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简介:本文档为《曼昆%202009%20经济学原理(英)第五版宏观经济分册%20简明宏观经济学%20高清晰版pdf》,可适用于经济金融领域,主题内容包含THEMACROECONOMICSOFOPENECONOMIESOpenEconomyMacroeconomics:BasicConceptsAMa符等。

THE MACROECONOMICS OF OPEN ECONOMIES 13 Open-Economy Macroeconomics: Basic Concepts 14 A Macroeconomic Theory of the Open Economy A nation’s economic interactions with other nations are described by its trade balance, net foreign investment, and exchange rate. A long-run model of the open economy explains the determinants of the trade balance, the real exchange rate, and other real variables. FINAL THOUGHTS 18 Five Debates over Macroeconomic Policy A capstone chapter presents both sides of five major debates over economic policy. SHORT-RUN ECONOMIC FLUCTUATIONS 15 Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply 16 The Influence of Monetary and Fiscal Policy on Aggregate Demand 17 The Short-Run Trade-off between Inflation and Unemployment The model of aggregate demand and aggregate supply explains short-run economic fluctuations, the short-run effects of monetary and fiscal policy, and the short-run linkage between real and nomi- nal variables. MONEY AND PRICES IN THE LONG RUN 11 The Monetary System 12 Money Growth and Inflation The monetary system is crucial in determining the long-run behavior of the price level, the inflation rate, and other nominal variables. 90377_00_fm_pi-xxiv.indd i90377_00_fm_pi-xxiv.indd i 8/19/08 7:10:20 PM8/19/08 7:10:20 PM Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. 90377_00_fm_pi-xxiv.indd ii90377_00_fm_pi-xxiv.indd ii 8/19/08 7:10:32 PM8/19/08 7:10:32 PM Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. N. GREGORY MANKIW HARVARD UNIVERSITY Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States MacroeconomicsB R I E F P R I N C I P L E S O F F I F T H E D I T I O N 90377_00_fm_pi-xxiv.indd iii90377_00_fm_pi-xxiv.indd iii 8/19/08 7:10:34 PM8/19/08 7:10:34 PM Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. 2009, 2007 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means—graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, Web distribution, information storage and retrieval systems, or in any other manner—except as may be permitted by the license terms herein. ExamView is a registered trademark of eInstruction Corp. Windows is a registered trademark of the Microsoft Corporation used herein under license. Macintosh and Power Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. used herein under license. 2008 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Cengage Learning WebTutorTM is a trademark of Cengage Learning. Library of Congress Control Number: 2008935333 ISBN-13: 978-0-324-59037-1 ISBN-10: 0-324-59037-7 Instructor’s Edition ISBN 13: 978-0-324-59244-3 Instructor’s Edition ISBN 10: 0-324-59244-2 South-Western Cengage Learning 5191 Natorp Boulevard Mason, OH 45040 USA Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Nelson Education, Ltd. For your course and learning solutions, visit academic.cengage.com Purchase any of our products at your local college store or at our preferred online store www.ichapters.com Brief Principles of Macroeconomics, 5e N. Gregory Mankiw Vice President of Editorial, Business: Jack W. Calhoun Vice President/Editor-in-Chief: Alex von Rosenberg Executive Editor: Mike Worls Developmental Editor: Jane Tufts Contributing Editors: Jennifer E. Thomas and Katie Yanos Executive Marketing Manager: Brian Joyner Marketing Coordinator: Suellen Ruttkay Senior Content Project Manager: Colleen A. Farmer Marketing Communications Manager: Sarah Greber Manager of Technology, Editorial: Pam Wallace Media Editor: Deepak Kumar Senior Frontlist Buyer, Manufacturing: Sandee Milewski Production Service: Lachina Publishing Services Senior Art Director: Michelle Kunkler Internal and Cover Designer: Red Hangar Design, LLC Internal Paintings: Michael Steirnagle/ Munro Campagna Artistic Representatives Cover Painting: Fine Art Photographic Library/CORBIS Photography Manager: Deanna Ettinger Photo Researcher: Charlotte Goldman For product information and technology assistance, contact us at Cengage Learning Customer & Sales Support, 1-800-354-9706 For permission to use material from this text or product, submit all requests online at www.cengage.com/permissions Further permissions questions can be emailed to permissionrequest@cengage.com Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12 11 10 09 08 90377_00_fm_pi-xxiv.indd iv90377_00_fm_pi-xxiv.indd iv 8/19/08 7:10:38 PM8/19/08 7:10:38 PM Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. To Catherine, Nicholas, and Peter, my other contributions to the next generation 90377_00_fm_pi-xxiv.indd