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首页 【英文】现代希腊教训Modern_Greek_Lessons.pdf

【英文】现代希腊教训Modern_Greek_Lessons.pdf

【英文】现代希腊教训Modern_Greek_Lessons.…

上传者: andy董 2013-07-14 评分 5 0 179 24 812 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《【英文】现代希腊教训Modern_Greek_Lessonspdf》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含MODERNGREEKLESSONSEDITORSSherryBOrtner,NicholasBDirks,GeoffEleyTITLESINSER符等。

MODERNGREEKLESSONSEDITORSSherryBOrtner,NicholasBDirks,GeoffEleyTITLESINSERIESHighReligion:ACulturalandPoliticalHistoryofSherpaBuddhismbySherryBOrtnerAPlaceinHistory:SocialandMonumentalTimesinaCretanTownbyMichaelHerzfeldTheTextualConditionbyJeromeMcGannRegulatingtheSocial:TheWelfareStateandLocalPoliticsinImperialGermanybyGeorgeSteinmetzHangingWithoutaRope:NarrativeExperienceinColonialandPostcolonialKarolandbyMaryMargaretStealyModernGreekLessons:APrimerinHistoricalConstructivismbyJamesDFaubionPRINCETONSTUDIESINCULTUREPOWERHISTORYMODERNGREEKLESSONSAPRIMERINHISTORICALCONSTRUCTIVISMJamesDFaubionPRINCETONUNIVERSITYPRESSPRINCETON,NEWJERSEYCOPYRIGHTBYPRINCETONUNIVERSITYPRESSPUBLISHEDBYPRINCETONUNIVERSITYPRESS,WILLIAMSTREET,PRINCETON,NEWJERSEYINTHEUNITEDKINGDOM:PRINCETONUNIVERSITYPRESS,CHICHESTER,WESTSUSSEXALLRIGHTSRESERVEDLIBRARYOFCONGRESSCATALOGINGINPUBLICATIONDATAFAUBION,JAMESD,–MODERNGREEKLESSONS:APRIMERINHISTORICALCONSTRUCTIVISMJAMESDFAUBIONPCM(PRINCETONSTUDIESINCULTUREPOWERHISTORY)INCLUDESBIBLIOGRAPHICALREFERENCESANDINDEXISBNXISBN(PBK)ATHENS(GREECE)CIVILIZATIONITITLEIISERIESDFF′DCCIPTHISBOOKHASBEENCOMPOSEDINBITSTREAMELECTRAPRINCETONUNIVERSITYPRESSBOOKSAREPRINTEDONACIDFREEPAPERANDMEETTHEGUIDELINESFORPERMANENCEANDDURABILITYOFTHECOMMITTEEONPRODUCTIONGUIDELINESFORBOOKLONGEVITYOFTHECOUNCILONLIBRARYRESOURCESSECONDPRINTING,WITHCORRECTIONS,FORTHEPAPERBACKEDITION,PRINTEDINTHEUNITEDSTATESOFAMERICABYPRINCETONACADEMICPRESSDisclaimer:SomeimagesintheoriginalversionofthisbookarenotavailableforinclusionintheeBookToWRDFORTHEFOURWALLS,ANDALLWITHINTHEMThispageintentionallyleftblankCONTENTSACKNOWLEDGMENTSixPREFACE:TERMSANDDEFINITIONSxiINTRODUCTIONFortheTimeBeing:SomeNotesontheMannersofModernLivesPARTI:REVIEWINGATHENSModelImprobabilities:AthensatFirstSightRememberingandRemodeling:TheMetalepticMetropolisPARTII:ANOTHERMODERNITYCrossingtheThreshold:NotesonConflictataCertainGreekAirportSovereigntyandItsDiscontents“EverythingIsPossible”:NotesontheGreekModernPARTIII:AFTERTHECOLONELS:PROJECTSOFSELFDEFINITIONANDSELFFORMATIONSINCETheSelfMade:DevelopingaPostnationalCharacterTheWorksofMargharitaKarapanou:LiteratureasaTechnologyofSelfFormationMenAreNotAlwaysWhatTheySeem:FromSexualModernizationtowardSexualModernityEPILOGUEAfterthePresentviiiCONTENTSNOTESBIBLIOGRAPHYINDEXACKNOWLEDGMENTSMYRESEARCHinAthenswasfundedbyagrantfromtheITTInternationalFellowshipFoundationIamgratefulforthefoundation’ssupportIamalsogratefulforthesupportandtheguidanceofferedmebythestaffoftheAmericanEducationalFoundationinAthens,whosememberswereexceptionallykindandassistedmefaraboveandfarbeyondwhattheirdutieswarrantedIwouldnothavebeenabletogotoGreeceatallwereitnotforthesponsorshipoftheAcademyofAthens’sCenterofSocialResearchIwouldliketoexpressmythankstothedirectorofthecenter,GhrighorisGizelis,fortheadviceandthecontactswithwhichheprovidedmetoEvaKalpourtzi,whoarrangedmyassociationwiththecenterandtoIlianaAndanakapoulou,whowithMsKalpourtzilistenedtomyillformedideas,tomyramblings