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首页 OECD-ols手册

OECD-ols手册.pdf

OECD-ols手册

it1000et2000
2013-07-15 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《OECD-ols手册pdf》,可适用于高等教育领域

OrganisationforEconomicCooperationandDevelopmentTHEMEASUREMENTOFSCIENTIFICANDTECHNOLOGICALACTIVITIESPROPOSEDGUIDELINESFORCOLLECTINGANDINTERPRETINGTECHNOLOGICALINNOVATIONDATAOSLOMANUALEuropeanCommissionEurostatTABLEOFCONTENTSChapterOBJECTIVESANDSCOPEOFTHEMANUALINTRODUCTIONFACTORSINFLUENCINGTHESCOPEOFTHEMANUALUnderstandingtheinnovationprocessandtheimplicationsforinnovationpolicyExperienceonthesupplysideSCOPEOFTHEMANUALSectoralcoverageInnovationatthelevelofthefirmTechnologicalproductandprocessinnovationDiffusionofinnovationPROVIDINGDATAONTHEKEYISSUESFactorsinfluencingTPPinnovationTPPinnovationactivitiesandexpendituresTheTPPinnovatingfirmandtheimpactofTPPinnovationSOMESURVEYISSUESApproachtodatacollectionSurveymethodsTHERELATIONSHIPBETWEENTHEOSLOMANUALANDOTHERINTERNATIONALSTANDARDSANDRELATEDCONCEPTSSTactivities:theFrascatifamilyofmanualsOthereconomicnormsandclassificationsOtherrelatedconceptsandsurveysFINALREMARKChapterNEEDSFORTHEMEASUREMENTOFINNOVATIONINTRODUCTIONECONOMICSOFINNOVATIONTOWARDSACONCEPTUALFRAMEWORKFrameworkconditionsScienceandengineeringbaseTransferfactorsInnovationdynamoDECIDINGPRIORITIESSixareasforinvestigationCorporatestrategiesTheroleofdiffusionSourcesofinformationforinnovationandobstaclestoinnovationInputstoinnovationTheroleofpublicpolicyinindustrialinnovationInnovationoutputsHowtomeasureandscopeformeasurement“Whatdowewanttomeasure”:Technologicalproductprocess–TPP–innovations“Howshoulditbemeasured”:Choiceofthesurveyapproach“Whereshoulditbemeasured”:SectoralcoverageChapterBASICDEFINITIONSINTRODUCTIONTPPINNOVATIONMAINCOMPONENTSOFTPPINNOVATIONTechnologicalproductinnovationTechnologicalprocessinnovationDIFFUSIONOFTPPINNOVATIONS:INSTITUTIONALNOVELTYMinimumcoverageCoveragewithinthefirmDISTINGUISHINGBETWEENTPPINNOVATIONANDOTHERCHANGESINTHEFIRMORINDUSTRYOrganisationalinnovationCoverageBorderlinecases:organisationalchangeinmanufacturingandserviceprocessesOtherchangesinproductsandprocessesExcludinginsignificantornonnovelchanges(a)Ceasingtouseaprocessortomarketaproduct(b)Simplecapitalreplacementorextension(c)Changesresultingpurelyfromchangesinfactorprices(d)Customproduction(e)Seasonalandothercyclicalchanges(f)ProductdifferentiationTPPinnovationandothercreativeproductimprovementsTPPINNOVATIONACTIVITIESRelationwithimplementationofTPPinnovationsThecomponentsandcoverageofTPPinnovationactivitiesAcquisitionandgenerationofrelevantknowledgenewtothefirm(a)Researchandexperimentaldevelopment(b)Acquisitionofdisembodiedtechnologyandknowhow(c)AcquisitionofembodiedtechnologyOtherpreparationsforproduction(a)Toolingupandindustrialengineering(b)Industrialdesignnec(c)Othercapitalacquisition(d)ProductionstartupMarketingforneworimprovedproductsBorderlinecasesDesignTrainingMarketingSoftwareTHETPPINNOVATINGFIRMTHEORYANDPRACTICEChapterINSTITUTIONALCLASSIFICATIONSTHEAPPROACHTHEUNITSCLASSIFICATIONBYMAINECONOMICACTIVITYCLASSIFICATIONBYSIZEOTHERCLASSIFICATIONSTypeofinstitutionOtherChapterMEASURINGASPECTSOFTHEINNOVATIONPROCESSOBJECTIVESOFINNOVATIONFACTORSASSISTINGORHAMPERINGINNOVATIONSourcesofinformationforinnovationFactorshamperinginnovationactivitiesIDENTIFYINGTPPINNOVATINGFIRMSTHEIMPACTOFINNOVATIONSONTHEPERFORMANCEOFTHEENTERPRISEProportionofsalesduetotechnologicallyneworimprovedproductsResultsofinnovationeffortImpactofTPPinnovationontheuseoffactorsofproductionAveragecostreductionsduetotechnologicalprocessinnovationsDIFFUSIONOFINNOVATIONUsersectorsSurveysofuseofadvancedtechnologiesinthemanufacturingprocessSPECIALQUESTIONSSpecialquestionsonRDQuestionsonpatentsandtheappropriabilityofinnovationsQuestionsontheacquisitiondiffusionoftechnologyChapterMEASURINGTHEEXPENDITUREONINNOVATIONTHEMETHODOFMEASUREMENTSUGGESTEDBREAKDOWNSBottomuportopdownmethodBreakdownbytypeofexpenditureTherelationbetweenintangibleinvestmentandTPPinnovationexpenditureBreakdownbytypeofinnovationactivityRDexpenditureExpenditurefortheacquisitionofdisembodiedtechnologyandknowhowExpenditurefortheacquisitionofembodiedtechnologyExpenditurefortoolingup,industrialengineering,industrialdesignandproductionstartup(includingotherexpenditureforpilotplantsandprototypesnotalreadyincludedinRD)ExpenditurefortraininglinkedtoTPPinnovationactivitiesMarketingfortechnologicallyneworimprovedproductsMeasurementproblemsTheborderlinebetweenRDandnonRDinnovationexpenditureOtherdifficultiesBreakdownbysourceoffundsChapterSURVEYPROCEDURESPOPULATIONSSURVEYMETHODSCensusorsamplesurveyMandatoryorvoluntarysurveyTheframepopulationSurveymethodsandsuitablerespondentsThequestionnaireInnovationandRDsurveysPERFORMANCEOFSAMPLESURVEYSESTIMATIONOFRESULTS–NONRESPONSEPROBLEMPRESENTATIONOFRESULTSFREQUENCYOFDATACOLLECTIONANNEXUSINGTHEOBJECTAPPROACHFORCOLLECTINGINNOVATIONDATAINTRODUCTIONSURVEYSONSPECIFICINNOVATIONSIssuesaddressedbytheuseofobjectapproachdataDrawbacksofusingtheobjectapproachImplementationoftheobjectapproachExperienceincollectingdatausingtheobjectapproach

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