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Stephen Haw - Marco Polo in China, A Venetian in the Realm of Khubilai Khan (2006).pdf

Stephen Haw - Marco Polo in Chi…

上传者: piku 2013-11-08 评分 4.5 0 82 11 373 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Stephen Haw - Marco Polo in China, A Venetian in the Realm of Khubilai Khan (2006)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含SureshkumarkFileAttachmentfbcovervbjpgMarcoPolo’sChinaMarcoPolo’sfamousboo符等。

SureshkumarkFileAttachmentfbcovervbjpgMarcoPolo’sChinaMarcoPolo’sfamousbookabouthisjourneytoChina,writtenin,continuestobeasubjectofconsiderablecontroversyOnerecentworkonthesubjectarguesthatMarcoPoloneverwenttoChinaatall,andotherscholarshavepointedoutapparentmistakesandimportantomissionsinMarco’swritings,includinghisfailuretomentiontheGreatWall,andhisapparentlyerroneousdescriptionofthecourseoftheYellowRiverThisbookreexaminesMarcoPolo’swritingsThemainargumentsagainsthiscredibilityhavebeennegative,concentratingonthingsthatitisarguedheshouldhaveseenandnotedbutdidnotThemostseriousofthesesupposedomissionsaregenerallysaidtobehisfailuretodescribetheChinesewritingsystem,tea,footbindingandtheGreatWallofChinaButtheauthorarguesthatwhathedoesmentionisimpressiveandarguesstronglyforhisveracityForinstance,MarcodescribesthenewcapitalcityofDadubuiltforKhubilaiKhanonthesiteofmodernBeijingHealsonotesthatthisnewcitywaslinkedtotheYangtzeRiverbycanalsThebuildingofDaduonlybeganduringthesandthecanalsystemlinkingittotheRiverwasnotcompleteduntilafter,afewyearsbeforeMarcodictatedhisaccounttoRustichelloofPisaIfthegreatexplorerwasrelyingonsourcesotherthanpersonalexperience,thentheywereclearlyveryuptodateThisbookclarifiesMarcoPolo’sitinerariesinChinaandproposesseveralnewidentificationsofplacesmentioned,inadditiontoelucidatingmanyofhisobservations,especiallythoseofplantsandanimalsTheresearchhasreliedextensivelyonoriginalChinesesourcesandissupplementedbytheauthor’swideknowledgeofChinaMarcoPolo’sChinapresentsaconvincingargumentandconcludesthathisworkisanaccurate,importantandusefulsourcefromanextraordinaryperiodofChinesehistoryStephenGHawreadChineseattheUniversityofOxfordandhasanMAdegreefromtheUniversityofLondonHefirstvisitedChinainandlivedinthecountryfortwoyearsasastudentandteacherattheUniversityofShandongHehassincetravelledextensivelyaroundthecountryHeistheauthorofnumerousarticlesandseveralbooksRoutledgeStudiesintheEarlyHistoryofAsiaImperialTombsinTangChina,–ThepoliticsofparadiseToniaEckfeldEliteTheatreinMingChina,–GrantGuangrenShenMarcoPolo’sChinaAVenetianintherealmofKhubilaiKhanStephenGHawMarcoPolo’sChinaAVenetianintherealmofKhubilaiKhanStephenGHawFirstpublishedbyRoutledgeParkSquare,MiltonPark,Abingdon,Oxon,OXRNSimultaneouslypublishedintheUSAandCanadabyRoutledgeMadisonAve,NewYork,NYRoutledgeisanimprintoftheTaylorFrancisGroupStephenGHawAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilisedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataHaw,StephenGMarcoPolo’sChina:aVenetianintherealmofKhubilaiKhanStephenGHawpcm(RoutledgestudiesintheearlyhistoryofAsia)IncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexChinaHistoryYuandynasty,–SourcesPolo,Marco,–TravelsofMarcoPoloITitle:VenetianintherealmofKhubilaiKhanIITitleIIISeriesDSH′′dcISBN:–––ISBN:–––––ThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,“TopurchaseyourowncopyofthisoranyofTaylorFrancisorRoutledge’scollectionofthousandsofeBookspleasegotowwweBookstoretandfcouk”(PrintEdition)ContentsListoffiguresviAcknowledgementsviiIntroduction:LiesortruthChinabeforetheMongolconquestTheMongolsandtheirconquestsThejourneyandthewritingofthebookNoGreatWallCities,canalsandriversMarco’sjourneysinChina,part–therouteintoChinaMarco’sjourneysinChina,part–KhanbalikhtoCaragianandMienMarco’sjourneysinChina,part–GiogiutoÇaitonRhubarb,musk,cranesandothercreaturesWine,womenandpoisonMilitaryaffairsAuniquelifeandlegacyNotesListofChinesewordsandcharactersBibliographyIndexIllustrationsChinaintheearlys,showingapproximateboundariesbetweenthestatesoftheperiodThethreepagodasoftheChongshengTempleatDaliAgeneralcarvedinstonestandsrespectfullytoonesideoftheapproachtothetomboftheSongemperorZhenZongArchitectureoftheJindynastyAMongolencampmentAstatueofBuddhadatingfromtheperiodofthelateSouthernSongdynastyAsectionofruinousGreatWallbuiltofcompactedearthAcormorant,asdepictedintheofficialSongpharmacopoeiaTheWhiteDagobaoftheMiaoyingBuddhistTemplePlanofYuanDaduandJinZhongduTheGrandCanalatWuxiApeasantboatTheSundayBazaarinKashgarPartoftheruinsofGaochang(KharaKhojo)TheYangtzeRiverorJinshaJianginYunnanAviewofpartoftheDianChilakenearKunminginYunnanTheproductionofsaltinsaltpansTheIronPagodainJininginShandongprovincePartofLiuTianhe’smapoftheYellowRiverofAnoldstonebridgewithahigharchatSuzhouOneofthepairofpagodasattheKaiyuanTempleatQuanzhouRhubarbrootcutintochunksanddryingApikaormousehare(Ochotonasp)YaksinTibetDragonlike‘serpents’withtwolegsGaoliangJiang(Galangal)fromtwodifferentplacesPickingmulberryleavesforfeedingsilkwormsGrapes,asdepictedintheofficialSongpharmacopoeiaAcknowledgementsTheassistanceofmywife,WeiHuixia(Lita),hasbeeninvaluableAlthoughherknowledgeofClassicalChineseisoccasionallyworsethanmine,sheisabletoreadChinesetextsmuchfasterthanIcanShefoundanumberofusefulreferencesformeOtherwise,althoughIamofcourseindebtedtotheauthorswhoseworksareincludedinthebibliography,alltheoriginalresearchforthisbookwasundertakenpersonally,withoutconsultationwithanyoneelseImusttakefullresponsibilityforthecontents,whetheraccurateornotIntroduction:LiesortruthIntroduction:LiesortruthMarcoPoloandhisbookhaveforalongtimeexcitedcontroversyWritingonlyafewyearsafterMarco’sdeath,Jacopod’Acquirelatedhow,whenhewasonhisdeathbed,Marcowasaskedtoretracteverythinginhisbookthatwasnotfactual,butretortedthat‘hehadnottoldonehalfofwhathehadreallyseen’(Larner:MPYuleCordier:i,)Althoughthismustsurelyhavebeenabsolutelytrue,doubtsabouthisveracitypersistedAtsomeperiods,heseemstohavebeengenerallybelieved,whileatothershewasseriouslyquestionedHisfailuretomentiontheGreatWallofChinabegantoattractadversecommentfromaboutthemiddleoftheseventeenthcenturyandhascontinuedtoraisedoubtseversinceIthasbeensuggestedthatMarconeverwenttoChinaatallorthat,ifhedid,heneverwentbeyondKhanbalikh(modernBeijing)SeveralheavilyannotatededitionsofMarcoPolo’sbook(oftencalledTheTravels,thoughoriginallyentitledTheDescriptionoftheWorld)havebeenproducedatvariousperiodsandthereisanextensiveliteratureabouthimYetmuchremainsobscureManyoftheplacesthathementionshaveremainedunidentifiedorveryuncertainlyidentifiedAlongsidehissupposedomissions,itisthesedifficultieswithhisplacenamesthatseemtohavegivenrisetothegreatestsuspicionsabouthisaccountItwasbecausesomanyunresolvedquestionsaboutMarcoandhisbookstillexistedthatIfirstbeganmyresearchesinthisareaofstudyManyofthecriticismsofMarcoPolohavebeenhighlyillinformedandcommonlytotallyanachronisticDuringtheseventeenthcentury,complaintswerevoicedagainsthimbecauseheignoredlatitudeandlongitude!Ataboutthesametime,hewasalsocondemnedforstatingthatpapermoneyexistedinChinaundertheMongols,althoughthiswas,ofcourse,quitecorrectInthemiddleoftheeighteenthcentury,itwasfirstsuggestedthathemightneverhavevisitedChinaatallThiswasdespitethefactthat,atthatperiod,EuropeanknowledgeofChinawasscarcelymorethanminimal,sothatthissuggestionwasfundamentallybasedonignoranceMarcoalsobegantobeattackedbecausehisbookwas‘papist’,althoughagainthisshouldhardlyhavebeensurprisingashelivedlongbeforeMartinLuther(Larner:–)ThiskindofseverelyanachronisticapproachtoMarcoandhisbookwastypicalnotonlyofhiscritics,butalsoofhisadmirersMarsdenIntroduction:LiesortruthandYule,whoproducedwhatwere,fortheirtime,excellentannotatededitionsofMarco’sbook,reliedveryheavilyoncontemporaryknowledgeofthegeographyofChina,althoughtherehadbeenmanychangessincethethirteenthcenturyNeitherofthem,ofcourse,wasabletoreadoriginalChinesesourcesItis,indeed,verydifficultforanyonescholartoattemptacriticalstudyofMarcoPoloandhisbookTocoverthesubjectcomprehensivelywouldrequiretheknowledgeofseveralAsianlanguages,besidescompetenceinLatinaswellasmedievalRomancelanguagesThesubstantialpartofMarco’sbookdealingwiththedominionsoftheGreatKhanKhubilaiintheFarEastis,however,amongthemostimportantsectionsofthebookItisfundamentaltoitsunderstanding,forifMarcoisagenuineandreliablewitnessofChinaunderMongolrule,thenhisgeneralveracitymustbeacceptedAsastudentofChinesewhohastravelledextensivelyinChinahimself,IhavefeltreasonablycompetenttodealwiththislimitedpartofthetopicResearchesinChinesesourcesquitequicklyshowedthatitwaspossibletodomuchbetterinconfirmingMarco’saccuracythanpreviouslyIhavesucceededinidentifyingwithcertaintyornearcertaintyallbutaveryfewoftheplaceswithintheYuanempirethatMarcomentionsIhavealsobeenabletoconfirmanumberofstatementsinhisbookthathave,untilnow,beenconsidereddubiousorwrongAsoneofmyparticularareasofinterestisthenaturalhistoryofChina,especiallyitsflora,IofferconsiderableelucidationofMarco’smanyobservationsregardingplantsandanimalsThesearesignificant,asotherforeignvisitorstoChinaataboutthesameperiodpaidlittleattentiontosuchthingsAlmostcertainly,therefore,MarcomusthaveacquiredinformationofthiskindpersonallyMarcolivedanextraordinarylife,forheleftVenicewhenhewasonlysomeyearsoldanddidnotreturnuntilyearslater,attheageofaboutorBythen,hehadlivedmostofhislifeasaforeignerinEastAsiaHemusthavefeltasmuchaforeignerinVeniceaftersolongNodoubthewashappytorecounttalesofhisadventures,toanyonewhowouldlisten,andtoseethemsetdowninwritingForhim,perhaps,thebookwasalinktohisformerlifeatthecourtoftheGreatKhan,awaytoholdontomemoriesofsomethingthathehadlostforeverForustoday,itisafascinatingglimpseintoaremarkableperiodofhistoryThisbookisacompletereassessmentofMarco’saccountofChinaItarguesthatbyfarthegreaterpartofwhathesaysissimplytooaccuratetobebaseduponanythingotherthanfirsthandknowledgeItalsoarguesthatMarco’saccountisexactlyrightfortheperiodwhenheclaimedtobeintheempireofKhubilaiKhanItwouldhavebeenveryhardforanyonenottalkingfrompersonalexperiencetohaveavoidedseriousanachronismsThisisespeciallytrueofsuchprojectsastheGrandCanal,muchofwhichwasconstructedonlywhileMarcowasactuallyinChinaIfhehadbeenrelyingonothersforhisinformation,thentheknowledgethattheypassedontohimmusthavebeenveryrecentlyacquiredIndeed,duringtheprocessofresearchingthisbook,Introduction:LiesortruthIhavebeenconstantlystruckbythefactthataverylargepartofMarco’saccountoftheYuanempirefitsmoreorlessexactlywithaccountsinChinesesourcesIfMarcowasaliar,thenhemusthavebeenanimplausiblymeticulousoneIthasalsoseemedworthwhiletoaddyetanotherbooktothelargevolumeofliteratureaboutMarcoPolo,becauseonlyquiteasmallcontributionhassofarbeenmadebyscholarsofChinesestudiesAgreatdealhasbeenwrittenaboutMarcoby,amongothers,historiansofmedievalEurope,specialistsinstudiesofWesternandCentralAsiaandevenauthoritiesonRomancelinguisticsOneofMarco’sgreatestcommentators,whoseeditionofthebookandcopiousnotesarestillusefultoday,wasSirHenryYuleYulewasamilitaryofficerwithalonganddistinguishedcareerinIndiawhohad,however,nopersonalexperienceofChinaEventheworkoftheChinesescholar,HenriCordier,onthethirdeditionofYule’stext,andhissupplementaryvolumeofnotes(MPYuleCordier),couldnotentirelyremedythisdeficiencyIndeed,asrecentlyas,itcouldstillbesaidthatthefirstannotatededitionofMarco’stexttobeproducedbyaChinesespecialist,thatofMGPauthierpublishedin(MPPauthier),was‘valuableforuseofChinesesources’(Larner:)ThisisalsodespitethefactthatextensiveNotesonMarcoPolobythegreatOrientalist,PaulPelliot,werepublishedduringthesands(Pelliot–)ThesemightwellhavebeenmoreusefuliftheyhadbeencompletedbyPelliothimselfUnfortunately,theywerenot,butwereeditedforpublicationafterhisdeathbyLouisHambisPartsofthemseemtohavebeenlostandtheyareoftenapparentlyunfinishedTheyneverthelessseemtohavelongbeenregardedasvirtually‘thelastword’onMarco’sbookandareperhapsamajorreasonwhyscholarsofChinesestudieshavelargelyneglectedMarcoduringthepastfewdecadesThisisnottosaythatnousefulcontributionshavebeenpublishedVeryimportantstudieshavebeenproducedbyThomasAllsenandIgordeRachewiltz,forexample(AllsenDeRachewiltz,)Therehave,however,beenfewattemptsduringthelastfortyyearsatanythingapproachingacomprehensivereassessmentofMarcoPolo’saccountoftheYuanempireAmajorexceptionisFrancesWood’sDidMarcoPologotoChina(Wood)DrWoodsetouttoprovethatMarcohadneverbeenanywherenearChina,apointofviewwithwhich,forreasonsthatwillbecomeclearlaterinthisbook,IverystronglydisagreeInfact,althoughIhaveofcourselookedthroughPelliot’sNotesandothersimilarworks,IhavetoagreatextentworkeddirectlywithChinesesourcesIthasoftenbeenremarkedthatMarco’sbookisveryimpersonalLittleofMarcohimselfappearsanywhereinitHeisnotevenveryforthcomingabouthisstatusintheYuanempireSomeversionsofthetextincludetheclaimthat,forthreeyears,hewasgovernorinYangzhou,possiblyaprovincialgovernorand(inRamusio’sversionofthebook)holdingthepostassubstituteforsomeoneelseThisclaimiscompletelyomittedfromseveralimportantmanuscripts,however,whileothersmerelysaythathewasresidentIntroduction:LiesortruthinYangzhouforthreeyearsAllthatisreportedabouttherestofthelongperiodduringwhichMarcowasinChinaisthatheactedassomekindofemissaryofKhubilaiKhan,beingsentonvariousunspecifiedmissionsthatinvolvedtravellingasfarafieldasIndia,andthattheKhanesteemedhimhighlyTherehasbeenmuchspeculationaboutwhathisexactpositionintheempiremighthavebeenOnthestrengthofhisfrequentmentionsofsalt,ithasbeensuggestedthatheperhapsheldapostinthegovernmentsaltadministration(thesalttradewasagovernmentmonopolyinChina)Ithasalsobeensupposedthat,ashecamefromamercantilefamily,hemighthaveactedasmerchantpartnerofsomeMongolnoble,inthesystemknownasortakhThereis,however,scantevidenceforeitherofthesepostulationsIhaveventuredinthisbooktoputforwardanotherhypothesis,oneforwhich,itseemstome,thereisslightlymorebasisMysuggestionisthatMarco’sroleunderKhubilaiKhanwasprimarilymilitaryThereissomeevidencetosuggestthathemayhavebeena‘Mongolknight’,whichIinterprettomeanthathewasakeshigten,amemberofKhubilaiKhan’spersonalbodyguardIalsosuggestthatMarcomaywellhavebeenmarriedwhileinChinaNothingwouldhavebeenmorenaturalthanfortheGreatKhantopressthisyoung,unattachedmantomarryHemaywellhavepresentedMarcowithabride,whomitwouldhavebeenverydifficultindeedtorefuseAfterhisreturntoEurope,MarcowouldverylikelyhavefeltthatitwasbesttomaintainsilenceregardingboththesethingsCertainlyhismarriagewouldhavebeenaproblem,ataperiodwhendivorcewas,atbest,extremelyhardtoobtainIhavelimitedmydiscussionofMarco’sbookprincipallytothepartsofitthatdealwiththeempireoftheGreatKhan,thatis,theYuanempire,asitiscalledinChinesesourcesItwasKhubilaiKhanwhotooktheChinesetitleofYuanfortheMongoldynastyinTheempireincludedregionsthatarenolongerpartofChina,especiallyinSoutheastAsiaIhavealsodealtwithplacesthatarecurrentlywithinthebordersofthePeople’sRepublicofChinabutwerenotdirectlyunderYuancontrol,suchastownsinwhatisnowsouthwestXinjiangThus,IhavebeguntodealindetailwithMarco’sitinerariesatthepointwherehedescendsfromthePamirtoKashgarandhaveendedwhenheleavesMangi(MPLatham:–MPHambis:–)Outsideofthis,IhavecoveredonlyafewtopicsinanydepthAnexampleisMarco’saccountofJapan(MPLatham:–MPHambis:–)However,althoughIhavedealtindetailwithalltheplacesonMarco’sitinerarieswithintheYuanempire,IhavenotattemptedtoidentifyeveryplacenamethathegivesWhenhementionsaplacemoreorlessinisolation,withoutanygoodindicationofitsapproximatelocation,Ihavenotfeltittobeveryprofitabletoattempttoimproveonpreviouscommentators’workForexample,MarcostatesthatamongtherebelswhosupportedNayanweremenoffourprovinces:Ciorcia,Cauli,BarscolandSichintingiu(MPLatham:MPHambis:)Thefirsttwohavebeencommonly,andveryprobablycorrectly,identifiedwithJurchenandKoreaIntroduction:Liesortruth(Gaoli,Koryo)BarscollookslikeBarskul,nowBarkol(Allsen:),althoughthisplaceisineasternXinjiang,veryfarfromNayan’sterritoryNevertheless,itisnotimpossiblethathemayhavebeenjoinedbyforcesfromthisregionWithoutanyindicationofwhereBarscolmayhavebeen,noidentificationcaneverbemuchmorethanareasonableguessSichintingiuisevenmoreproblematicMyownsurmisewouldbethatitisacorruptedversionofXijingDatongfuSuchvirtualguessworkdoesnotseemtometoserveanyveryusefulpurpose,howeverAmajorproblemforanyonewri

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