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首页 Sparknotes - Les Miserables

Sparknotes - Les Miserables.pdf

Sparknotes - Les Miserables

UC218182748
2014-01-16 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Sparknotes - Les Miserablespdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

BNDigitalLesMiserablesTMBjpglesmisérablesVictorHugotechnicaldirectorMaxwellKrohneditorialdirectorJustinKestlermanagingeditorBenFlormanserieseditorsBoomieAglietti,JustinKestlerproductionChristianLorentzenwritersBrianPhillips,DeborahForbeseditorsThomasConnors,MattBlanchardCopyright©bySparkNotesllcAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybeusedorreproducedinanymannerwhatsoeverwithoutthewrittenpermissionofthePublishersparknotesisaregisteredtrademarkofSparkNotesllcThiseditionpublishedbySparkPublishingSparkPublishingADivisionofSparkNotesllcFifthAvenue,thFloorNewYork,NYAnybookpurchasedwithoutacoverisstolenproperty,reportedas“unsoldanddestroyed”tothepublisher,whoreceivesnopaymentforsuch“strippedbooks”snPleasesendallcommentsandquestionsorreporterrorstofeedbacksparknotescomLibraryofCongressinformationavailableuponrequestPrintedandboundintheUnitedStatesrrdcisbniiiIntroduction:stoppingtobuysparknotesonasnowyeveningWhosewordstheseareyouthinkyouknowYourpaper’sduetomorrow,thoughWe’regladtoseeyoustoppinghereTogetsomehelpbeforeyougoLostyourcourseYou’llfindithereFacetestsandessayswithoutfearBetweenthewords,goodgradesatstake:GetgreatresultsthroughouttheyearOnceschoolbellscausedyourhearttoquakeAsteacherscircledeachmistakeUseSparkNotesandnolongerweep,AceeverysingletestyoutakeYes,booksarelovely,dark,anddeep,Butonlywhatyougraspyoukeep,Withhourstogobeforeyousleep,WithhourstogobeforeyousleepivContentscontextplotoverviewcharacterlistanalysisofmajorcharactersjeanvaljeancosettejavertmariuspontmercyfantinethemes,motifssymbolstheimportanceofloveandcompassionsocialinjusticeinnineteenthcenturyfrancethelongtermeffectsofthefrenchrevolutiononfrenchsocietytheplightoftheorphandisguisesandpseudonymsresurrectionmyriel’ssilvercandlestickssnakes,insects,andbirdssummaryanalysis“fantine”:booksone–twobooksthree–fourbookfivebookssix–eight“cosette”:booksone–twobookthreebooksfour–fivebookssix–eightv“marius”:booksone–threebooksfour–sevenbookeight“saintdenis”:booksone–sevenbookseight–fifteen“jeanvaljean”:booksone–threebooksfour–nineimportantquotationsexplainedkeyfactsstudyquestionssuggestedessaytopicsreviewresourcesquizsuggestionsforfurtherreadingnote:ThisSparkNotereferstotheSignetClassiceditionofLesMisérablesSomeabridgededitionsdividethenovelintothreevolumesIntheseeditions,VolumeOnecorrespondsto“Fantine”VolumeTwoto“Cosette”andVolumeThreeto“Marius,”“SaintDenis,”and“JeanValjean”contextContextictorhugowasborninintheFrenchtownofBesançonHisfatherwasageneralinNapoléon’sarmy,andmuchofhischildhoodwasthereforespentamidthebackdropofNapoléon’scampaignsinSpainandinItalyAttheageofeleven,HugoreturnedtolivewithhismotherinParis,wherehebecameinfatuatedwithbooksandliteratureBythetimehewasfifteen,hehadalreadysubmittedonepoemtoacontestsponsoredbytheprestigiousFrenchAcademyHugowroteprolificallyinallgenres,buthisplaysprovedtobehisearliestcriticalandcommercialsuccessesFrance’sJulyRevolutionopenedHugo’screativefloodgates,andhebeganproducingasteadystreamofwork,mostnotablythenovelTheHunchbackofNotreDame()HugoalsobegantocultivatehisinterestinpoliticsandwaselectedtoFrance’sNationalAssemblyaftertherevolutionofAsHugogrewolder,hispoliticsbecameincreasinglyleftist,andhewasforcedtofleeFranceinbecauseofhisoppositiontothemonarchLouisNapoléonHugoremainedinexileuntil,whenhereturnedtohishomecountryasanationalheroHecontinuedtowriteuntilhisdeathinHewasburiedwitheveryconceivablehonorinoneofthegrandestfuneralsinmodernFrenchhistoryHugoremainsoneofthemostpopularandrespectedauthorsinFrenchliteratureHiswritingswereculturalfixturesthroughoutthenineteenthcentury,andhequicklyemergedasoneoftheleadersoftheRomanticmovementinliteratureHugoalsodevelopedhisownbrandofimaginativerealism,aliterarystylethatcombinesrealisticelementswithexaggeratedsymbolismInthisstyle,eachcharacterrepresentsasignificantsocialissueofthetimeIndeed,politicalconcernsdominatemuchofHugo’swriting,andheusedhisworktochampioncausessuchasuniversalsuffrageandfreeeducationHugobelievedthatthemodernwriterhadamissiontodefendthelessfortunatemembersofsocietyThoughheoftendrewcriticismforhispolitics,hispassionfordocumentinginjusticeultimatelyledtowidespreadpraiseforbothhisliteraryandsocialachievementsHugobeganwritingLesMisérablestwentyyearsbeforeitseventualpublicationinHisgoalsinwritingthenovelwereasloftyasthereputationithassubsequentlyacquiredLesMisérablesispriVHvictorhugocontextcontextmarilyagreathumanitarianworkthatencouragescompassionandhopeinthefaceofadversityandinjusticeItisalso,however,ahistoricalnovelofgreatscopeandanalysis,anditprovidesadetailedvisionofnineteenthcenturyFrenchpoliticsandsocietyBycouplinghisstoryofredemptionwithameticulousdocumentationoftheinjusticesofFrance’srecentpast,HugohopedLesMisérableswouldencourageamoreprogressiveanddemocraticfutureDrivenbyhiscommitmenttoreformandprogress,HugowroteLesMisérableswithnothinglessthanaliteraryandpoliticalrevolutioninmindLesMisérablesemploysHugo’sstyleofimaginativerealismandissetinanartificiallycreatedhumanhellthatemphasizesthethreemajorpredicamentsofthenineteenthcenturyEachofthethreemajorcharactersinthenovelsymbolizesoneofthesepredicaments:JeanValjeanrepresentsthedegradationofmanintheproletariat,Fantinerepresentsthesubjectionofwomenthroughhunger,andCosetterepresentstheatrophyofthechildbydarknessInpart,thenovel’sfamehasenduredbecauseHugosuccessfullycreatedcharactersthatserveassymbolsoflargerproblemswithoutbeingflatdevicesplotoverviewPlotOverviewheconvictjeanvaljeanisreleasedfromaFrenchprisonafterservingnineteenyearsforstealingaloafofbreadandforsubsequentattemptstoescapefromprisonWhenValjeanarrivesatthetownofDigne,nooneiswillingtogivehimshelterbecauseheisanexconvictDesperate,ValjeanknocksonthedoorofMMyriel,thekindlybishopofDigneMyrieltreatsValjeanwithkindness,butValjeanrepaysthebishopbystealinghissilverwareWhenthepolicearrestValjean,Myrielcoversforhim,claimingthatthesilverwarewasagiftTheauthoritiesreleaseValjeanandMyrielmakeshimpromisetobecomeanhonestmanEagertofulfillhispromise,ValjeanmaskshisidentityandentersthetownofMontreuilsurmerUndertheassumednameofMadeleine,ValjeaninventsaningeniousmanufacturingprocessthatbringsthetownprosperityHeeventuallybecomesthetown’smayorFantine,ayoungwomanfromMontreuil,livesinParisShefallsinlovewithTholomyès,awealthystudentwhogetsherpregnantandthenabandonsherFantinereturnstoherhomevillagewithherdaughter,CosetteOnthewaytoMontreuil,however,FantinerealizesthatshewillneverbeabletofindworkifthetownspeopleknowthatshehasanillegitimatechildInthetownofMontfermeil,shemeetstheThénardiers,afamilythatrunsthelocalinnTheThénardiersagreetolookafterCosetteaslongasFantinesendsthemamonthlyallowanceInMontreuil,FantinefindsworkinMadeleine’sfactoryFantine’scoworkersfindoutaboutCosette,however,andFantineisfiredTheThénardiersdemandmoremoneytosupportCosette,andFantineresortstoprostitutiontomakeendsmeetOnenight,Javert,Montreuil’spolicechief,arrestsFantineSheistobesenttoprison,butMadeleineintervenesFantinehasfallenill,andwhenshelongstoseeCosette,MadeleinepromisestosendforherFirst,however,hemustcontendwithJavert,whohasdiscoveredMadeleine’scriminalpastJaverttellsMadeleinethatamanhasbeenaccusedofbeingJeanValjean,andMadeleineconfesseshistrueidentityJavertshowsuptoarrestValjeanwhileValjeanisatFantine’sbedside,andFantinediesfromtheshockTHvictorhugoplotoverviewAfterafewyears,ValjeanescapesfromprisonandheadstoMontfermeil,whereheisabletobuyCosettefromtheThénardiersTheThénardiersturnouttobeafamilyofscoundrelswhoabuseCosettewhilespoilingtheirowntwodaughters,EponineandAzelmaValjeanandCosettemovetoarundownpartofParisJavertdiscoverstheirhideout,however,andtheyareforcedtofleeTheyfindrefugeinaconvent,whereCosetteattendsschoolandValjeanworksasagardenerMariusPontmercyisayoungmanwholiveswithhiswealthygrandfather,MGillenormandBecauseofpoliticaldifferenceswithinthefamily,Mariushasnevermethisfather,GeorgesPontmercyAfterhisfatherdies,however,Mariuslearnsmoreabouthimandcomestoadmirehisfather’sdemocraticpoliticsAngrywithhisgrandfather,MariusmovesoutofGillenormand’shouseandlivesasapooryounglawstudentWhileinlawschool,Mariusassociateswithagroupofradicalstudents,theFriendsoftheABC,whoareledbythecharismaticEnjolrasOneday,MariusseesCosetteatapublicparkItisloveatfirstsight,buttheprotectiveValjeandoeshisutmosttopreventCosetteandMariusfromevermeetingTheirpathscrossonceagain,however,whenValjeanmakesacharitablevisittoMarius’spoorneighbors,theJondrettesTheJondrettesareinfacttheThénardiers,whohavelosttheirinnandmovedtoParisunderanassumednameAfterValjeanleaves,ThénardierannouncesaplantorobValjeanwhenhereturnsAlarmed,Mariusalertsthelocalpoliceinspector,whoturnsouttobeJavertTheambushisfoiledandtheThénardiersarearrested,butValjeanescapesbeforeJavertcanidentifyhimThénardier’sdaughterEponine,whoisinlovewithMarius,helpsMariusdiscoverCosette’swhereaboutsMariusisfinallyabletomakecontactwithCosette,andthetwodeclaretheirloveforeachotherValjean,however,soonshatterstheirhappinessWorriedthathewillloseCosetteandunnervedbypoliticalunrestinthecity,ValjeanannouncesthatheandCosettearemovingtoEnglandIndesperation,Mariusrunstohisgrandfather,MGillenormand,toaskforMGillenormand’spermissiontomarryCosetteTheirmeetingendsinabitterargumentWhenMariusreturnstoCosette,sheandValjeanhavedisappearedHeartbroken,Mariusdecidestojoinhisradicalstudentfriends,whohavestartedapoliticaluprisingArmedwithtwopistols,MariusheadsforthebarricadesTheuprisingseemsdoomed,butMariusandhisfellowstudentsnonethelessstandtheirgroundandvowtofightforfreedomandlesmisérablesHplotoverviewdemocracyThestudentsdiscoverJavertamongtheirranks,and,realizingthatheisaspy,EnjolrastieshimupAsthearmylaunchesitsfirstattackagainstthestudents,EponinethrowsherselfinfrontofarifletosaveMarius’slifeAsEponinediesinMarius’sarms,shehandshimaletterfromCosetteMariusquicklyscribblesareplyandordersaboy,Gavroche,todeliverittoCosetteValjeanmanagestointerceptthenoteandsetsouttosavethelifeofthemanhisdaughterlovesValjeanarrivesatthebarricadeandvolunteerstoexecuteJavertWhenalonewithJavert,however,ValjeaninsteadsecretlyletshimgofreeAsthearmystormsthebarricade,ValjeangrabsthewoundedMariusandfleesthroughthesewersWhenValjeanemergeshourslater,JavertimmediatelyarrestshimValjeanpleadswithJaverttolethimtakethedyingMariustoMarius’sgrandfatherJavertagreesJavertfeelstormented,tornbetweenhisdutytohisprofessionandthedebtheowesValjeanforsavinghislifeUltimately,JavertletsValjeangoandthrowshimselfintotheriver,wherehedrownsMariusmakesafullrecoveryandisreconciledwithGillenormand,whoconsentstoMariusandCosette’smarriageTheirweddingisahappyone,marredonlywhenValjeanconfesseshiscriminalpasttoMariusAlarmedbythisrevelationandunawarethatitwasValjeanwhosavedhislifeatthebarricades,MariustriestopreventCosettefromhavingcontactwithValjeanLonelyanddepressed,ValjeantakestohisbedandawaitshisdeathMariuseventuallyfindsoutfromThénardierthatValjeansavedMarius’slifeAshamedthathemistrustedValjean,MariustellsCosetteeverythingthathashappenedMariusandCosetterushtoValjean’ssidejustintimeforafinalreconciliationHappytobereunitedwithhisadopteddaughter,ValjeandiesinpeacecharacterlistCharacterListJeanValjeanCosette’sadoptedfatherValjeanisanexconvictwholeavesbehindalifeofhatredanddeceitandmakeshisfortunewithhisinnovativeindustrialtechniquesHefindsfulfillmentinlovinghisadopteddaughterandhelpingpeoplewhoareindifficultsituations,evenwhenitmeansriskinghisownlifeandwelfareValjeanadoptspseudonymstoevadethepoliceandcombinesaconvict’sstreetsmartswithhisnewfoundidealismandcompassionHiswholelifeisaquestforredemption,andheultimatelyfindsblissonhisdeathbedCosetteFantine’sdaughter,wholivesasValjean’sadopteddaughterafterhermotherdiesCosettespendsherchildhoodasaservantfortheThénardiersinMontfermeil,buteventhisawfulexperiencedoesnotmakeherhardenedorcynicalUnderthecareofValjeanandthenunsofPetitPicpus,Cosetteultimatelyblossomsintoabeautiful,educatedyoungwomanShefindsfulfillmentinherloveforMariusCosetteisinnocentanddocile,butherparticipationinValjean’smanyescapesfromthelawshowthatshealsopossessesintelligenceandbraveryJavertApoliceinspectorwhostrictlybelievesinlawandorderandwillstopatnothingtoenforceFrance’sharshpenalcodesJavertisincapableofcompassionorpity,andperformshisworkwithsuchpassionthathetakesonanearlyanimalqualitywhenheisonthechaseHenursesanespeciallystrongdesiretorecaptureValjean,whoseescapesandprosperityheseesasanaffronttojusticeUltimately,JavertisunabletosaywithcertaintythatValjeandeservestobepunishedThisambiguityunderminesthesystemofbeliefonwhichJavertbaseshislifeandforceshimtochoosebetweenhypocrisyandhonorHvictorhugocharacterlistFantineAworkingclassgirlwholeavesherhometownofMontreuilsurmertoseekherfortuneinParisFantine’sinnocentaffairwithadapperstudentnamedTholomyèsleavesherpregnantandabandonedAlthoughsheisfrail,shemakesaHerculeanefforttofeedherselfandherdaughter,CosetteEvenasshedescendsintoprostitution,sheneverstopscaringforCosetteSherepresentsthedestructionthatnineteenthcenturyFrenchsocietycruellywreaksonthelessfortunateMariusPontmercyThesonofGeorgesPontmercy,acolonelinNapoléon’sarmyMariusgrowsupinthehomeofhisgrandfather,MGillenormand,amonarchistMariushasanidentitycrisiswhenhelearnstherealreasonforhisseparationfromhisfather,andthiscrisissetshimonthepathtodiscoveringhimselfAninnocentyoungman,Mariusisnonethelesscapableofgreatthingsandmanagesbothtofightonthebarricadesandsuccessfullycourttheloveofhislife,CosetteMMyrielThebishopofDigneMMyrielisamuchadmiredclergymanwhosegreatkindnessandcharityhavemadehimpopularthroughouthisparishHepassesonthesesamequalitiestoValjeanandinitiatestheexconvict’sspiritualrenewalbysavingValjeanfromarrestandmakinghimpromisetoliveasanhonestmanMThénardierAcruel,wretched,moneyobsessedmanwhofirstappearsasCosette’skeeperandtormentorThénardierextortsmoneyfromwhomeverhecan,andhefrequentlyservesasaninformanttowhoeverwillbidthehighestHisschemesrangefromrobberytofraudtomurder,andhehasstrongtiestothecriminalunderworldinParisBlindedbygreed,ThénardierisincapableoflovingotherhumanbeingsandspendseveryminuteinpursuitofmoneyMmeThénardierMThénardier’swifeMmeThénardierisjustasevilasherhusbandandtakesspecialpleasureinabusingCosetteInlateryears,shebecomesherhusband’smostdevotedaccompliceandisparticularlyenthusiasticabouthisschemestorobValjeanandCosettelesmisérablesHcharacterlistEponineTheThénardiers’eldestdaughterEponineisawretchedcreaturewhohelpsherparentssteal,butsheiseventuallyredeemedbyherloveforMariusSheprovesthatnooneisbeyondredemption,andsheultimatelyemergesasoneofthenovel’smosttragicandheroicfiguresMGillenormandMarius’sninetyyearoldmaternalgrandfatherGillenormandpreventsMariusfromseeinghisfather,GeorgesPontmercy,becausehefearsthatPontmercywillcorruptMariusAdevoutmonarchist,GillenormandrejectstheFrenchRevolutionoutrightandalsorejectsPontmercy’sNapoléonicbeliefsAlthoughGillenormand’sclassistviewssometimesoffendMarius,hetrulyloveshisgrandsonandultimatelydoeswhatisnecessarytomakeMariushappyGavrocheTheThénardiers’oldestsonGavrocheiskickedoutofthehouseatanearlyageandbecomesaParisianstreeturchinHeisahappygoluckychildwhoenjoysthesmallpleasuresoflifeanddemonstratesunusualgenerositytowardthoseevenlessfortunatethanheisHeisalsofierceandbrave,andplaysadecisiveroleinthebarricadeeventhoughhedoesnothaveagunColonelGeorgesPontmercyAnofficerinNapoléon’sarmyandMarius’sfatherPontmercyisseverelywoundedattheBattleofWaterloo,andmistakenlybelievingthatThénardierhassavedhislife,heasksthatMariushonorthisdebtAlthoughweknowlittleaboutPontmercy’spersonallife,hispoliticsgreatlyinfluencetheyoungMariusEnjolrasTheleaderoftheFriendsoftheABCEnjolrasisaradicalstudentrevolutionaryHeisbothwildandbeautifulTogetherwithCourfeyracandMarius,EnjolrasleadstheinsurrectionatthebarricadeHvictorhugocharacterlistFauchele

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Sparknotes - Les Miserables

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