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UL.pdf

UL

xiebin0926
2013-10-22 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《ULpdf》,可适用于工程科技领域

EnclosuresTopics:Enclosures•Typesofenclosures(electrical,mechanical,fire)•Openings•Performance•ULRequirementsforpolymericfireenclosures(includingmajorrevisedrequirementseffective)FireEnclosureIntendedtominimizethespreadoffireorflamesfromwithinapieceofequipmentTypesofEnclosuresBasedonProtectiveFunctionPlasticPartPowerSupplyOutwardlouversRollersTABLEHotPartEnclosureElectricalEnclosureIntendedtopreventcontactwithpartsathazardousvoltageorhazardousenergylevelsMechanicalEnclosureIntendedtoreducetheriskofinjuryduetomechanicalandotherphysicalhazardsCBBDAthroughsolidinsulationBoversurfaceofsolidinsulation(creepagedistance)Cthroughair(clearance)andconducting(metal)enclosureDthroughair(clearance)andsupplementaryinsulating(polymeric)enclosurelivepartsolidinsulationairinsulationInsulating(polymeric)enclosureconducting(metal)enclosureElectricShockCurrentPaths:ElectricalEnclosureVA(ExampleofSimpleInsulationSystem)PersonsConductiveObjects•Preventdisplacementofrequiredairinsulationbypersonsorexternalconductiveobjects•Attenuatehazardouscurrent(supplementarypolymericinsulation)FunctionofanElectricalEnclosure:OpeningsinElectricalEnclosuresHAZARDS:ElectricShockandElectricalEnergyREQUIREMENTS:Dimensions,locations,andconfigurationofopeningstoreducelikelihoodofpersonsorconductiveobjectsenteringenclosureanddisplacingrequiredairinsulation(clearances)Testsonopeningsusingappropriate“probes”MajorDesignConsiderationsbarelivepartatHAZARDOUSVOLTAGEbareELVpart,basicInsulationonlypart(IECClass),etcElectricalenclosureorexternalsurfaceafterremovingoperatorremovablepartsApplicableaccessibilityprobesforpersoncontact(notalltypesshown)(varywithstandards)OpeningsinElectricalEnclosures(electricshockhazards)ULarticulatedprobe(traditionalULstandards)(UL)OpeningIECTestPin(rigid)*ULexception,useULarticulatedprobefor()handheldproduct,()handheldpartofaproduct,()productusedbychildren,()productaccessibletochildrenwhileoperating,or()wherethereareotherspecialconcernsforaccessiblilityoflivepartsormechanicalhazardsIECTestFinger(IECStandardsandIECbasedULstandards)*Livepartsofvisiblyglowingheatingelements(UL)TelecomtestfingerOpeningsinElectricalEnclosures(UL)(ElectricShockandEnergyHazards)ToporSideMaxmmanydimensionLimitationsonDimensionsORPreventionofVerticalEntryORDeflectionofVerticallyFallingObjectsSlantedOpeningsTopVerticalOpeningsTopToporSideMaxmmwide,anylengthInsideoutsideInwardProjectionsSideLouvresInsideoutsideOutwardProjectionsSideLouvres(otherthantransportableequipment)OUTSIDEINSIDEBOTTOMTopOpeningVEEVV=VolumeinwhichbarepartsatHAZARDOUSVOLTAGE,orwhichareenergyhazards,arenotlocatedTopandSideOpeningsinElectricalEnclosuresUlandothers(otherthantransportableequipment)(electricshockandenergyhazards)SideOpeningOUTSIDEINSIDEBOTTOMTOPDDVLACBBEooBBDDEECEVAV=VolumeinwhichbarepartsatHAZARDOUSVOLTAGE,orwhichareenergyhazards,arenotlocatedTopandSideOpeningsinElectricalEnclosuresUlandothers(otherthantransportableequipment)SIDEEProjectionofopeningnotgreaterthanLEELooCCAenclosureopeningBverticalprojectionoftheouteredgesofopeningCinclinedlinesprojectatfromopeningedgesDlineprojecteddownwardinsameplanassidewallLMaxdimensionofenclosureopening(electricshockandenergyhazards)barelivepartairinsulation(clearance)displacedairinsulationappliedforceorimpactconductivebarrier(guard,enclosure,etc)VcCopyrightUnderwritersLaboratoriesIncPerformancestrengthofmetalelectricalenclosures(preservationofairinsulation(creepagesclearances)followingappliedmechanicalstress)applicableaccessibilityprobebarelivepartairinsulationappliedthermalmechanicalstress*physicalbarrierofpolymeric(plastic)materialVcCopyrightUnderwritersLaboratoriesInc(enclosureintegrityfollowingapplicationofthermalmechanicalstress)*eg,ovenconditioningtestballimpacttestdroptestPerformancestrengthofpolymericelectricalenclosurescCopyrightUnderwritersLaboratoriesInc(attenuationofhazardouscurrent)Performanceelectricalpropertiesofpolymericelectricalenclosuresbarelivepart(hazardousvoltageandcurrenttoground)PolymericenclosureVEndProductTests:•Dielectricstrength•Leakage(touch)current•InsulationresistancePolymericenclosureMetalenclosureMechanicalEnclosuresVcCopyrightUnderwritersLaboratoriesInc•Isolatepersonsfromhazardousmovingparts(energyisolators)•Preventinjuryfromhazardousprojectilesorstationarysharpparts(energydeflectors)•Limitheattransferfromhazardousthermalenergysourcestopersons(energyattentuators,deflectors)FunctionofaMechanicalEnclosure:Hazardousmechanicalorthermalenergysource,notrequiredtobeexposedforproductfunctionOpeningsinMechanicalEnclosuresHAZARDS:Injuryfrommovingparts,sharpparts,projectiles,thermalenergysourcesetcREQUIREMENTS:Dimensions,locations,andconfigurationofopeningsinrelationtointernalhazardousmechanicalandthermalenergysourcesMajorDesignConsiderationsHazardousmechanicalorthermalenergysource,notrequiredtobeexposedforproductfunctionMechanicalenclosureorexternalsurfaceafterremovingoperatorremovablepartsApplicableaccessibilityprobes(notalltypesshown)OpeningsinMechanicalEnclosures(MechanicalandThermalHazards)OpeningULarticulatedprobe(someULStandards)IECTestFinger(someIECStandardsandIECbasedULstandards)(jointed)(jointed)Livepartsofvisiblyglowingheatingelements(UL)Probesforfanimpellers(UL)applicableaccessibilityprobeappliedthermalmechanicalstress*physicalbarrierofpolymeric(plastic)materialVcCopyrightUnderwritersLaboratoriesInc(enclosureintegrityfollowingapplicationofthermalmechanicalstress)*eg,ovenconditioningtestballimpacttestdroptest,andothertestsperendproductstandardPerformancestrengthofpolymericmechanicalenclosuresHazardousmechanicalorthermalenergysource,notrequiredtobeexposedforproductfunctionIPCODESYSTEMIPXXAS(IEC)•IP=Codeletters–IngressProtection•X=Firstcharacteristicnumeral–Numeralsto,orletterXtodesignatedegreeofprotectionagainstingressofsolidforeignobjects•X=Secondcharacteristicnumeral–NumeralstoorletterXtodesignatedegreeofprotectionagainstingressofwaterwithharmfuleffectsIngressProtection(IPCodes)OPENINGSINENCLOSURESlivepartsInternalpolymericinsulationairphysical(polymeric)barrierphysical(metal)barrierFireEnclosuresVcCopyrightUnderwritersLaboratoriesInc•Preventorslowflamesfromescaping•PreventorslowreplenishmentofoxygenFunctionofaFireEnclosure:OpeningsinFireEnclosuresHAZARDS:Emissionofflames,flamingmaterial,andmoltenmetalREQUIREMENTS:Dimensions,locations,andconfigurationofopeningsandbarriersinrelationtothelocationofinternal,potentiallyflaming,glowing,etcpartsMajorDesignConsiderationsTopandSideOpeningsinFireEnclosures(UL)ToporSideMaxmmanydimensionLimitationsonDimensionsORPreventionofVerticalEntryORDeflectionofVerticallyFallingObjectsSlantedOpeningsTopVerticalOpeningsTopToporSideMaxmmwide,anylengthInsideoutsideInwardProjectionsSideLouvresInsideoutsideOutwardProjectionsSideLouvres(otherthantransportableequipmentandsideopeningswithinareaDofnextslide)EnclosureVideoCBDUL(alsoUL)(typicalofULStandards)ARegiontobeshieldedbyignitionresistancebarrier(called“fireenclosure”in)BProjectionofoutlineofcomponentonhorizontalplaneCInclinelinethattracesoutminimumareaofignitionresistantbarriermovesdegreesfromverticalandorientedonhorizontalplantomaximizeareaDLocation(horizontal)andminimumareaforignitionresistantbarrier(called“fireenclosure”in)VariouselectricalcomponentsasspecifiedinendproductstandardABottomOpeningsRequiringFireEnclosuresBottomopeningsandbafflePlates(UL)NotlessthanXXBottomofFIREENCLOSUREBaffleplates(maybeaboveorbelowbottomofFIREENCLOSURE)MetalBottomofFIREENCLOSUREMaxdimensionsandareasofopeningsandminimumspacingbetweenopeningsfunctionofmetalthickness(TableB,UL)DimensionsandSpacingsofopeningsofmetalbottomsoffireenclosuresOpeningsinFireEnclosures(UL)ScreeningofBottomOpeningsBottomOpeningsinFireEnclosuresVMaterialmmxmmwirediameternotlessthanmmmm<PerformanceofPolymericFireEnclosuresULCTHEULCBRIDGETHEULCBRIDGEMaterialSystemPropertiesEndProduct•Design•EvaluationULULAULBULDFlammabilityShortTermPropertiesGuidelinesforEndProductRequirements(StandardforPolymericMaterials(StandardforPolymericMaterialsUseinUseinElectricalEquipmentEvaluations)ElectricalEquipmentEvaluations)LongTermPropertiesFabricatedPartsPropertiesofFireEnclosures•Flammability(shortandLongTerm)•ResistancetoIgnition(shortterm)•ResistancetoTracking(shortterm)ULCFlammabilityClassificationULCEVALUATIONOFFLAMMABILITYTestFinishedProductorSmallScaleFlameTestULCFLAMECLASSIFICATION•HB•V,V,V•VA,VB•HF,HF,HBF•VTM,VTM,VTMULCPRODUCTCLASSIFICATIONS•PortableAttendedHouseholdEquipment•AllOtherPortableEquipment•StationaryFixedEquipmentULCENCLOSUREFLAMECLASS(ULCCONCEPTS)•Functionof:–ProductTypeUsage–PartsEnclosed–FuelContributionULCPRODUCTTYPEUSAGE•PortableEquipmentAttributes–CordandPlugConnected–LightandEasilyMoved(<kg,IECbasedstandards,“moveableequipment)–HouseholdorCommercialUse–IntermittentorContinuousDuty–AttendedorUnattendedULCPORTABLEATTENDEDHOUSEHOLDEQUIPMENT•MinimumFlameClassperULCHBormmneedleflameormmEndProductFlameTestonProductExample:HairDryerULCALLOTHERPORTABLEEQUIPMENT•HouseholdandCommercialEquipment–PortableUnattendedHouseholdEquipment–PortableAttendedandUnattendedCommercialEquipment•MinimumFlameClassperULCV,V,V*ormmneedleflameormmEndProductFlameTestULC*HBcurrentlypermittedifinternalpartsminmmthickinsulateduntilJune,MajorULCRevisionstoenclosurerequirementseffectiveJune,Reviseddefinitionof“attended”(current)ATTENDEDINTERMITTENTDUTYHOUSEHOLDAPPLIANCEAnapplianceintendedforinfrequentandshorttimeuseinresidencesandusedonlywhileattended,suchasanelectricknife,electriccanopener,hairdryerandthelike(effective)ATTENDEDEQUIPMENTEquipmentforusewhereoperatorpresenceisrequiredfortheequipmenttofunctionbutisnotnecessarilyrequiredfortheequipmenttooperateOperatorabsenceiseffectivelylimitedtoashortdurationduetooneormorecharacteristicsoftheequipmentsuchasproductionofexcessivenoiseorvibrationExamplesmayincludeelectrichandhelddrills,electricknives,canopeners,handheldhairdryers,blenders,andvacuumcleanersKeyIssue:Probabilityofoperatorpresenceintheeventofignition•Portableunattendedhouseholdproducts•PortableattendedorunattendedcommercialproductsMajorULCRevisionstoenclosurerequirementsProductsImpacted:Presentrequirement:HBmaterialpermittedforenclosureifallinternallivepartsinvolvingriskoffireprovidedwithminmmthickinsulationRequirementeffective:Vrated(orendproductflametested)materialsrequiredException:(AlternativePathHouseholdunattendedonly)HBpermittedifproductcomplieswithSection(requirementsthatreducelikelihoodofignitionofenclosure)(SeeIntranetforFAQ)Sectionrequirements(summary)()Polymericmaterialswithinmmofconnections:•MinV,V,VTM,orVTMperUL•MinSC,SC,SCTC,orSCTCperUL•MinGlowWireIgnitabilityTemperature(GWIT)andGlowWireFlammabilityTemperature(GWFT)ofC(orfinishedpartcomplieswithGlowWireEndProductTest(GWEPT)perIECExceptions:•weldedconnections•connectionsincircuitsnotinvolvingriskoffireper,includingclasscircuits•materialsusedincomponentscomplyingwithUL,UL,UL,UL()ElectricalConnectors:MustcomplywithUL,ULA,ULC,ULE,ULasapplicableMajorULCRevisionstoenclosurerequirementsPortableUnattendedHouseholdwithHBenclosure(Allconnectionsshowninvolveriskoffire(re:)Weldedconnectionsexempted)enclosuredØmm***Electricalconnections*Or,enclosureminCGWITandCGWFTorpassGWEPT)(c)Spliceconnectors(ULC)Terminalconnection(UL,A,C,E,,peraf)PolymericmaterialdØmm*dØmm*V**,V**orVWratedAWM(UL)Tubingandsleeving(UL,UL),orFRratedtape(UL)SolderConnectionTerminalBlock,ULSwitch(UL,),Edisonbaselampholder(UL)ReceptaclePlug(UL)TubingSleevingV**,V**orVWperULorUL(b)AWMVWperUL(a)TapeV**V**,orFRratedperUL(c)dddd<mmOtherinternalpolymericmaterialsV**,V**()**Alternatively,VTM,VTM,SC,SC,SCTC,orSCTCorminCGWITandminCGWFTorGWEPT(Sectionac)PolymericMaterialV**,V**dØmm*dØmm*ButtspliceTwistonPolymericmaterialV,V()**dØmm*Electricalconnectionnotintegraltoswitch,lampholder,etcdevice***orswitch,lampholder,etcmaterialV,VVTM,VTM,SC,SC,SCTC,orSCTCorminCGWITandminCGWFTorGWEPT(Sectionac)dPRODUCTTYPEUSAGE•StationaryApplianceAttributes–CordandPlugConnected–NotEasilyMoved(>or=kg,IECbasedstandards,“StationaryEquipment”)–HouseholdUseorCommercialUse–IntermittentUseorContinuousUse–TypicallyNotAttendedULCSTATIONARYAPPLIANCE•MinimumFlameClassperULCVAormmEndProductFlameTestonProductExample:RefrigeratorULCPRODUCTTYPEUSAGE•FixedApplianceAttributes–DirectWiring(TypicallyNotCordandPlugConnected)–NotEasilyMoved–HouseholdUseorComercialUse–IntermittentUseorContinuousUse–TypicallyNotAttendedULCFIXEDAPPLIANCE•MinimumFlameClassperULCVAormmEndProductFlameTestonProductExample:FurnaceULCFUELCONTRIBUTION•DependentonSize•AdditionalConcernsAriseULCFLAMMABILITYSUMMARY•HorizontalBurning–HB•VerticalBurning–V,V,V–VA,VB•EndProductFlameTests–mmNeedleFlameTest–mmFlameTest–mmFlameTestULCEnclosureFlammabilityClassExerciseEnclosureResistancetoIgnitionandTrackingULCEnclosureFlameClassHWIminsec(maxPLC)HBVV()CTIminvolts(maxPLC)VHAI()()()()()()()()()()Indoor,relativelycleanIndooroutdoor,moderateIndooroutdoor,severe()()()()()()()()()FIREENCLOSURERESISTANCETOIGNITIONANDTRACKING(ULC)HWIrequiredifd,dord<mmHAIrequiredifdord<mm(nonarcingparts)ord<mm(arcingparts)CTIrequiredifmaterialdandd<mm,andd(creepagedistance)<mmInsulatingmaterialdddEnclosured**SeeadditionalrequirementsforHBenclosuresforportableunattendedhouseholdandallportablecommercialproductsENDPRODUCTTESTINGALTERNATIVESDeficiencyEndUseTestHAIArcingTestOnFinishedProductsHWIAbnormalOverloadTestorGlowWireTestULCCircuitBreakerRequirementsTypicalAmpBreakerOperativeAmperageActualAmperageTimeLimitAmpsHoursAmpsHourAmpsMinutesULCLongTermPropertiesforElectrical,Mechanical,andFireEnclosuresULCAddresseslongtermthermaldegradationofflammability,dielectricstrength,tensilestrengthandimpactstrengthofmaterialsEstablishesmaximumusetemperatureforlongtermeffects:•RelativeTemperatureIndex(RTI)(genericoragingprogramperULB)•FunctionalUseLimit•RelativeThermalCapability(RTC)FunctionalTemperatureLimitsforElectrical,Mechanical,andFireEnclosuresTable,ULCProductTypeFunctionaluselimitAttended,portable,intermittentdutyhouseholdCAllotherportablesAllotherequipmentCCForTemperatures>functionaluselimits,needRelativeThermalIndex(RTI)(Sect)orRelativeThermalCapability(RTC)(Sect,)evaluationRTIelectricalDielectricWithstand,FlammabilityRTImechanicalwithoutimpactTensilestrengthonlyRTImechanicalwithimpactTensileandimpactstrengthRelativeThermalCapability(ULC,Sectionsand)•MaterialtemperatureexceedsitsfunctionaluselimitandRTI•Enclosureis“robust”(designallowsgreaterthermaldegradation)•Thermaldegradationdoesnotreduceenduseperformance(eg,impactstrength,dielectricstrength)tobelowacceptablelevelsApplieswhen:Copyright©,UnderwritersLaboratoriesIncAllrightsreservedOverviewofPolymericMaterials(UL,ULA,ULB)ForUseInElectricalElectronicandMechanicalApplicationsCOURSEOBJECTIVES•Torecognizetypesofpolymericmaterials•Tounderstandthepremiseofpreselectiontesting•Tolearnthebasicflameclassifications•TounderstandthesignificanceofResistancetoIgnitionPLCcodes•TounderstandthesignificanceofComparativeTrackingIndexPLCcodes•TounderstandRelativeThermalIndexandrelatedconditioningprograms•TobefamiliarwithULFollowUpTestingandtheRecognizedMoldersProgramTypesofPolymericMaterials•Thermoplastic–EasilySoftenedandReSoftenedbyRepeatedHeating•Thermoset–CuresbyChemicalReaction–CannotbeSoftenedbyReheating–Includesphenolicandepoxy•Elastomer–VeryStretchy(Rubberbands)–NaturalorsyntheticrubberBASICPREMISEOFPRESELECTIONTESTING•HelpstheManufacturerSelectAppropriateMaterials•MinimizesTheNeedForSpecialTestingOnTheProduc

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