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wwf_standcomp.pdf

wwf_standcomp.pdf

上传者: faai0215 2013-08-06 评分 5 0 114 15 516 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《wwf_standcomppdf》,可适用于经济金融领域,主题内容包含AgriculturalwastecollectionforCDMbiomassprojectMalavalli,IndiaMakingSenseo符等。

AgriculturalwastecollectionforCDMbiomassprojectMalavalli,IndiaMakingSenseoftheVoluntaryCarbonMarketAComparisonofCarbonOffsetStandardsAnjaKollmuss(SEIUS),HelgeZink(Tricorona),CliffordPolycarp(SEIUS)Publishedby:WWFGermanyTitle:MakingSenseoftheVoluntaryCarbonMarket:AComparisonofCarbonOffsetStandardsAuthors:AnjaKollmuss(SEIUS),HelgeZink(Tricorona),CliffordPolycarp(SEIUS)GraphicDesign:TylerKempBenedictDate:MarchCopyrightbytheStockholmEnvironmentInstituteandTricoronaThispublicationmaybereproducedinwholeorinpartandinanyformforeducationalornonprofitserviceswithoutspecialpermissionfromthecopyrightholder,providedacknowledgementofthesourceismadeNouseofthispublicationmaybemadeforresaleoranyothercommercialpurposewithoutwrittenpermissionofthecopyrightholdersMakingSenseoftheVoluntaryCarbonMarketAComparisonofCarbonOffsetStandardsAnjaKollmuss(SEIUS),HelgeZink(Tricorona),CliffordPolycarp(SEIUS)TableofcontentsAcknowledgementsiiiAbouttheAuthorsiiiAboutThisReportivExecutiveSummaryvIntroductionMarketOverviewComplianceMarketVoluntaryCarbonMarketsVoluntaryandComplianceCarbonMarketSizeHowOffsetProjectsAreImplementedTheStagesoftheCDMProjectCycleWhoIsWhoinaCarbonOffsetProjectTheRoleoftheVoluntaryMarketKeyElementsofOffsetStandardsAdditionalityandBaselineMethodologiesProjectBasedAdditionalityTestingPerformanceStandardsAdditionalityRequirementsforEachStandardAdditionalityRequirementsforEachStandardBaselinesBaselineRequirementsforEachStandardBaselineRequirementsforEachStandardProjectBoundariesandLeakageProjectTypesBiologicalSequestrationIndustrialGasesMethaneCaptureEnergyEfficiencyRenewableEnergyProjectTypesAcceptedbyEachStandardProjectTypesAcceptedbyEachStandardProjectLocationStartDateCreditingPeriodStartDatesandCreditingPeriodsforEachStandardStartDatesandCreditingPeriodsforEachStandardCoBenefitsSustainableDevelopmentCriteriaStakeholderConsultationsCoBenefitsRequirementsforEachStandardCoBenefitsRequirementsforEachStandardRoleofThirdPartyAuditorsAlignedInterestsBetweenBuyersandSellersIndependentValidationofProjectActivityMonitoringandIndependentVerificationofProjectActivityiiProjectApproval:AuditorsorStandardBoardsConflictsofInterest:AuditorsandProjectDevelopersQualityControlofAuditorsProjectAuditingRequirementsforEachStandardProjectAuditingRequirementsforEachStandardRegistriesRegistriesUsedbyEachStandardRegistriesUsedbyEachStandardDoubleCountingProjectLocationsandRulesonAnnexBCountriesforEachStandardProjectLocationsandRulesonAnnexBCountriesforEachStandardOffsetTransactionsPricingofOffsetsProjectCostsACommonMisunderstanding:The“ProjectSharePitfall”OffsetMarketPricesPricingofOffsetsforEachStandardPricingofOffsetsforEachStandardChoosingtheRightContractTermsLowTransactionRisk:PromptDeliveryofExistingOffsetsMediumTransactionRisk:ForwardDeliveryofFutureOffsetsHighTransactionRisk:ForwardCreditingofExanteOffsetsHowProvidersCanReduceDeliveryRiskReviewofStandardsUsedIntheVoluntaryOffsetMarketOffsetStandardTypesFullfledgedStandardsCleanDevelopmentMechanismCleanDevelopmentMechanismGoldStandardGoldStandardVoluntaryCarbonStandard(VCS)VoluntaryCarbonStandard(VCS)VERVERChicagoClimateExchange(CCX)ChicagoClimateExchange(CCX)OffsetStandardScreensVoluntaryOffsetStandard(VOS)VoluntaryOffsetStandard(VOS)BioSequestrationStandardsCDMAfforestationandReforestationStandard(CDMAR)CDMAfforestationandReforestationStandard(CDMAR)VCSAFOLUStandardVCSAFOLUStandardTheClimate,CommunityBiodiversityStandards(CCBS)TheClimate,CommunityBiodiversityStandards(CCBS)PlanVivoSystemPlanVivoSystemOffsetAccountingProtocolsGHGProtocolforProjectAccountingGHGProtocolforProjectAccountingISOISOGovernmentalActiontoRegulatetheVoluntaryMarketOverallStandardRatingsConclusionsReferencesAppendixA:RenewableEnergyCertificates(RECs)AppendixB:CDMAdditionalityToolAppendixC:RealizedCDMEmissionsReductionsAppendixD:GlossaryiiiAcknowledgementsTheauthorswouldliketothankthefollowingreviewersfortheircommentsandsuggestions:DerikBroekhoff,BarbaraHaya,TobyJansonSmith,MichaelSchlup,JuttaRothe,AnjaWucke,MichaelLazarus,andBenPearsonTheauthorswouldliketothankHeatherAngstromforproofreadingandeditingandSusanneHäfeliHestvikandAnnStrömbergfortheircontributionsandcommentsWewouldfurtherliketothankthefollowingpeoplewhohavereviewedandcommentedonthefollowingsections:JoannaDurbin(CCBS)NathanClarkandScottSubler(CCX)MeinradBürerandCaitlinSparks(GoldStandard)PatrickHardy(ISO)AlexaMorrisonandSarahCarter(PlanVivo)MichaelGillenwater(RECs)MarkusKnödlsederandMartinSchröder(VER)EdwinAalders,JoshHarris,andMarkKenber(VCS)OliviaHartridge(VOS)AbouttheAuthorsAnjaKollmussworksfortheStockholmEnvironmentInstitute’sUSCenter,anindependentnonprofitresearchorganisationdedicatedtosciencebasedpolicychangeforasustainablefutureHerresearchareasincludecarbonmarkets,residentialenergyefficiency,andenvironmentaleducationwwwseiusorganjakollmussseiusorgHelgeZinkworksfortheSwedishTricoronagroup,amajorinvestorincarbonreductionprojectsandexpertincarboncreditcommercializationHelgeworksinthemandatoryandvoluntarycarbonmarketsdealingwithriskmanagementandqualitycontrolwwwtricoronacomhelgezinktricoronacomCliffordPolycarpisagraduatestudentatTheFletcherSchoolofLawandDiplomacyHeworksasaresearchinternattheStockholmEnvironmentInstituteHehasworkedoncarbonoffsetprojectsandclimatechangepolicyfortheCentreforScienceandEnvironment,theBritishHighCommissionandEcoSecuritiesinIndiaivAboutThisReportThisreportdiscussestheroleofthevoluntarycarbonmarketandprovidesanoverviewofthemostimportantcurrentlyavailablecarbonoffsetstandardsItcomparesthefollowingstandardssidebyside,outliningthemostpertinentaspectsofeach:•CleanDevelopmentMechanism(CDM)•GoldStandard(GS)•VoluntaryCarbonStandard(VCS)•VER•TheVoluntaryOffsetStandard(VOS)•ChicagoClimateExchange(CCX)•TheClimate,CommunityBiodiversityStandards(CCBS)•PlanVivoSystem•ISO•WRIWBCSDGHGProtocolfo

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