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首页 William_Wordsworth

William_Wordsworth.ppt

William_Wordsworth

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2013-07-23 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《William_Wordsworthppt》,可适用于高等教育领域

WilliamWordsworth华兹华斯()WilliamWordsworth华兹华斯()IntroductionIntroductionWilliamWordsworth(–)Englishpoet,OneofthegreatEnglishpoets,hewasaleaderoftheromanticmovementinEnglandWordsworth’sLifeWordsworth’sLifealawyer’sfamilydeathofparentsgrammarschoollakedistrictCambridge,vocation,summertourtoFranceAftergettinghisdegreeinCambridgeAftergettinghisdegreeinCambridge,backtoFrancefinancialdifficulties,ColeridgeweakenedrevolutionaryspiritseclusioninLakeDistrict,PoetLaureatediedin,attheageofMajorLiteraryWorksMajorLiteraryWorksDescriptiveSketches,anEveningWalk():hisfirstvolumewritteninthethcenturyfeelingfornaturaldescriptionLyricalBallads():themanifestoofEnglishRomanticismThePrelude():posthumouslyinhisgreatestworkPoemsinTwoVolumes():contains“Ode:IntimationsofImmortality”,theautobiographicalnarrative“ResolutionandIndependence”TheExcursion()theorphanwasbroughtupbyrelatives,whosethimtoschoolatHwaksheadinthebeautifullakedistrictinnorthwesternEnglandIn,Wordsworthsettleddownwithhissister,DorothyintheLakeDistrict,livedafrugallifeHestudiedatCambridgefromtoLyricalBallads《抒情歌谣集》ajointworkWordsworthColeridgebeginningoftheRomanticRevivalmanysubjects:romantic,charmofnovelty(新颖)tothingsofeverydaymajorityofpoemsdeeplovefornaturesympathyforthepoorManifestooftheMovement“TheRimeoftheAncientMariner”(“古舟子咏”“老水手之行”)LakePoetsWordsworth华兹华斯Coleridge柯尔律治Southey骚塞beginningasradicalsandclosingasconservativesContentsContentsLifestoryLakepoetsWordsworthPrinciplesofpoetryWordsworthshortpoemsAssessmentStudyandappreciationofhispoetryWordsworthPrinciplesofpoetryWordsworthPrinciplesofpoetryIntheprefaceof"LyricalBallads",hesetforthhisprinciplesofpeotry"Allgoodpoetryisthespontaneousoverflowofpowerfulfeelings"appealeddirectlytoindividualsensationsasthefoundationinthecreationandappreciationofpoetryThetruefunctionofpoetryliesinitspowertogiveanunexpectedsplendortofamiliarandcommonplacethings(humble,rusticlifeassubjectmatter)Astolanguage,heendeavoredtobringhislanguageneartothereallanguageofmandeliberatesimplicity,refusaltodecorate,thetruthofexpression,producedakindofpureandprofoundpoetrywithnootherthenpoethaseverequalledThemostimportantcontributionhehasmadeisthathehasnotonlystartedthemodernpoetry,thepoetryofthegrowinginnerself,butalsochangedthecourseofEnglishpoetrybyusingordianryspeechofthelanguageandbyadvocatingareturntonatureThePrelude《序曲》ThePrelude《序曲》)Wordsworth’sThePrelude《序曲》orGrowthofaPoet’sMind,anautobiographicalpoemconsideredhismasterpiece,isthespiritualrecordofhismind,showinghisdevelopmentofhisownthoughtandsentiment)Ithasbooks,analyzingthegrowthofhispoeticgeniusduringhischildhoodandyouth,andrecallsthelessonsheowestonature)ThedescriptionofthebookhasbeencalledalongjourneyhomeWordsworthshortpoemsWordsworthshortpoemsPoemsaboutnatureAgreatpoetofnature"aworshipperofnature'hewasathisbestndescribingofmountains,rivers,flowers,birds,childrenandpeasants,reminiscencesofhisownchildhoodandyouthForhim,naturebecomesaninspiringforceofrapture,apowerthatrevealstheworkingsofsoulItactsasasubstituteforimaginationandintellectualengagementwiththedevelopmentofembodiedhumanbeingintheirdiversecircumstancesIt'snaturethatgiveshimstrengthandknowledgefullofpeaceDescriptionsofmountains…andpeasants,andreminiscences(回忆)ofhisownchildhood…LinesWritteninEarlySpring“早春诗行”TotheCuckoo“致布谷鸟”TheDaffodils“水仙花”IWanderedLonelyasaCloud“我独自漫游像一朵浮云”MyHeartLeapsUp“我的心激烈地跳动”IntimationsofImmortality“不朽颂”LinesComposedaFewMilesAboveTinternAbbey“丁登寺杂咏”PoemsabouthumanlifeHethinksthatacommonlifeistheonlysubjectofliteraryinterestheisamasterhandinsearchingandrevealingthefeelingsofcommonpeopleThejoysandsorrowsofthecommonpeoplearehisthemesHissympathyalwaysgoestothesufferingpoorCommentsonWordsworthCommentsonWordsworthpathetic(忧郁、感情上的)picturesoftheworkingpeoplenaivety天真ofsimplepeasantchildrensympathytothesufferingsofthepoor,humblepeasants“TheSolitaryReaper”“孤独的收割者”“WeAreSeven”“我们是七个”“TheRuinedCottage”“SimonLee”“TheOldCumberlandBeggar”AssessmentAssessmentWordsworth’sgoodpoetrywerewrittenduringthefirstdecadebetweenandWhenhelivedinseclusion,hispoemsbecamedeclinedandmoreandmoreconservativeinthoughtWordsworth'spersonalityandpoetryweredeeplyinfluencedbyhisloveofnature,especiallybythesightsandscenesoftheLakeCountry,inwhichhespentmostofhismaturelifeAprofoundlyearnestandsincerethinker,hedisplayedahighseriousnesscomparable,attimes,toMilton'sbuttemperedwithtendernessandaloveofsimplicityWordsworth'searlierworkshowsthepoeticbeautyofcommonplacethingsandpeopleHisuseofthelanguageofordinaryspeechwasheavilycriticized,butithelpedtoridEnglishpoetryofthemoreartificialconventionsofthcenturydictionAlthoughWordsworthwasveneratedinthethcentBytheearlythcent,hisreputationhaddeclinedHewascriticizedfortheunevennessofhispoetry,forhisrathermarkedcapacityforbathos,andforhistransformationfromanopenmindedliberaltoacrampedconservativeInrecentyears,however,WordsworthhasagainbeenrecognizedasagreatEnglishpoet:aprofound,originalthinkerwhocreatedanewpoetictraditionStudyandappreciationStudyandappreciationSheDweltAmongtheUntroddenWaysITravelledamongUnknownManIWanderedLonelyasacloudSonnet:ComposeduponWestminsterBridgeThesolitaryreaper她住在人迹罕至的小路间她住在人迹罕至的小路间她住在人迹罕至的小路间在鸽子谷的清泉旁一个无人赞扬也很少人爱的姑娘。青苔边的一朵紫罗兰一半令人看不见美得像颗星星孤孤单单在天上闪现。她默默无闻很少有人晓得露西死于何时但她已在墓中啊!