanacceptanylegalresponsibilityforanyerrorsoromissionsthatmaybemadeThepublishermakesnowarranty,expressorimplied,withrespecttothematerialcontainedhereinPrintedonacidfreepaperSpringerGablerisabrandofSpringerDESpringerDEispartofSpringerScienceBusinessMediawwwspringergablerdeForewordThisdissertationaddsitsinsightstotwogrowingareasofresearchinOperationsManagement,SupplyChainSchedulingandcontractdesigninRDsupplychainsWhileitisa,ifnotthe,coreparadigmofsupplychainmanagementliteraturethatsupplychainmembersshouldcooperatetoenhancetheefficiencyoftheircollectiveeffort,itdoesprovidebutlittleindicationofhowtodosoonanoperationallevelThefirst,andlargerpartofChristianUllrich’sdissertationstrivestofillthisgapwithrespecttodifferentsupplychainschedulingscenariosThequestiondrivinghisanalysisis:Whatisthesize,ineconomicterms,oftheadvantageofcommonlyschedulingmanufacturingandtransportationoperationsbysubsequentsupplychainmembersThisquestionisansweredbyextensivenumericalstudies,employingnewlydevisedalgorithmsforthedifferentscenariosunderscrutiny,likelinearsupplychainsorsupplynetworksThehighqualityandefficiencyoftheseheuristicsareshownTheyhenceturnouttobeusefulnotonlyforgagingthecostsavingpotentialofsupplychainschedulingbutalsoasatoolforsolvingsomeoftheaforementionedtasksofoperationalsupplychainmanagementMoreover,someofthealgorithmsareformulatedasspreadsheetmodelsDuetotheubiquityofspreadsheettoolsincompanyofficesthisopensaroutetothepractitioner’sdaytodayapplicationofthesupplychainschedulingtoolsdevelopedhereThereisampleindicationavailablethatespeciallySMEsareoftencharacterizedbyaconsiderableinhouseproductiondepthandhighinnovationintensityatthesametimeAtfirstglance,thisphenomenondoesnotfitwellintothemodernperspectiveofconcentrationonthefirm’scorecompetenciesThefinalpartofthedissertationtriestofindanexplanationforthisobservationbyexploringthebenefitsofsharingtheRDinvestmentamongthesupplierandthemanufacturerinatwostageinnovativesupplychainChristianUllrichilluminates,analyticallyandnumerically,theparametersetFOREWORDtingsunderwhichsharingtheRDinvestmentisadvantageousforbothsupplychainpartnersIhopethisbookwillfindthebroadaudienceitdeservesOerlinghausen,JulyHermannJahnkePrefaceThisdissertationisbasedonfourpaperswrittenduringmytermofemploymentatBielefeldUniversityThefollowingabstractssummarizetheproblemsinvestigated,thesolutionmethodologies,andthemostimportantfindings•IntegratedmachineschedulingandvehicleroutingwithtimewindowsThispaperintegratesproductionandoutbounddistributionschedulinginordertominimizetotaltardinessTheoverallproblemconsistsoftwosubproblemsThefirstaddressesschedulingasetofjobsonparallelmachineswithmachinedependentreadytimesThesecondfocussesonthedeliveryofcompletedjobswithafleetofvehicleswhichmaydifferintheirloadingcapacitiesandreadytimesJobdependentprocessingtimes,deliverytimewindows,servicetimes,anddestinationsaretakenintoaccountAgeneticalgorithmapproachisintroducedtosolvetheintegratedproblemasawholeTwomainquestionsareexaminedAretheresultsofintegratingmachineschedulingandvehicleroutingsignificantlybetterthanthoseofclassicdecompositionapproacheswhichbreakdowntheoverallproblem,solvethetwosubproblemssuccessively,andmergethesubsolutionstoformasolutiontotheoverallproblemAndifso,isitpossibletocapitalizeonthesepotentialsdespitethecomplexityoftheintegratedproblemBothquestionsaretackledbymeansofanumericalstudyThegeneticalgorithmoutperformstheclassicdecompositionapproachesinthecaseofsmallsizeinstancesandisabletogeneraterelativelygoodsolutionsforinstanceswithuptojobs,machines,andvehiclesExaminers:ProfDrHermannJahnke,ProfDrReinholdDecker,andProfDrChristianStummer(BielefeldUniversity,FacultyofBusinessAdministrationandEconomics)PublishedinEuropeanJournalofOperationalResearch,Volume,Issue,May,pagesChaptercontainsthispaperinarevisedandsupplementedversionPREFACE•ThecostcuttingpotentialofSupplyChainSchedulingCoauthoredbyDrJanHerrmannSupplyChainSchedulingdealswiththecoordinationofthemachineanddeliveryschedulesoftwoormoresupplychainstagesTheobjectiveistoimprovethesupplychain’scompetitivenessmeasuredintotallogisticscostsorthesupplychainmakespan,forexampleHowever,thepotentialforimprovementhasneverbeenproperlyquantifiedIfperformanceimprovementsdidnotsufficetocompensateforthecostofcoordination,SupplyChainSchedulingwouldbeunprofitableandthusexpendableThispaperaimstoassessthecostcuttingpotentialofSupplyChainSchedulingTheinvestigationfocussesonasupplierandamanufacturer,bothofwhomfaceamachineanddeliveryschedulingproblemThesumoftardiness,inventoryholding,andtransportationcoststhatresultifthecompaniesscheduleontheirowniscomparedtothetotalcostsincurrediftheyschedulejointlyOnaverage,SupplyChainSchedulingcutcostsbyuptoSincethecomplexityoftheexaminedschedulingproblemscanleadtoextremelylongcomputationtimes,onlysmallsizeinstancesaresolvableusingacommercialoptimizationsoftwareHence,aMicrosoftExcelbasedheuristicapproachisdevelopedthatenablesustohandlerealworldsizeinstancesaswellTothebestofourknowledgethereiscurrentlynoappropriatespreadsheetapproachtoschedulingproblemsthatdoesnotrelyonexpensiveaddonsoftwarepackagesThispaper’sheuristiccanbeeasilytransferredtoalargenumberofbatching,sequencing,routing,andschedulingproblemsSinceExcelisanomnipresentsoftwareandsuchproblemsoccuralmosteverywhere,theproposedapproachprovidesenormousopportunitiesforpractitioners(coauthoredbyDrJanHerrmann)•SupplyChainScheduling:MakespanreductionpotentialThispaperalsoaddressestheoptimizationpotentialofSupplyChainSchedulingFocusingontheoverallmakespanofafourstagesupplychain,eightschedulingscenariosarecomparedbymeansofanumericalstudyThesimplestscenarioischaracterizedbyseparateschedulingofallstagesThemostpromisingscenarioisajointschedulingapproachthattreatsthesupplychainasaflowshopIntheothersixscenarios,differentsubsetsofstagescoordinatetheirschedulesJointSupplyChainSchedulingofallstagessignificantlyoutperformstheotherPublishedinInternationalJournalofLogisticsResearchandApplications,Volume,Issue,October,pagesChaptercontainsthispaperinarevisedandsupplementedversionPREFACEsevenscenariosThisresultholdsforthecasewithasinglemachineaswellasfortwoidenticalparallelmachinesateachstageOwingtothecomplexityofsomeschedulingproblems,thenumericalinvestigationofthefourstagesupplychainscenarioislimitedtosmallsizeinstanceswhicharestillsolvableusingacommercialoptimizationsoftwareHowever,asecondstudydealswithasimplertwostagesupplychainstructurethatallowsfortheinvestigationofrealworldsizeinstancesSincetheshortestprocessingtimepriorityappliedatthefirststageleadstopermutationscheduleswhichonaverageresultinnearoptimummakespans,ajointSupplyChainSchedulingapproachbasedonJohnson’salgorithmturnsouttobeunreasonable•HowtobenefitfromanRDinvestmentsharingcontractwithasupplierCoauthoredbyDiplKffrRababMitriDespiteatendencytoconcentrateonone’scorebusiness,especiallycompaniesthatareknownfortheirinnovativeproductsareoftenfoundtohaveanexceptionallyhighinhouseproductiondepthFocusingonsuchacompany,wemodelvariousfactorsthatinfluencethemakeorbuydecisionforacomponentrequiredforanewproductAsmanyinnovatingcompaniesaimtoproducehighqualitygoodsonprinciple,thecomponent’squalityplaysanimportantroleinthemodelInvestmentinRDisanotherimportantfactorsincethesesunkcostscanweakentheinnovatingcompany’spositionwhennegotiatingwithapotentialsupplieronthecomponentpriceConsistentwiththeobservationthatinnovativecompaniestendtoproducespecificcomponentsontheirown,weidentifycasesinwhichinhouseproductionisadvantageousHowever,inhouseproductionaswellasaclassicwholesalepricecontractwithaspecializedsupplieroftenturnouttobeinefficientThispaperdemonstratesthat,undercertainconditions,boththeinnovativecompanyandthesuppliercanbenefitfromsharingtheassociatedRDinvestmentBielefeld,AugustChristianUllrichContentsOutlineIntroductiontoSupplyChainManagementHistoricalbackgroundandgeneralmotivationBasicdefinitionsTheinterorganizationalperspectiveTheintraorganizationalperspectiveSupplyChainScheduling:IntegratedmachineschedulingandvehicleroutingMotivationLiteraturesurveyMixedintegerlinearprogramsParallelmachineschedulingVehicleroutingwithtimewindowsIntegratedmachineschedulingandvehicleroutingGenerationoftestinstancesHeuristicsDecompositionapproachesGeneticalgorithmapproachComputationalresultsSmallsizeinstancesLargesizeinstancesSummaryandoutlookXIICONTENTSSupplyChainScheduling:CostcuttingpotentialMotivationLiteraturesurveyMixedintegerlinearprogramsIntegratedmachineanddeliveryschedulingSupplyChainSchedulingDesignofthenumericalstudyTheseparateschedulingscenarioTheSupplyChainSchedulingscenarioGenerationoftestinstancesApplyingExceltoschedulingproblemsMinimizingtotaltardinessonparallelmachinesIntegratedmachineanddeliveryschedulingSupplyChainSchedulingComputationalresultsSmallsizeinstancesLargesizeinstancesSummaryandoutlookAppendixCostsharingmechanismSupplyChainScheduling:MakespanreductionpotentialMotivationandliteraturesurveyMixedintegerlinearprogramDesignofthenumericalstudiesFourstagesupplychainenvironmentTwostagesupplychainenvironmentComputationalresultsSmallsizeinstancesLargesizeinstancesSummaryandOutlookCONTENTSXIIISupplyChainContracting:RDInvestmentsharingcontractsMotivationLiteraturesurveyBasicmodelInhouseproductionscenarioExternalprocurementscenarioCentralcontrolbenchmarkscenarioRDinvestmentsharingcontractsInhouseproductionthreatpointExternalprocurementthreatpointExternalprocurementordiscontinuingthreatpointNumericalrobustnessevaluationSummaryandoutlookAppendixProofsCommoncontracttypesConcludingremarksBibliographyListofFiguresAclassicinterorganizationalsupplychainstructureThesupplychainplanningmatrix(Rohdeetal,,p)AninterorganizationalSupplyChainSchedulingscenarioOptimalsolutiontotheexampleThemajorcycleofthegeneticalgorithmThecrossoverprocedureexplainedbyanexampleThemutationprocedureexplainedbyanexamplePerformanceoftheheuristicsforsmallsizeinstancesComputationtimeofthegeneticalgorithmTimelineforseparateschedulingSupplychainstructureintheexampleOptimalscheduleofthesupplierOptimalscheduleofthemanufacturerTimelineforSupplyChainSchedulingSolutionobtainedbySupplyChainSchedulingAssignmentintervalsusedintheexampleOverallsavings()achievedbySupplyChainSchedulingRelativereductionsintardinesscostsRelativereductionsininventoryholdingcostsRelativereductionsinthetransportationcostsBreakdownofcostfactorsSolutionspaceoftheintegratedproblemThecompanies’scostsasafunctionofφXVILISTOFFIGURESSupplychainstructureSupplyChainSchedulingscenariosRelativemakespanreductionscomparedtoscenarioSolutiontotheexampleRelativemakespandeviationsfromscenarioperstage(experiment)Relativemakespandeviationsfromscenarioperstage(experiment)TimelineforinhouseproductionTimelineforexternalprocurementRunoftheprofitsdependingonfTimelineforR

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