v90377_00_fm_pi-xxiv.indd v 8/19/08 7:10:38 PM8/19/08 7:10:38 PM Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. vi About the Author N. Gregory Mankiw is professor of economics at Harvard University. As a stu- dent, he studied economics at Princeton University and MIT. As a teacher, he has taught macroeconomics, microeconomics, statistics, and principles of econom- ics. He even spent one summer long ago as a sailing instructor on Long Beach Island. Professor Mankiw is a prolific writer and a regular participant in academic and policy debates. His work has been published in schol- arly journals, such as the American Economic Review, Journal of Politi- cal Economy, and Quarterly Journal of Economics, and in more popular forums, such as The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal. He is also author of the best-selling intermediate-level textbook Macro- economics (Worth Publishers). In addition to his teaching, research, and writing, Professor Mankiw has been a research associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research, an adviser to the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and the Congressional Budget Office, and a member of the ETS test development committee for the Advanced Placement exam in economics. From 2003 to 2005, he served as chair- man of the President’s Council of Economic Advisers. Professor Mankiw lives in Wellesley, Massachusetts, with his wife, Deborah, three children, Catherine, Nicholas, and Peter, and their border terrier, Tobin. 90377_00_fm_pi-xxiv.indd vi90377_00_fm_pi-xxiv.indd vi 8/19/08 7:10:38 PM8/19/08 7:10:38 PM Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. PART I INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER 1 Ten Principles of Economics 3 CHAPTER 2 Thinking Like an Economist 21 CHAPTER 3 Interdependence and the Gains from Trade 49 PART II HOW MARKETS WORK 63 CHAPTER 4 The Market Forces of Supply and Demand 65 PART III THE DATA OF MACROECONOMICS 89 CHAPTER 5 Measuring a Nation’s Income 91 CHAPTER 6 Measuring the Cost of Living 113 PART IV THE REAL ECONOMY IN THE LONG RUN 131 CHAPTER 7 Production and Growth 133 CHAPTER 8 Saving, Investment, and the Financial System 159 CHAPTER 9 The Basic Tools of Finance 181 CHAPTER 10 Unemployment 197 PART V MONEY AND PRICES IN THE LONG RUN 223 CHAPTER 11 The Monetary System 225 CHAPTER 12 Money Growth and Inflation 247 PART VI THE MACROECONOMICS OF OPEN ECONOMIES 273 CHAPTER 13 Open-Economy Macroeconomics: Basic Concepts 275 CHAPTER 14 A Macroeconomic Theory of the Open Economy 299 PART VII SHORT-RUN ECONOMIC FLUCTUATIONS 321 CHAPTER 15 Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply 323 CHAPTER 16 The Influence of Monetary and Fiscal Policy on Aggregate Demand 361 CHAPTER 17 The Short-Run Trade-off between Inflation and Unemployment 385 PART VIII FINAL THOUGHTS 411 CHAPTER 18 Five Debates over Macroeconomic Policy 413 Brief Contents vii 90377_00_fm_pi-xxiv.indd vii90377_00_fm_pi-xxiv.indd vii 8/19/08 7:10:40 PM8/19/08 7:10:40 PM Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. 90377_00_fm_pi-xxiv.indd viii90377_00_fm_pi-xxiv.indd viii 8/19/08 7:10:41 PM8/19/08 7:10:41 PM Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. ix Preface: To the Student “Economics is a study of mankind in the ordinary business of life.” So wrote Alfred Marshall, the great 19th-century economist, in his textbook, Principles of Economics. Although we have learned much about the economy since Marshall’s time, this definition of economics is as true today as it was in 1890, when the first edition of his text was published. Why should you, as a student at the beginning of the 21st century, embark on the study of economics? There are three reasons. The first reason to study economics is that it will help you understand the world in which you live. There are many questions about the economy that might spark your curiosity. Why are apartments so hard to find in New York City? Why do airlines charge less for a round-trip ticket if the traveler stays over a Saturday night? Why is Johnny Depp paid so much to star in movies? Why are living stan- dards so meager in many African countries? Why do some countries have high rates of inflation while others have stable prices? Why are jobs easy to find in some years and hard to find in others? These are just a few of the questions that a course in economics will help you answer. The second reason to study economics is that it will make you a more astute par- ticipant in the economy. As you go about your life, you make many economic deci- sions. While you are a student, you decide how many years to stay in school. Once you take a job, you decide how much of your income to