我怅然若失!Itisathreestanzapoem,isthebestknownofWordsworth'sseriesoffiveworkswhichcomprisehis"Lucy"series,andwasafavouriteamongstearlyreadersItwascomposedbothasameditationonhisownfeelingsoflonelinessandloss,andasanodetothebeautyanddignityofanidealisedwomanwholivedunnoticedbyallothersexceptbythepoethimselfThetitlelineimpliesLucylivedunknownandremote,bothphysicallyandintellectuallyThepoet'ssubject'sisolatedsensitivityexpressesacharacteristicaspectofRomanticexpectationsofthehuman,andespeciallyofthepoet's,conditionThroughoutthepoemsadnessandecstasyareintertwinedWhetherWordsworthhasdeclaredhisloveforherisleftambivalent,andevenwhethershehadbeenawareofthepoet'saffectionisunsaidHoweverthepoet'sfeelingsremainunrequited,andhisfinalverserevealsthatthesubjectofhisaffectionshasdiedaloneLucy's"untroddenways"aresymbolictothepoetofbothherphysicalisolationandtheunknowndetailsofhermindandlifeInthepoem,WordsworthisconcernednotsomuchwithhisobservationofLucy,butwithhisexperiencewhenreflectingonherpassingITravelledamongUnknownManITravelledamongUnknownMan我曾远游海外我曾远游海外周围都是陌生的眼光英格兰不知爱你有多深沉只因未曾去过异国他乡!忧郁的梦全都散去远游的念头旱已消亡只因爱你越发深沉我不愿再次背起行囊。你的崇山中有我的欢乐你的峻岭下有我的期望傍着英格兰炉火摇着纺车还有我那心爱的姑娘。你的展曦照着她在林阴流连你的夜幕伴着她在茅舍徜徉还有你那碧绿的田野。引来露西最后深情的眺望。IWanderedLonelyasacloudIWanderedLonelyasacloudIWanderedLonelyasacloud我如行云独自游IWanderedLonelyasacloud我如行云独自游我好似一朵孤独的流云高高地飘游在山谷之上突然我看到一大片鲜花是金色的水仙遍地开放。它们开在湖畔开在树下它们随风嬉舞随风飘荡。它们密集如银河的星星像群星在闪烁一片晶莹它们沿着海湾向前伸展通往远方仿佛无穷无尽一眼看去就有千朵万朵万花摇首舞得多么高兴。粼粼湖波也在近旁欢跳却不如这水仙舞得轻俏诗人遇见这快乐的旅伴又怎能不感到欢欣雀跃进我久久凝视却未领悟这景象所给予我的精神至宝。后来多少次我郁郁独卧感到百无聊赖心灵空漠这景象便在脑海中闪现多少次安慰过我的寂寞我的心又随水仙跳起舞来我的心又重新充满了欢乐CommentonthepoemCommentonthepoemThisissimplyasuperbpoemdepictingpoet'slovefornatureItisalyricpoemfocusingonthepoet'sresponsetothebeautyofnatureThepoetisneveralonewhenheiswithnaturePoetneverfelthimselfisolatedinthecompanyofnatureHeistruelyaPantheist,wholovesnatureasamotherWordsworth'sobservationsareverydeepandmaybecrowdofDaffodilsseemstohimasheadsofangelsPersonificationisalsousedbythepoetandhisintellectisreflectedinthispoemAllimagesarefulloflifeandmoodofpoemisjoyousThepoemtellsusthattheblisswecanenjoyintherealsenseofthetermifwecanmergeinthenatureActualcontactwiththedaffodilsisnotthepointOnlywhenhereconstructsthemomentwithhis'inwardeye'doesheactuallyfeelpleasurefromtheexperienceThepoetistrappedHecannotfeeltheworlduntilpullsitthroughmemory(timeimagination)Hedoesn't'dancewiththedaffodils'untilheisaloneandcanreflectonthem,andatthismoment,isolatedfromtheactualdaffodils,hereallyonlyreflectsonhimselfWordsworthsimplytellsusofanexperiencehehadandwhatitmeanttohim,andhealsopointsoutthatitisthistypeofexperiencethatyoudon'tknowhowvaluableitwillbetoyouwhenithappensitislater,afteryouhaveusedthememoryofittocheeryouupmanytimesinyourlifethatyourealizehowmuchitaffectedyouTomethispoemindicatesthepathtospiritualEnlightenment这首诗写于诗人从法国回来不久。