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首页 棒球 National Pastime- Soccer & Baseball.pdf

棒球 National Pastime- Soccer & Baseball.pdf

棒球 National Pastime- Soccer &am…

上传者: 外语书籍 2013-12-16 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《棒球 National Pastime- Soccer & Baseballpdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含NationalPastimeThispageintentionallyleftblankNationalPastimeHowAmericansPl符等。

NationalPastimeThispageintentionallyleftblankNationalPastimeHowAmericansPlayBaseballandtheRestoftheWorldPlaysSoccerStefanSzymanskiAndrewZimbalistbrookingsinstitutionpressWashington,DCaboutbrookingsTheBrookingsInstitutionisaprivatenonprofitorganizationdevotedtoresearch,education,andpublicationonimportantissuesofdomesticandforeignpolicyItsprincipalpurposeistobringknowledgetobearoncurrentandemergingpolicyproblemsTheInstitutionmaintainsapositionofneutralityonissuesofpublicpolicyInterpretationsorconclusionsinBrookingspublicationsshouldbeunderstoodtobesolelythoseoftheauthorsCopyrightthebrookingsinstitutionMassachusettsAvenue,NW,Washington,DCwwwbrookingseduAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedortransmittedinanymeanswithoutwrittenpermissionfromtheBrookingsInstitutionPressLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationdataSzymanski,Stefan,–Nationalpastime:howAmericansplaybaseballandtherestoftheworldplayssoccerStefanSzymanskiandAndrewZimbalistpcmSummary:“Examines,fromaneconomicperspective,howthedifferenttraditionsofsoccerandbaseballhaveshapedthepossibilitiesfortheircommercialorganizationandexploitation,andconsidershoweachsportmightlearnfromtheother’sexperiencestodevelopmeaningfulreforms”ProvidedbypublisherIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN:(cloth:alkpaper)ISBN:ProfessionalsportsEconomicaspectsCrossculturalstudiesBaseballEconomicaspectsUnitedStatesSoccerEconomicaspectsIZimbalist,AndrewSIITitleGVS'dcThepaperusedinthispublicationmeetsminimumrequirementsoftheAmericanNationalStandardforInformationSciencesPermanenceofPaperforPrintedLibraryMaterials:ANSIZTypesetinMinionCompositionbyCynthiaStockSilverSpring,MarylandPrintedbyRRDonnelleyHarrisonburg,VirginiaToourchildren,Edward,William,andKittyJeffrey,Michael,Alex,andEllaWho,wehope,willbemoreproficientpractitionersofsoccerandbaseballthantheirfathersThispageintentionallyleftblankPrefaceixIntroductionTheFieldsofPlayTheOriginsofBaseballandSoccerLeaguesHowSoccerSpreadaroundtheWorldWhenBaseballDidn’tPayforPlayTheDevelopmentoftheBaseballandSoccerLaborMarketsFans,Franchises,andFinancialFailureWhyBaseballClubsMakeMoneyandSoccerClubsDon’tWatchingtheMoneyBaseballandSoccerBroadcastingUncertainProspectsCreatingCompetitiveBalanceCrossingCulturesandLearningLessonsWhatAmericansNeedtoKnowaboutWorldSoccerandtheWorldNeedstoKnowaboutAmericanBaseballNotesIndexContentsThispageintentionallyleftblankThisisabookabouttwonationalpastimes,onethatbelongstotheUnitedStatesofAmericaandtheotherthathascometobeknownastheworld’sgameBaseballandsocceraremerelygames,butbecauseoftheinteresttheygenerateandthetraditionstheyhavecreated,theyhavebecomeculturaliconsInalmosteverycountryoftheworld,thewaythatthenationalpastimeisplayedisseenasaguidetonationalcharacterandidentityAseconomists,wesetouttowritethisbooktoemphasizethewaysinwhichthedifferenttraditionsofeachsporthavegenerateddifferentpossibilitiesfortheircommercialorganizationandexploitationButwealsoembarkedonthisenterpriseinthebeliefthatitwouldbeconstructivefortheorganizersanddecisionmakersineachsporttostudyand,sometimes,toborrowfromeachother’sexperiencesThisbookisabouttheorigin,evolution,andtrajectoryofthedifferentsportingculturesthatexistintheUnitedStatesandtherestoftheworldInitweendeavortoillustratehowtheorganizersofbaseballandsoccerhavelearnedfromeachotherinthepastandhowtheycancontinuetolearnfromeachotherinthefutureWewouldalsoliketothinkthatthereisabroaderlessontobedrawnfromourbookWewriteatatimewhen,followingthehorrorsofandthewarinIraq,thedivisionsofopinionbetweentheUnitedStatesandtherestoftheworldseemgreaterthantheyhaveeverbeenPeoplemaydisagreeforreasonsgroundedinobjectiverealities,buttheymayalsodisagreeixPrefacexPrefacemerelybecausetheyseethesamethingsthroughadifferentlensItcansometimesbeinstructivetotryontheotherguy’sspectaclesWelaunchedourprojectwithabasiccuriosityandfaiththattherewouldbefundamentalcommonalitiesanddifferencesintheexperiencesofsoccerandbaseballthatwouldenrichourunderstandingofthefunctioningofsportsleaguesWewerealsomotivatedbythefactthatnoonehadundertakenacrossculturalcomparisonthatsoughttouncoverthebasicdynamicsofbusinessorganizationandevolutionofsportsleaguesWe,atleast,werenotdisappointedwitheithertheprocessortheoutcomeOnethemethatemergedfromourresearchisthatthetraditionsoftenheldtobecentraltotheidentityofaparticularsportwereoriginallycreatedforreasonsthatwereaccidentalBaseballcouldhaveevolvedmorelikesoccer,orsoccercouldhaveevolvedlikebaseballButsometraditions,howevervenerable,createobstaclestothehealthydevelopmentofasport,orsimplyoutlivetheirusefulnessInsuchcases,weargue,changeisdesirableaslavishadherencetotraditionisnotintheinterestsofthemajorityofthosewholovethegametheyfollowJohnMaynardKeynesoncewrotethat“practicalmen,whobelievethemselvestobequiteexemptfromanyintellectualinfluences,areusuallytheslavesofsomedefuncteconomist”Asimilarkindofobservationcanbemadeinsports:thosewhoupholdestablishedtraditionsareoftenmerelyfollowingthearbitraryrulesestablishedbylongdefunctadministratorsBystudyingtherulesofothers,itmightbepossibletodevelopnewandbetterwaystorunthingsButwearenotadvocatingthejettisoningofalltraditiontoadoptwholesaletheapproachofanothersportWeproposenosimplesolutionsrather,inourconcludingchapter,wesuggestthatthereareapproachestoproblemsthatmaybeemulatedBystudyingthedistinctmethodsoforganizingteamsportsleaguesaroundtheworld,wecangetabetterperspectiveonourownInasense,foranAmericantolookatEuropeansoccer,oraEuropeantolookatAmericanbaseball,allowsamoredistantperspectivethanlookingatone’sownsportItisnotunliketheperspectivethatthosein,say,theyearmayhavewhentheylookbackatThereisyetanothermotivationforthiseffortThecurrentperiodisoftenreferredtoastheeraofglobalizationCommerceandcapitalarespreadingaroundtheglobeOneconsequenceoftheglobalizationofcapitalisthatthesameindividuals(andcompanies)whoinvestedinUSbaseballarebeginningtoinvestinEuropeansoccerOnesuchindividualisPrefacexiRupertMurdochMurdochbeganasanAustraliannewspaperheir,buteventuallyboughtuppapersinEnglandandtheUnitedStatesHethenaggressivelyenteredtheworldofsatelliteandterrestrialtelevisionMurdochstartedtheAustralianRugbyLeaguetomeettheprogrammingneedsofhissatellitetelevisioncompanyHebeganthenationalFoxNetworkandtheFoxregionalsportsnetworks(RSNs)intheUnitedStatesHisFoxNetworkcurrentlyholdstheprimarynationaltelevisioncontractwithMajorLeagueBaseball(MLB),andhisRSNsservetwentyfiveofMLB’sthirtyteamsintheirlocalmarketsUntilearlyhealsoownedtheDodgersateamheadmittedthatheboughtinordertogaincontrolovertheRSNmarketinsouthernCaliforniaOfcourse,MurdochalsoisthecontrollinginvestorinBSkyBinEnglandandSkyItaliainItaly,satellitedistributorsthatholdtelevisionsoccerrightsfortheEnglishPremierLeagueandtheItalianSerieAToday,asEuropedebatesthecreationofapancontinentalSuperLeague,itisbeinglobbiedbyMurdoch’sBSkyB,whichwouldlikenothingbetterthantoobtainbroadcastrightstosuchaleagueAnothersuchindividualisMalcolmGlazer,owneroftheNationalFootballLeague’sTampaBayBuccaneersForthepasttwoyearsGlazerhasbeenbuyingsharesofManchesterUnited(thefamoussoccerteaminEngland’sPremierLeague)AswewriteinAugust,GlazerownsnearlypercentoftheteamandhasstatedhisintentiontobuyacontrollinginterestMeanwhile,in,ManchesterUnitedenteredintoajointmarketingventurewiththeNewYorkYankeesWithgrowingcrossfertilization,itisnaturaltoexpectthatleagueswillbeincreasinglyinfluencedbyeachotherRupertMurdochundoubtedlyhashisownideasabouthowamodelleagueshouldbeorganized,andwhilewedonotdoubtthatthiswillreflecthisbestinterests,wearelesssurethatitwillreflectthebestinterestsofthefansRatherthanabandonthedesignofsportsleaguestotheMurdochsandGlazersoftheworld,wethinkthatapublicairingofissuesthatarisefromacrossculturalinterpretationofsportsleaguesmightbepartofawiderdebateonthereformofbaseballandsoccerWhatfollows,then,isourattempttoofferaperspectivethatwebelieveisrootedinthebestinterestsofthefansaperspectivethatislikelytodifferfromthatofowners,manyofwhomareusingsportteamsasvehiclestopromotetheirbusinessempiresWebenefitedfromtheadviceandsupportofmanypeopleManyacademiccolleaguesandpractitionersdiscussedrelatedissuesandcommentedxiiPrefaceonearlierincarnationsofthechaptersthatfollowInparticular,wewouldliketoacknowledgeEleanorAbend,SandyAlderson,PaulAlpers,WladimirAndreff,GuidoAscari,LarryBaer,AllenBarra,CarlosBarros,DavidBegg,RichBerlin,DaveBerri,HalBiagas,JeanFrançoisBourg,JimBouton,BobBowman,AndrewBrunswick,GeneBudig,TundeBuraimo,BillBurdick,BrianCashman,JerryColangelo,BobCostas,JimDuquette,ToddDurbin,DonFehr,SteveFehr,BillFrancis,DavidForrest,BerndFrick,PhilippeGagnepain,JimGallagher,DonGarber,GaryGillette,JeanJacquesGouguet,DorothyGriffiths,SunilGulati,AllenGuttmann,FredHanser,JenHughes,BradHumphreys,BillyHunter,LeoKahane,StefanKésenne,JeffreyKessler,AnthonyKing,BillKirwin,KlemensvonKlemperer,RonKlempner,RuudKoning,ChuckKorr,JonathanKraft,UmbertoLago,StephanieLeach,RandyLevine,JamesLloydGates,Jr,RomillyLockyer,LarryLucchino,DavidMatthew,MarvinMiller,JohnMoores,StephenMorrow,GerdMuehlheusser,PhilNielsen,RogerNoll,GregoryPapanikos,DougPappas,AlexPhillips,DidierPrimault,ArneRees,TobyRegner,TomReich,StephenRoss,AllenSanderson,TomShieber,JohnSiegfried,RobSimmons,PeterSloane,TommasoValletti,WrayVamplew,HansVandeweghe,DanWasserman,PaulWeiler,TomWerner,MarkWilliams,andDavidWolffTheexcellentandfriendlystaffofthelibraryattheBaseballHallofFameinCooperstown,especiallythelibrary’sdirector,TimWiles,wereextremelyhelpfulSusannaNutsford,thelibrarianoftheTanakaBusinessSchoolatImperialCollegeLondon,trackeddownanumberofusefulreferences,asdidMikeBondythestaffoftheBritishLibrary,atColindaleandStPancras,andtheNewYorkPublicLibraryofferedgenerousassistanceTheacquisitionseditoratBrookings,ChrisKelaher,providedmuchappreciatedgoodcheer,encouragement,patience,andsoundjudgmentWewerealsoaidedbyAnhTa,BorislavaMarcheva,andYevheniyaHyrina,whoprovidedableresearchassistanceFinally,ourfamiliessupportedusandputupwithourpreoccupationanddistractionsformonthsonendWithourloveandgratitude,thankyoutoShelleyandHayley,Edward,William,Kitty,Alex,Ella,Michael,andJeffreyNationalPastimeThispageintentionallyleftblankWhenBritishsoldiersinAfghanistanandsouthernIraqwantedtobefriendthelocals,theyplayedasoccermatchOnChristmasDay,,BritishandGermansoldiersintheFirstWorldWartrenchesdidthesamethingFornearlyyearssoccerhasunitedadividedworldapartfromtheworld’shyperpower,theUnitedStatesYoucanbuyaMcDonald’sBigMacontheChampsElyséesandanythingfromanywhereintheworldonFifthAvenue,butAmericansportingcultureandtheworldsoccerculturedonotmixInhisbookTakeTimeforParadise,formercommissionerofMajorLeagueBaseballandpresidentofYaleUniversityBartGiamattiwrote:“Ithaslongbeenmyconvictionthatwecanlearnfarmoreabouttheconditions,andvalues,ofasocietybycontemplatinghowitchoosestoplay,touseitsfreetime,totakeitsleisure,thanbyexamininghowitgoesaboutitswork”SportreflectscultureIfthecultureofbaseballisAmerican,thecultureofsoccerhasbeenlargelyfashionedinEuropeSoccerwasformalizedinEnglandinthemidnineteenthcenturyandrapidlyspreadtoEuropeandSouthAmericaThedominantinfluences,however,havebeenEuropeanThegulfbetweenchapteroneIntroductionTheFieldsofPlayTherestoftheworldlovessoccerSurelywemustbemissingsomethingUh,isn’tthatwhattheRussianstoldusaboutcommunismThere’sagoodreasonwhyyoudon’tcareaboutsoccerit’sbecauseyouareanAmericanandhatingsoccerismoreAmericanthanmom’sapplepie,drivingapickupandspendingSaturdayafternoonchannelsurfingwiththeremotecontrolTomWeir,quotedatwwwsoccersucksorgAnotherreasontohatesoccer:The“accused”terrorist(whohasalreadyadmittedtobeingsentintoBelgiumtodriveabombintoaUSAirForcebase,andto“committinghimselftobecominga‘martyr’forOsamabinLaden”)isnamedNizarTrabelsiAndhe’saformerEuropeanprosoccerplayerYoudon’tseeanyformerNFLplayersorMajorLeagueBaseballplayersjoiningalQaeda,doyouhttp:warliberalcommtblogarchiveshtmlNationalPastimeEuropeanandAmericanvaluesisnowheremoreevidentthaninthegulfbetweentheculturesofsoccerandbaseballSocceristheworld’sdominantsport,butonlybaseballhasaWorldSeriesTheSoccerWorldCupdrawsanaudiencelargerthantheOlympics,butbarelyregisterswithAmericanviewersTheantipathythatmanyAmericansfeelforthewaysoccerisplayedismatchedonlybythedistasteofmanyEuropeansfortheAmericanstyleofplayManyAmericansscornthefactthatfeebleteamscanoftenwininsoccerbyconcentratingonlyondefense(theyseethisasunfair),theysnickerthatonethirdofgamesendinatie(becauseeverygameshouldhaveawinner!),andtheyareappalledthatstarplayerslikeDavidBeckhamaretradedlikehorsemeatfromoneteamtoanother,oftenleavingtheirhomecountry(suchplayersaredisloyal)Fortheirpart,EuropeanscannotbelievethatanationalsportwouldchangeitsrulestosuitTV,permitlousyteamstocontinueintheleague(evenrewardingthemwithearlierdraftpicks),ordictatethroughthedraftsystemwhichteamaplayercanjoinAmericansandEuropeanshaveabsorbedthestructureandrulesoftheirsportsintotheirpsyches,turningthearbitraryrulesofnineteenthcenturyadministratorsintoawayoflifeFranklinFoer,inhisacclaimedbookHowSoccerExplainstheWorld,attributesAmericanhostilitytosoccer(atleastinsomequarters)toglobalizationGlobalizationisfearedbymanybecauseitseemstoforceustoacceptotherpeople’sculturesandvaluesInFrance,thisphenomenonisrepresentedbyMcDonald’sintheUnitedStatesbysoccerAsFoerwrites,seenfromanAmericanperspective,“Soccerisn’texactlypernicious,butit’sasymboloftheUSjunkingitstraditionto‘getwiththerestoftheworld’sprogram’”Thus,evenifmanyAmericanshavecometoenjoysoccerasagame,atleastwhenplayedbytheirchildren,whenitisorganizedasaprofessionalleagueitfollowstheAmericansportsmodelratherthantheestablishedmodelofEuropeansoccerleaguesButournationalpastimesdidnotmaterializeoutofnothingRather,theywereshapedbytheconsciousdecisionsoforganizers,albeitdecisionsmadeaverylongtimeagoNodoubtsome,ifnotmost,ofthesedecisionsweremadewiththeintentofpromotinganddevelopingthesportoverthelongtermButoftenthesedecisionsweremadeinresponsetoshorttermproblemsthatmaynolongerberelevantSomedecisionswerenotmadewiththeinterestsofthegameitselfatheartatall,butpurelyfortemporarypersonalgainThisbookexploreshowtwonationalpastimes,baseballandIntroductionsoccer,whichdevelopedoutoftherulemakingofeachsport’sadministrators,cametobewovenintothefabricofdifferentnationalculturesTosome,twoeconomicsprofessorswritingaboutculturemightseemalittleincongruousAfterall,economistsaresupposedtoworshipatthealtarofthemightydollar(oreuro,orwhatever),certainofthepriceofeverythingandthevalueofnothing,asthesayinggoesWhileitistruethatweconsidereconomicincentives(andtheseincludemotivesassociatedwiththeacquisitionofpoliticalpower)tobethedrivingforcebehindthedecisionmakinginprofessionalteamsports,wealsobelievethatthepurposeofanyeconomicorpoliticalinstitutionistoservethepublicInsports,thismeansthefans,thepeoplewhowatchthegameOnedistinctivefeatureofprofessionalsportsisthattheinterestofthepublicaccumulatesovertimeIndeed,oneofthemostimportantelementsintheattractionofasportistherelationshipbetweenthestarsoftodayandthehistoryofthegameThismeansthat,inasense,thecurrentgenerationofadministratorsandownersisnomorethanthetrusteeofanassetthatmustonedaybepassedontothenextgenerationMoreover,thepoliciesofthoseinpositionsofpowershouldbedeterminedbythelongterminterestsofthefansratherthanshorttermgainsItalsomeansthattheremustbeawillingnesstoadaptvenerableinstitutionstothetimesinwhichwelive,ratherthanclingingtotraditionforitsownsakeInthisbookwehighlightwaysinwhichthedistinctiveinstitutionsofbaseballandsoccerdevelopedtodealwithspecificproblems,andhowtheseinstitutionsthencametobepartofthefabricofthenationalpastimeWealsoexaminetheextenttowhichtheinstitutionsoftodayarefittedtotheneedsofthepresentgenerationoffans,andoffansofthefutureSportsleaguesintheUnitedStatesareorganizedinafundamentallydifferentwaythanthoseintherestoftheworldThoseintheUnitedStatesarebasedonthemodelcreatedbytheNationalLeaguebackinThoseintherestoftheworldarebasedonthemodelcreatedbytheEnglishFootballAssociation(FA)andFootballLeague(FL)inthesandsUSsportsleaguesareclosedTeamownerscarefullycontrolthenumberoffranchisesandtheirlocationsGenerally,eachteamisgrantedamonopolyoveragiventerritoryTeamsextractsubstantialpublicsubsidiesfortheirfacilitiesWhenleaguesexpand,existingownerschargeahandsomeentryfeetothenewownersLimits

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