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首页 ASTM_D4169_2005包装标准

ASTM_D4169_2005包装标准.pdf

ASTM_D4169_2005包装标准

zhengzhenhua1982
2013-09-24 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《ASTM_D4169_2005包装标准pdf》,可适用于工程科技领域

Designation:D–StandardPracticeforPerformanceTestingofShippingContainersandSystemsThisstandardisissuedunderthefixeddesignationDthenumberimmediatelyfollowingthedesignationindicatestheyearoforiginaladoptionor,inthecaseofrevision,theyearoflastrevisionAnumberinparenthesesindicatestheyearoflastreapprovalAsuperscriptepsilon(e)indicatesaneditorialchangesincethelastrevisionorreapprovalThisstandardhasbeenapprovedforusebyagenciesoftheDepartmentofDefenseScopeThispracticeprovidesauniformbasisofevaluating,inalaboratory,theabilityofshippingunitstowithstandthedistributionenvironmentThisisaccomplishedbysubjectingthemtoatestplanconsistingofasequenceofanticipatedhazardelementsencounteredinvariousdistributioncyclesThispracticeisnotintendedtosupplantmaterialspecificationsorexistingpreshipmenttestproceduresThesuitabilityofthispracticeforusewithhazardousmaterialshasnotbeendeterminedThisstandarddoesnotpurporttoaddressallofthesafetyconcerns,ifany,associatedwithitsuseItistheresponsibilityoftheuserofthisstandardtoestablishappropriatesafetyandhealthpracticesanddeterminetheapplicabilityofregulatorylimitationspriortouseSpecificprecautionarystatementsaregiveninReferencedDocumentsASTMStandards:DTestMethodforDeterminingCompressiveResistanceofShippingContainers,Components,andUnitLoadsDTestMethodforImpactTestingforShippingContainersandSystemsDTestMethodforWaterResistanceofShippingContainersbySprayMethodDTerminologyofPackagingandDistributionEnvironmentsDTestMethodsforVibrationTestingofShippingContainersDMethodsofProgrammableHorizontalImpactTestforShippingContainersandSystemsDPracticeforConditioningContainers,Packages,orPackagingComponentsforTestingDTestMethodforRandomVibrationTestingofShippingContainersDTestMethodforDropTestofLoadedContainersbyFreeFallDTestMethodforPerformingProgrammedHorizontalImpactsUsinganInclinedImpactTesterDTestMethodforSimulatedDropofLoadedContainersbyShockMachinesDTestMethodsforMechanicalHandlingofUnitizedLoadsandLargeShippingCasesandCratesDTestMethodsforRoughHandlingofUnitizedLoadsandLargeShippingCasesandCratesDTestMethodsforDeterminingtheEffectsofHighAltitudeonPackagingSystemsbyVacuumMethodFTerminologyRelatingtoBarrierMaterialsforMedicalPackagingMilitaryStandards:MILSTDDODStandardPracticeforMilitaryPackagingTerminologyDefinitionsGeneraldefinitionsforthepackaginganddistributionenvironmentsarefoundinTerminologyDDefinitionsofTermsSpecifictoThisStandard:acceptancecriteriatheacceptablequalitylevelthatmustbemetaftertheshippingunithasbeensubjectedtothetestplanSeeSectionassuranceleveltheleveloftestintensitybasedonitsprobabilityofoccurringinatypicaldistributioncycleDiscussionLevelIisahighleveloftestintensityandhasalowprobabilityofoccurrenceLevelIIIisalowleveloftestintensity,buthasacorrespondinglyhighprobabilityofoccurrenceLevelIIisbetweentheseextremesForDistributionCycle,DCseeMIL–STD––fordefinitionsofmilitarylevelsofprotectionThispracticeisunderthejurisdictionofASTMCommitteeDonPackagingandisthedirectresponsibilityofSubcommitteeDonShippingContainersandSystemsApplicationofPerformanceTestMethodsCurrenteditionapprovedOct,PublishedNovemberOriginallyapprovedinLastpreviouseditionapprovedinasD–aForreferencedASTMstandards,visittheASTMwebsite,wwwastmorg,orcontactASTMCustomerServiceatserviceastmorgForAnnualBookofASTMStandardsvolumeinformation,refertothestandard’sDocumentSummarypageontheASTMwebsiteAvailablefromStandardizationDocumentsOrderDesk,BldgSectionD,RobbinsAve,Philadelphia,PA,Attn:NPODSCopyright©ASTMInternational,BarrHarborDrive,POBoxC,WestConshohocken,PA,UnitedStatesCopyrightbyASTMInt'l(allrightsreserved)ReproductionauthorizedperLicenseAgreementwithKatheHooper(ASTMIHSAccount)MonNov::ESTCopyrightASTMInternationalReproducedbyIHSunderlicensewithASTMNotforResaleNoreproductionornetworkingpermittedwithoutlicensefromIHS`,,```,,,,``````,,`,,`,`,,`coeffıcientofrestitutiontheratioofthereboundvelocitytotheimpactvelocitydistributioncycle(DC)thesequentiallistingofthetestschedulesemployedtosimulatethehazardelementsexpectedtooccurforaspecificroutingofashippingunitfromproductiontoconsumptionSeeTablefeederaircraftsmall,potentiallynonpressurizedaircraftusedtotransportexpresspackageshazardelementaspecificeventthatoccursinadistributioncyclethatmayposeahazardtoashippingunitTheelementwillusuallybesimulatedbyasingletestscheduleSeeSectionshippingunitthesmallestcompleteunitthatwillbesubjectedtothedistributionenvironment,forexample,ashippingcontaineranditscontentssmallshippingunitforDC,asmallshippingunitisdefinedasonehavingnoedgedimensionordiameteroverin(m)andagrossweightoflb(kg)orlesslargeshippingunitforDC,alargeshippingunitisdefinedasonehavingatleastoneedgedimensionordiameteroverin(m)oragrossweightinexcessoflb(kg),oritisonethathasagrossweightexceedinglb(kg)andissecuredtoabaseortothebaseofashippingunittestplanaspecificlistingofthetestsequencetobefollowedtosimulatethehazardsanticipatedduringthedistributioncycleofashippingunitIncludedwillbethetestintensityandnumberofsequentialteststobeconductedSeetestschedulethespecificproceduretobeused,includingthethreeassurancelevelintensities,andareferencetothetestmethodthatisthebasisofthescheduleDiscussionThepurposeofthescheduleistosimulatetheforcesoccurringduringanyhazardelementofthedistributioncycleSeeSectiontotalvelocitychange,(DV)thesumoftheimpactandreboundvelocitiesAbbreviations:Abbreviations:TOFCtraileronflatcarCOFCcontaineronflatcarTLtruckloadCLcarloadLTLlessthantruckloadSignificanceandUseThispracticeprovidesaguidefortheevaluationofshippingunitsinaccordancewithauniformsystem,usingestablishedtestmethodsatlevelsrepresentativeofthoseoccurringinactualdistributionTherecommendedtestlevelsarebasedonavailableinformationontheshippingandhandlingenvironment,andcurrentindustrygovernmentpracticeandexperience()ThetestsshouldbeperformedsequentiallyonthesamecontainersintheordergivenForuseasaperformancetest,thispracticerequiresthattheshippingunittestedremainunopeneduntilthesequenceoftestsarecompletedIfusedforotherpurposes,suchaspackagedevelopment,itmaybeusefultoopenandinspectshippingunitsatvarioustimesthroughoutthesequenceThismay,however,prohibitevaluatingtheinfluenceofthecontainerclosureoncontainerperformanceForDistributionCycle,asreferredtoinMILSTD––,theuseofthispracticeisdefinedinsubsequentsectionsidentifiedasDCTestSpecimenTestspecimensconsistofrepresentativesamplesofcompleteshippingunits,includingactualcontentsProductswithblemishesorminordefectsmaybeusedifthedefectivecomponentisnottobestudiedbythetestandifthedefectisdocumentedinthereportDummytestloadsareacceptableiftestingtheactualproductmightbehazardousIfadummyloadisused,itshouldbeinstrumentedtodetermineifthefragilityleveloftheactualproducthasbeenexceededTakecaretoduplicatetheloadcharacteristicsoftheactualproduct,andavoidunnecessaryprehandlingCaremustbetakentoensurethatnodegradationhasoccurredtoeithertheproductorthepackageifthetestpackageshavebeenshippedtothetestsiteIfanydoubtexistsastotheconditionofthepackage,repacktheproductinnewpackagingmaterialbeforetestingThenumberoftestreplicationsdependsonthedesiredobjectivesofthetestingandtheavailabilityofduplicateproductsandshippingcontainersReplicatetestingisrecommendedtoimprovethereliabilityofthetestresultsConditioningIfthedistributioncyclecontainsclimaticconditionsthathaveaneffectontheperformancecharacteristicsoftheproduct,shippingcontainer,orcomponentssuchascushioning,useoneofthefollowingprocedures(Itshouldbenotedthatdifferentatmosphericconditionsarelikelytoexistbetweentheoriginanddestinationpointsofadistributioncycle,particularlyforexportimportcycles):ConductthetestatstandardconditionsandcompensatefortheeffectsofanyclimaticconditionConditiontheshippingunitstoastandardatmosphereof°F(°C)andrelativehumidityConditionfiberboardcontainersinaccordancewithPracticeDThesameatmosphericconditionshouldbeusedforanyassurancelevelAconditioningperiodofh,orsufficienttimetoreachequilibriumofallpartsofthepackageandproductisrecommendedTestsshouldbeconductedintheconditionedatmospherewheneverpossibleIfnotpossible,conductthetestsassoonafterremovalfromtheconditioningatmosphereaspracticableReconditiontheshippingunitstothestandardatmosphereasnecessaryduringthetestplanInsomecircumstances,itmaybenecessarytoconductsomeorallofthetestsatspecialclimaticconditions,suchasthosegiveninPracticeD,orTestMethodD,orothers(salt,spray,waterimmersion,humidity,ortemperature)ThesameclimaticconditionshouldbeusedforanyassurancelevelAconditioningperiodofh,orsufficienttimetoreachTheboldfacenumbersinparenthesesrefertoalistofreferencesattheendofthispracticeD–CopyrightbyASTMInt'l(allrightsreserved)ReproductionauthorizedperLicenseAgreementwithKatheHooper(ASTMIHSAccount)MonNov::ESTCopyrightASTMInternationalReproducedbyIHSunderlicensewithASTMNotforResaleNoreproductionornetworkingpermittedwithoutlicensefromIHS`,,```,,,,``````,,`,,`,`,,`TABLEDistributionCyclesPerformanceTestScheduleSequence(seeSectionforTestScheduledefinition)DCDistributionCycleFirstSecondThirdFourthFifthSixthGeneralCycleundefineddistributionsystemScheduleAHandlingScheduleDStackedVibrationScheduleFLooseLoadVibrationScheduleGRailSwitchingScheduleAHandlingSpeciallydefineddistributionsystem,userspecified(seeAppendixX)selectfromSchedulesAthroughISinglepackageenvironment,uptolb(kg)ScheduleAHandlingScheduleCVehicleStackingScheduleFLooseLoadVibrationScheduleEVehicleVibrationScheduleAHandlingMotorfreight,singlepackageoverlb(kg)ScheduleAHandlingScheduleCVehicleStackingScheduleFLooseLoadVibrationScheduleEVehicleVibrationScheduleAHandlingMotorfreight,TL,notunitizedScheduleAHandlingScheduleDStackedVibrationScheduleEVehicleVibrationScheduleAHandlingMotorfreight,TL,orLTLunitizedScheduleAHandlingScheduleDStackedVibrationScheduleAHandlingScheduleBWarehouseStackingRailonly,bulkloadedScheduleAHandlingScheduleDStackedVibrationScheduleGRailSwitchingScheduleAHandlingRailonly,unitizedScheduleAHandlingScheduleDStackedVibrationScheduleGRailSwitchingScheduleAHandlingScheduleBWarehouseStackingRailandmotorfreight,notunitizedScheduleAHandlingScheduleCVehicleStackingScheduleEVehicleVibrationScheduleGRailSwitchingScheduleFLooseLoadVibrationScheduleAHandlingRailandmotorfreight,unitizedScheduleAHandlingScheduleDStackedVibrationScheduleGRailSwitchingScheduleAHandlingScheduleBWarehouseStackingRail,TOFCandCOFCScheduleAHandlingScheduleGRailSwitchingScheduleDStackedVibrationScheduleFLooseLoadVibrationScheduleAHandlingAir(intercity)andmotorfreight(local),overlb(kg),unitizedScheduleAHandlingScheduleDStackedVibrationScheduleILowPresureAScheduleEVehicleVibrationScheduleAHandlingAir(intercity)andmotorfreight(local,singlepackageuptolb(kg)ScheduleAHandlingScheduleCVehicleStackingScheduleFLooseLoadVibrationScheduleILowPressureAScheduleEVehicleVibrationScheduleAHandlingWarehousing(partialcycletobeaddedtoothercyclesasneeded)ScheduleAHandlingScheduleBWarehouseStackingExportImportshipmentforintermodalcontainerorrollonrollofftrailer(partialcycletobeaddedtoothercyclesasneeded)ScheduleAHandlingScheduleCVehicleStackingScheduleAHandlingExportImportshipmentforpalletizedcargoship(partialcycletobeaddedtoothercyclesasneeded)ScheduleAHandlingScheduleCVehicleStackingScheduleAHandlingExportImportshipmentforbreakbulkcargoship(partialcycletobeaddedtoothercyclesasneeded)ScheduleAHandlingScheduleCVehicleStackingScheduleAHandlingNonCommercialGovernmentshipmentsperMILSTDScheduleAHandlingScheduleBorScheduleCBScheduleAHandlingScheduleHEnvironmentalHazardScheduleFLooseLoadVibrationScheduleAHandlingAThishighaltitude,nonpressurizedtransportsimulationtestmaybedeletedfromthisdistributioncyclewhentestingshippingunitscontainprimarypackagesthathaveaporousmaterialBForDC,performthestackingtestthatresultsinthehighestcomputedloadvalueD–CopyrightbyASTMInt'l(allrightsreserved)ReproductionauthorizedperLicenseAgreementwithKatheHooper(ASTMIHSAccount)MonNov::ESTCopyrightASTMInternationalReproducedbyIHSunderlicensewithASTMNotforResaleNoreproductionornetworkingpermittedwithoutlicensefromIHS`,,```,,,,``````,,`,,`,`,,`equilibriumofallpartsofthepackageandproductisrecommendedTestsshouldbeconductedintheconditionedatmospherewheneverpossibleIfnotpossible,conductthetestsassoonafterremovalfromtheconditioningatmosphereaspracticableReconditiontheshippingunitsasnecessaryduringthetestplanForatmospheresotherthantheStandardConditioningAtmosphere,theusermustdeterminetheappropriatecompressiveloadfactorforwarehouseandvehiclestacking,asthefactorsgiveninarebasedontestingundertheStandardtestatmosphereAcceptanceCriteriaAcceptancecriteriamustbeestablishedpriortotestingandshouldconsidertherequiredconditionoftheproductatreceiptTheorganizationsconductingthetestmaychooseanyacceptancecriteriasuitablefortheirpurposeItisadvisabletocomparethetypeandquantityofdamagethatoccurredtothetestspecimenswiththedamagethatoccursduringactualdistributionandhandlingorwithtestresultsofsimilarcontainerswhoseshippinghistoryisknownInmanycases,theacceptancecriteriacanbethefollowing:CriterionProductisdamage–freeCriterionPackageisintactCriterionBothcriteriaandOften,thismeansthattheshippingcontaineranditscontentsaresuitablefornormalsaleanduseatthecompletionofthetestcycleDetailedacceptancecriteriamayallowforacceptingspecifieddamagetoaproductoritspackageTheformandcontentofacceptancecriteriamayvarywidely,inaccordancewiththeparticularsituationMethodsmayrangefromsimplepass–failjudgmentstohighlyquantitativescoringoranalysissystemsProcedureDefineShippingUnitDescribeshippingunitintermsofsize,weight,andformofconstructionSeeDeterminewhetherthecontainerwillbemanuallyormechanicallyhandledEstablishAssuranceLevelSpecifyaleveloftestintensityThelevelshouldbeoneofthreepre–establishedassurancelevelsThismustbepre–establishedbasedontheproductvalue,thedesiredlevelofanticipateddamagethatcanbetolerated,thenumberofunitstobeshipped,knowledgeoftheshippingenvironment,orothercriteriaAssuranceLevelIIissuggestedunlessconditionsdictateotherwiseAssuranceLevelIprovidesamoreseveretestthanIIAssuranceLevelIIIprovidesalessseveretestthanIITheassurancelevelmaybevariedbetweenschedules(seeSections)ifsuchvariationsareknowntooccurThetestlevelsusedshouldbereportedSeeSectionDetermineAcceptanceCriteriaAcceptancecriteriaarerelatedtothedesiredconditionoftheproductandpackageattheendofthedistributioncycleSeeSectionSelectDistributionCycleSelectaDistributionCyclefromtheavailablestandarddistributioncyclescompiledinTableUsetheDCthatmostcloselycorrelateswiththeprojecteddistributionWhenthedistributionisundefined,thegeneraldistributioncycleDC–shouldbeselectedWhentheanticipateddistributioniswellunderstood,aspecialdistributioncycleDC–maybespecifiedInusingDC–,theuserselectstestschedulesfromSectionandspecifiesthetestsequence(seeAppendixXformoredetails)WriteTestPlanPrepareatestplanbyusingthesequencepresentedinTableforthedistributioncycleselectedObtainthetestintensitiesfromthereferencedschedulesThetestplanintensitydetailsmusttakeintoaccounttheassurancelevelsselectedaswellasthephysicaldescriptionoftheshippingunitTablethusleadstoadetailedtestplanconsistingoftheexactsequenceinwhichtheshippingunitwillbesubjectedtothetestinputsThetestschedulesassociatedwitheachelementreferencetheexistingASTMtestmethodsforclarificationoftheequipmentandtechniquestobeusedtoconductthetestSampletestplansareprovidedinAppendixXSelectSamplesforTestSeeSectionConditionSamplesSeeSectionPerformTestsPerformtestsasdirectedinreferenceASTMstandardsandasfurthermodifiedinthespecialinstructionsforeachtestscheduleEvaluateResultsEvaluateresultstodetermineiftheshippingunitsmeettheacceptancecriteriaSeeSectionDocumentTestResultsDocumenttestresultsbyreportingeachstepSeeSectionMonitorShipmentsWhenpossible,obtainfeedbackbymonitoringshipmentsofthecontainerthatwastestedtoensurethatthetypeandquantityofdamageobtainedbythelaboratorytestingcorrelateswiththedamagethatoccursinthedistributioncycleThisinformationis

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