诗人带着对自由的向往去了法国参加一些革命活动。但法国革命没有带来预期的结果随之而来的是混乱。诗人的失望和受的打击是可想而知的后来在他的朋友和妹妹的帮助下情绪才得以艰难地恢复。这首诗就写于诗人的心情平静之后不久。在诗的开头诗人将自己比喻为一朵孤独的流云孤单地在高高的天空飘荡。孤傲的诗人发现一大片金色的水仙它们欢快地遍地开放。在诗人的心中水仙已经不是一种植物了而是一种象征代表了一种灵魂代表了一种精神。水仙很多如天上的星星都在闪烁。水仙似乎是动的沿着弯屈的海岸线向前方伸展。诗人为有这样的旅伴而欢欣鼓舞、欢呼跳跃。在诗人的心中水仙代表了自然的精华是自然心灵的美妙表现。但是欢快的水仙并不能时时伴在诗人的身边诗人离开了水仙心中不时冒出忧郁孤寂的情绪。这时诗人写出了一种对社会、世界的感受:那高傲、纯洁的灵魂在现实的世界只能郁郁寡欢。当然诗人的脑海深处会不时浮现水仙那美妙的景象这时的诗人双情绪振奋欢欣鼓舞。诗歌的基调是浪漫的同时带着浓烈的象征主义色彩。可以说诗人的一生只在自然中找到了寄托。而那平静、欢欣的水仙就是诗人自己的象征在诗中诗人的心灵和水仙的景象融合了。这首诗虽然是在咏水仙但同时也是诗人自己心灵的抒发和感情的外化。诗人有强烈的表达自我的意识那在山谷上的高傲形象那水仙的欢欣那郁郁的独眠或是诗人自己的描述或是诗人内心的向往。诗人的心灵又是外向的在自然中找到了自己意识的象征。那自然就进入了诗人的心灵在诗人的心中化为了象征的意象。ThepoemisasonnetdescribingLondon,viewedfromoneofthebridgesovertheThames,intheearlymorningItwasfirstpublishedinThepoemisasonnetdescribingLondon,viewedfromoneofthebridgesovertheThames,intheearlymorningItwasfirstpublishedinComposedUponWestminsterBridge威斯敏斯特桥上ComposedUponWestminsterBridge威斯敏斯特桥上大地再没有比这儿更美的风貌:若有谁对如此壮丽动人的景物竟无动于衷那才是灵魂麻木瞧这座城市像披上一领新袍披上了明艳的晨光环顾周遭:船舶尖塔剧院教堂华屋都寂然、坦然向郊野、向天穹赤露在烟尘未染的大气里粲然闪耀。旭日金挥洒布于峡谷山陵也不比这片晨光更为奇丽我何尝见过、感受过这深沉的宁静!河上徐流由着自己的心意上帝呵!千门万户都沉睡未醒这整个宏大的心脏仍然在歇息!StructureStructureThispoemiswritteninPetrarchansonnetformThisschemedividesthepoemintotwo:thefirsteightlines(octave)andthenextsix(sestet)Betweenthesetwoisabreakcalledavolta(回,次)whichemphasisesthetraditionalchangeinmoodorsubjectbetweentheoctaveandsestetInthefirsteight,hedescribesearlymorningLondonindetail,andthengoesoninthefinalsixtocomparethecityinthatmomenttonaturalwondersTherhymeschemeisABBAABBACDCDCD,asisfairlycommonforaPetrarchansonnetSummarySummaryInthebeginningofthepoem,thepoetisdescribingthebeautyofthemorningsceneatWestminsterBridgeHesaysthereisnothingmorebeautifulonearth,ascenewhichis"touchinginitsmajesty"Wordsworthputsthebeautyofsuchascenedowntothe"smokelessair",anunusualthingforLondoninthes,andpartofthebeautythatonlytheearliestmorningcanbringHeevengoessofarastosuggestthatno"valley,rock,orhill"hasbeensobeautifullylitbytheearlymorning,which,consideringWordsworth'spreferenceforrusticfiguresandnature,wouldseemsurprisinguntilthepenultimate倒数第二的lineofthesonnethalfanswersourquestionsThebeautyofthecityisthatitissleepingTherearenopeoplebustlingabout,thereisnosmokethesun(whichnote,isNature)mayonlyhavesuchadeepeffectonthecityatthistime,beforethecitybecomesacitywhilstitisstilljustbuildingsThemesThemesInthepoemthethemeisthatofNatureThepoemdescribesthebeautyofLondonintheearlymorningjustwhenthesunrisesLondonisnotintroducedinitsnegativeaspect,butitisinsertedinnaturalsceneryTheauthordescribesthebeautyofthecityasthetowers,thecathedrals,thetheatresandthetemplesWordsworthpersonifiesthecityalongwiththeearthandthesunThisreiterateshisconvictionthatthecity,atthisparticularpointofday,doesnotclashwithnaturebutbecomesapartofitWeperceivethebeautyofthecitynotsomuchthroughthedescriptionofwhatcanbeseenasthroughasenseoftheadmirationofthespeakerItisasifheislookingatawonder,atsomethingthatcannotbebutisstillthereThissenseofadmirationiscommunicatedthroughthedevelopmentofastrangeparadox,whichstatestheimpossibleunityoftwocontradictorythings:theindustrialcityandtheorganicbeautyofnatureThisparadoxisintroducedthroughtheimageofdress,whichtherhymesoftheoctavehighlight:thecityisfair(beautiful)becauseitwears‘likeagarment’thenaturalbeautyofthemorningbutwearingthebeautyofthemorninginfactmeansthatthecityisbare(naked):whatitwearsisjust‘thesmokelessair’TheparadoxiscarriedoveranddevelopedfurtherinthesestetTheconnectionwiththedressmetaphorisestablishedthroughtheimageofthecitybeingsteepedinthelightofthesunandthentheparadoxisextendedtothestrangeunionofbeingdead(orasleep)andbeingaliveThecityisnowmorebeautifulandmorealivethannatureitself,butthisisonlysobecauseitissteepedinthelightofthesunandisthusdeepasleepTherhymingwordssteep–deep–asleephighlighttheseconnectionsAsopposedtothecity,whichis‘lyingstill’,thenaturalpartsofthelandscape,thesunlight,the‘valley,rock,orhill’aswellastheriverarenowactive,theydominateoverthesleepingcity,asisemphasizedbytherhymingwordshill–attheirwill–lyingstillThecity,representedinthelastlinebythemetaphoroftheheart,isthusalivebecauseitisdead,becauseitisinactiveandisdominatedbyitsnaturalenvironmentImageryImageryInWordsworth'sview,theairiscleanandonlythelightofthesunilluminatesthecityThepoettransmitstothereadersthecalmandthetranquillitydescribedinhispoemThereareneithersoundsornoises,thereisonlysilenceInBlake'spoem,hearingistheprevailingsenseInWordsworth'sone,itisthesightthatemerges,whilethehearingisabsentOntheonehandinBlake'scompositionthetownispresentedthroughthesmokethatpervadesthewallsoftheChurchesOntheotherhand,inWordsworth'spoem,LondonshowscleanairandthesunilluminatesthewholecityThepoemdepictsavividscenethatisyetanotherfondmemorysharedbetweenWordsworthandhissisterHeusesbeautifullanguageandcleverliterarydevices,especiallyimagery,tomakethecitycomealivebeforethereader'seyesThepassionatepicturethatthepoempaintsisamemorythatcalmsandplacates安抚,平息(怒气)Inthispoem,Wordsworthbringsthesceneryaroundhimtolife(anexampleofthePatheticfallacy)WordsworthpersonifiestheEarthbygivingitacapitalletter,anddescribingitashavingtheabilityto"show"Healsopersonifiesthecity,bydescribingitaswearingthemorningbeauty"likeagarment"Theimageofthesunispowerful,asitisreferredtoas“he”,withactionsdescribedbydictionsuchas“steep”Thisdictioncreatestheimageofsunlightslowlysubmergingintotheearth'ssplitsTheriverispersonifiedwhenitisdescribedashavingits"ownsweetwill",andthehousesarepersonifiedbytheirdescriptionofbeingasleepLastly,thecityitselfispersonifiedwiththeline"andallthatmightyheartislyingstill"ThesepersonificationsagainhelpustodrawtheconclusionthatWordsworthisconsideringasleepingcityaspartofnatureThecompactdescriptionofLondoninlinessixandsevenemphasizethecompactnessofthecity,andlongvowelsoundssuchas"glideth"and"silent"emphasizethecalmfeelingoftheoccasionThedescription“brightandglitteringinthesmokelessair”createsadistinctimageoftheclarityofthemorningTheseimagescombinetocreateabreathtakingimageofthemorningDespitethisexcitementcreatedbythevividdescriptions,prevalentinthispoemisasenseofcalamityThepoemdescribes“acalmsodeep”that“eventhehousesseemasleep”Thesolitaryreaper孤独的割麦女Thesolitaryreaper孤独的割麦女看一个孤独的高原姑娘在远远的田野间收割一边割一边独自歌唱请你站住.或者俏悄走过!她独自把麦子割了又捆唱出无限悲凉的歌声屏息听吧!深广的谷地已被歌声涨满而漫溢!还从未有过夜莺百啭唱出过如此迷人的歌在沙漠中的绿荫间抚慰过疲惫的旅客还从未有过杜鹃迎春声声啼得如此震动灵魂在遥远的赫布利底群岛打破过大海的寂寥。她唱什么谁能告诉我?忧伤的音符不断流涌是把遥远的不聿诉说?是把古代的战争吟咏?也许她的歌比较卑谦只是唱今日平凡的悲欢只是唱自然的哀伤苦痛昨天经受过明天又将重逢?姑娘唱什么我猜不着她的歌如流水永无尽头只见她一面唱一面干活弯腰挥镰操劳不休……我凝神不动听她歌唱然后当我登上了山岗尽管歌声早已不能听到它却仍在我心头缭绕。AnalysisAnalysis"TheSolitaryReaper"isaballadbyWordsworth,andoneofhisbestknownworksinEnglishliteratureInit,Wordsworthdescribesinthefirstperson,presenttense,howheisamazedandmovedbyaScottishHighlandsgirlwhosingsasshereapsgraininasolitaryfieldComposedin,thepoemwasfirstpublishedinPoems,inTwoVolumes()Eachofitsfourstanzasiseightlineslongandwritteniniambictetrameter,witharhymeschemeofababccdd,thoughinthefirstandlaststanzasthe"a"rhymeisoffThewordsofthereaper'ssongareincomprehensibletothespeaker,sohisattentionisfreetofocusonthetone,expressivebeauty,andtheblissfulmooditcreatesinhimThepoemfunctionstopraisethebeautyofmusicanditsfluidexpressivebeauty,the"spontaneousoverflowofpowerfulfeeling"thatWordsworthidentifiedattheheartofpoetryThemes:ThepoemmainlydiscussesthethemeofpoetrySongsarepoetrytoo,andthatiscleartoWordsworthWecanseethatheseesthegirlasapoetbecauseoftheprefacetoLyricalBallads()Init,WordsworthmaintainedthatpoetryshouldnotrelyonartificialdictionforitseffortRather,itshouldbewritteninmoreordinarylanguageandsimplerformsothatallclassesmightappreciateit"TheSolitaryReaper"exemplifiesthisbeliefHoweverthereaperisoneofWordsworth'smostfamous"solitaries"WordsworthusedsolitarycharacterstoshowhowtobeonewithnatureThegirliscomparedtonightingalesandcuckoobirdsinapositivelight,asthoughsheisoneofthem,whichshowshernaturalsideThe"valeprofoundIsoverflowingwiththesound",andthisalsoshowsthatsheandnaturearesympathetictoeachotherOtherthemestouchedonarethoseofloss"somenaturalsorrow,lossorpain"andimaginationThesongtakesWordsworthtothecornersoftheworld,from"Arabiansands"tothe"farthestHebrides"Thelackofunderstandingmeansthatheisabletoponderthemeaning,alsoanexampleofimaginationin,hemadefriendswithColeridge,theylivedtogether,devotingtheirtimetowritingpoetryTheestablishmentofJacobindictators

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