spend, how much to save, and how to invest your savings. Someday you may find yourself running a small business or a large corporation, and you will decide what prices to charge for your products. The insights developed in the coming chapters will give you a new per- spective on how best to make these decisions. Studying economics will not by itself make you rich, but it will give you some tools that may help in that endeavor. The third reason to study economics is that it will give you a better understand- ing of both the potential and the limits of economic policy. Economic questions are always on the minds of policymakers in mayors’ offices, governors’ mansions, and the White House. What are the burdens associated with alternative forms of taxation? What are the effects of free trade with other countries? What is the best way to protect the environment? How does a government budget deficit affect the economy? As a voter, you help choose the policies that guide the allocation of society’s resources. An understanding of economics will help you carry out that responsibility. And who knows: Perhaps someday you will end up as one of those policymakers yourself. Thus, the principles of economics can be applied in many of life’s situations. Whether the future finds you reading the newspaper, running a business, or sit- ting in the Oval Office, you will be glad that you studied economics. N. Gregory Mankiw September 2008 90377_00_fm_pi-xxiv.indd ix90377_00_fm_pi-xxiv.indd ix 8/19/08 7:10:41 PM8/19/08 7:10:41 PM Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. We know you are often short on time. But you can maximize your efforts — and results — when you Experience Mankiw Fifth Edition’s engaging learning tools. With the product support website and EconCentral, you’ll quickly reinforce chapter concepts and sharpen your skills with interactive, hands-on applications online. If a printed Study Guide better suits your needs and study habits, the Mankiw 5e Study Guide is unsurpassed in its careful attention to accuracy, concise language, and practice that enhances your study time. www.cengage.com/economics/mankiw The Mankiw product support website is an easy online stop. Here, you’ll fi nd access to free quizzing, Student Note Prompt handouts for the Premium PowerPoint your instructor may use, and other resources. Helping you achieve your personal best, the Mankiw Study Guide is based completely on the Fifth Edition, covering chapter material comprehensively — and accurately. Very hands- on, each chapter thoroughly covers the material in the corresponding chapter of Mankiw. Every key word and concept is addressed within the Study Guide chapter — meaning you’ll feel confi dent that if you can do the study guide, you will understand all of the material in that chapter of Mankiw. The “types” of questions used in the Study Guide refl ect what you fi nd most useful when studying. Our student surveys show that students like you felt that fi ll-in-the-blank questions, matching questions, and questions without specifi c single answers were an ineffi cient use of their time — and the Mankiw Study Guide avoids these kinds of questions. To order the study guide, visit www.ichapters.com. Mankiw 5e. Experience It. Product Support Website Study Guide 90377_00_fm_pi-xxiv.indd x90377_00_fm_pi-xxiv.indd x 8/19/08 7:10:42 PM8/19/08 7:10:42 PM Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Multiple resources for learning and reinforcing principles concepts are now available in one place! EconCentral is your one-stop shop for the learning tools and activities to help you succeed. At a minimal extra cost, EconCentral equips you with a portal to a wealth of resources that help you both study and apply economic concepts. As you read and study the chapters, you can access video tutorials with Greg Mankiw Answers Key Questions, 10 Principles Videos, and Ask the Instructor Videos. You can review with Flash Cards and the Graphing Workshop, check your understanding of the chapter with interactive quizzing, and print Student Note Prompt handouts for the Premium PowerPoint to make note-taking in class much more effi cient. Ready to apply chapter concepts to the real world? EconCentral gives you ABC News videos, EconNews articles, Economic debates, Links to Economic Data, and more. All the study and application resources in EconCentral are organized by chapter to help you get the most from the Mankiw text and from your classes. Visit www.cengage.com/economics/mankiw/5e/ econcentral to see the study options available! Self-Study Solutions EconCentral 90377_00_fm_pi-xxiv.indd xi90377_00_fm_pi-xxiv.indd xi 8/19/08 7:10:52 PM8/19/08 7:10:52 PM Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. In writing this book, I benefited from the input of many talented people. Indeed, the list of people who have contributed to this project is so long, and their contri- butions so valuable, that it seems an injustice that only a single name appears on the cover. Let me begin with my colleagues in the economics profession. The four edi- tions of this text and its supplemental materials have benefited enormously from their input. In reviews and surveys, they have offered suggestions, identified chal- lenges, and shared ideas from their own classroom experience. I am indebted to them for the perspectives they have brought to the text. Unfortunately, the list has become too long to thank those who contributed to previous editions, even though students reading the current edition are still benefiting from their insights. Most important in this process have been Ron Cronovich (Carthage College) and David Hakes (University of Northern Iowa). Ron and David, both dedicated teachers, have served as reliable sounding boards for ideas and hardworking part- ners with me in putting together the superb package of supplements. For this new edition, the following diary reviewers recorded their day-to-day experience over the course of a semester, offering detailed suggestions about how to improve the text. John Crooker, University of Central Missouri Rachel Friedberg, Brown University Greg Hunter, California State University, Polytechnic, Pomona Lillian Kamal, Northwestern University Francis Kemegue, Bryant University Douglas Miller, University of Missouri Babu Nahata, University of Louisville Edward Skelton, Southern Methodist University The following reviewers of the fourth edition provided suggestions for refining the content, organization, and approach in the fifth. Syed Ahmed, Cameron University Farhad Ameen, State University of New York, Westchester Community College Mohammad Bajwa, Northampton Community College Carl Bauer, Oakton Community College Roberta Biby, Grand Valley State University Stephen Billings, University of Colorado at Boulder Bruce Brown, California State University, Polytechnic, Pomona Lynn Burbridge, Northern Kentucky University Mark Chester, Reading Area Community College David Ching, University of Hawaii, Manoa Sarah Cosgrove, University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth xii Acknowledgments 90377_00_fm_pi-xxiv.indd xii90377_00_fm_pi-xxiv.indd xii 8/19/08 7:11:00 PM8/19/08 7:11:00 PM Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Craig Depken, University of North Carolina, Charlotte Angela Dzata, Alabama State University Jose Esteban, Palomar College Mark Frascatore, Clarkson University Satyajit Ghosh, University of Scranton Soma Ghosh, Bridgewater State College Daniel Giedeman, Grand Valley State University Robert L. Holland, Purdue University Anisul Islam, University of Houston, Downtown Nancy Jianakoplos, Colorado State University Paul Johnson, University of Alaska, Anchorage Robert Jones, University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth Lillian Kamal, Northwestern University Jongsung Kim, Bryant University Marek Kolar, Delta College Leonard Lardaro, University of Rhode Island Nazma Latif-Zaman, Providence College William Mertens, University of Colorado Francis Mummery, Fullerton College David Mushinski, Colorado State University Christopher Mushrush, Illinois State University Babu Nahata, University of Louisville Laudo Ogura, Grand Valley State University Michael Patrono, Okaloosa-Walton College Jeff Rubin, Rutgers University, New Brunswick Samuel Sarri, College of Southern Nevada Harinder Singh, Grand Valley State University David Spencer, University of Michigan David Switzer, Saint Cloud State University Henry Terrell, University of Maryland Ngocbich Tran, San Jacinto College Miao Wang, Marquette University Elizabeth Wheaton, Southern Methodist University Martin Zelder, Northwestern University I received detailed feedback on specific elements in the text, including all end- of-chapter problems and applications, from the following instructors. Casey R. Abington, Kansas State University Seemi Ahmad, Dutchess Community College Farhad Ameen, State University of New York, Westchester Community College J. J. Arias, Georgia College & State University James Bathgate, Willamette University Scott Beaulier, Mercer University Clive Belfield, Queens College Calvin Blackwell, College of Charleston Cecil E. Bohanon, Ball State University Douglas Campbell, University of Memphis Michael G. Carew, Baruch College Sewin Chan, New York University Joyce J. Chen, The Ohio State University Edward A. Cohn, Del Mar College Chad D

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