,andtomycomplaints,andtreatedmewithmorepatienceandtolerancethanIdeservedThanks,too,toAkisPapataxiarchisandtoMarinaIossifidhi,bothofwhomshouldknowthatanapology,too,isimpliedIoweanunaccountabledebttothemanyGreekswhoallowedmeintotheirhomesandintotheirlivesSomewouldprefertoremainanonymousIdelivermythankstothemwithoutnamingnamesOthers,Itrust,willnotmindifIthankthempublicly:DhimosthenisandAndiklia(andIno!)AghrafiotisMariellaDhoumaniAndreasIoannidhisMargharitaKarapanouNikosandMaroSaravanosElissavetSpiridhouandGhrighorisVallianatosModernGreekLessonswouldneverhavebeenwrittenwithouttheencouragement,thegifts,andthecoercionofmanyAmericancolleaguesandfriendsForthephotographsthataccompanythetext,formuchelsebesides,IthankWilliamDallFortheirinsightsandtheirsupport,IwouldliketothankRobertBellah,StanleyBrandes,JillDubisch,StephenFoster,MiaFuller,VictoriaMukerjiGorsia,andHerbertPhillipsForhertolerance,herjudgment,andherfaith,IwouldliketothankmyeditoratPrinceton,MaryMurrellThanks,too,toBrianMacDonaldIoweamoreelaboratedebttothreeothersWeber’sdiagnosisoftheinevitableunbrotherlinessofscholarsfailstoapplytheyareallexceptionstotheruleMichaelHerzfeldreadanearlierversionofthemanuscriptassiduouslyandgenerously,andIcredithimwithmanyemendations,manyrefinements,andmuchinspirationSamuelDanonacosmopolitanofpreciselythestripethatIhaveinmindinmuchofModernGreekLessons,raisedinGreece,trilingualinGreek,inFrench,andinEnglish,nowaprofessorofFrenchlanguageandliteratureatReedCollegehaspresidedovermytranslations,andhasimprovedthemallPaulRabinowhasbeenamentorinthetimehonoredandmostencompassingsenseofthetermfromthebeginningandstilltodayanadvisor,acritic,and,aboveall,afriendThispageintentionallyleftblankPREFACE:TERMSANDDEFINITIONSSIXYEARSAGO,IsetouttoinvestigateinGreecewhatMarshallSahlinshadalreadybeenexploringineighteenthcenturyPolynesia,RenatoRosaldoamongtheIlongot,andRichardPriceamongtheSaramakas:theculturalandinstitutionalcontext,theintellectualordering,andthepracticalexpressionofacertain“historicalconsciousness”Sahlins,Rosaldo,andPricehadsuccessfullyunderminedthetheoreticalcogencyofpositinganyGreatDividebetweenpeopleswithout,andpeopleswith,historyButtheyhadnotundermined,hadinsteadonlyconfirmed,thecogencyofasuggestionthatLéviStrausshadmade,andrepeated,beforethem:thattherelationbetweenpast,present,andfuture,theontologicalandexistentialsignificanceoftheflowofevents,mustreceivesomedefinitioninanypassablevieworvisionoftheworldandthatdefinitionsvaryfromoneplaceandtimeandcivilizationtoanotherInTheSavageMind,LéviStraussconflatedviewsoftheworldwithsocietiesand,everthebinarist,casuallygroupedallsocietiesunderoneortheotheroftwodichotomousindexesSomesocieties,willingtorecognizeinchangeonlyasubordinatebutinpermanencetheultimatereality,wereaccordingly“cold”Othersocieties,convincedoftheultimaterealityofchangeandcommittedtofurtheringit,were“hot”LéviStrausslatercorrectedhisconflation,andevenventuredtoreshapehisdiscretescaleintoonemorecontinuousNoteveryonewassatisifedRosaldocontinuedtoseeeveninLéviStrauss’semendationsaninvitationfortheGreatDividetoreenteranthropologicaltheorythroughananalyticalbackdoorIsawsomethingofgreaterinterestInTheSavageMind,thedistinctionbetween“cold”and“hot”hadservedmorethanaclassificatory,apurelyacademicendIthadalsoservedapolemicalend,andservedit,Ithink,effectivelyenoughThedistinctionpavedthewayforadiagnosisofthelimitationsoftheprogramfora“historicalanthropology”thatSartreputforwardintheCritiqueofDialecticalReasonThediagnosismaynothavebeenfairinallrespects,butitsbasicthrustwasonthemarkLéviStrausswascorrectinarguingintheclosingchapterofTheSavageMindthatSartre’santhropologywasgroundedinaviewoftheworldso“hot”thatitcouldnotbegintocountenancethelegitimacy,therationality,the“authenticity”ofviewsevenslightlymorelukewarmHewascorrectinpointingoutthatSartrehadtakentheultimateontologicalandexistentialrealityofacontingentandmutableuniverseforgrantedThoughhedidnot,hemightalsohavepointedoutthatSartrewasfarfromaloneAmongtheclassicalsocialtheorists,onlyDurkheimhadmadeananthropologicalobjectofhumanconceptionsoftimeandchangeButnotevenDurkheimhadbotheredtoxiiPREFACEtreathisownevolutionismasasocialfact,andsotoputitanthropologicallyintofocusLikeMarxandWeber,hewasguiltyofoverlookingwhatLéviStrausshadbroughttolight:thecharacteristicallyWesternandcharacteristicallymoderntenorofviewsandvisionsoftheworldradiatingforalltheirdifferencesasimilarlyhighdegreeof“heat”Butwereourprevailingportraitsofmodernitynot,then,seriouslyincompleteWeretheyperhapsinneedoffundamentalrevisionWhatIfoundinGreeceledmetoconcludethatourprevailingportraitsofmodernitywereinneednotsimplyofrevisionbutofacounterbalance,oftheportraitureof“anothermodernity,”amodernityforwhich“heat”wasnotaforgottenorsecondarybutratheracentralprincipleInModernGreekLessons,IhavepursuedrevisionandthetaskofconstructingthatcounterbalancehandinhandIhavebegunwithapiecemealcollectionofcuriosities,ofostensibleanomalies,ofartifactsandactivitiesostensiblyneither“traditional”normodernIhavesoughtgraduallytoarticulateaninterpretiveframeworkwithinwhichthosepiecesmightallcoherentlycometogether,theiranomalousnessdiminish,andtheirpropermodernityemergeinaclearerlightThroughout,IhaveunderstoodmodernitymuchasShmuelEisenstadthasrecentlyrecommended:notas“theultimateendpointoftheevolutionofallknownsocieties”butrather“asonespecifictypeofcivilizationwhichoriginatedinEuropeandwhichhasspreadallovertheworld”I,too,haverejectedevolutionismandhaveattendedtodiffusioneventhoughIhavestoppedshortofreturningtodiffusionismIhavereferredto“modernsystems”andhaveunderstoodthem,withEisenstadt,assystemsatonceinstitutionallyandideologicallydistinctIhavenot,however,identifiedmodernityasapropertyonlyofthosesystems,muchlessofanythingsoglobal,sototalasa“civilization”IhaveinsteadfollowedWeberinidentifyingitfirstand,primarily,asthepropertyofatypeofpraxisWeberlocatedmodernityoratleastitsdominant,northwesterlymodalityinthepracticeofwhathecametocall“formal”or“technicalrationalism”IhavelocateditsGreekmodality,the“Greekmodern,”inthepracticeofwhatIhavenamed“historicalconstructivism”DefiningaPracticeTalkofpracticeshasgrowntoofashionable,tooglib,andmoredoctrinairethanitneedbeEspeciallysincethepublicationofBourdieu’sOutline,ithasalsobecomeentangledwithareductivematerialismthathasrobbeditofmuchofitsdiagnosticforceThroughoutModernGreekLessons,IhavefollowedBourdieuinunderstandingpracticesessentiallyashabitualactions,themanifestationofthose“structuredandstructuringdispositions”thosehabitusthroughtheacquisitionofwhichhumanbeingsevPREFACExiiierywherebecomesocialbeings,eachwithcharacteristictastes,andsentiments,andpresumptions,andgoalsBourdieuhasargued,quiterightly,thatpracticessimplydonotadmitofperfectformalization,ofthesortof“mechanicalmodeling”thatLéviStraussoncedeclaredthecardinalstandardofany“adequate”anthropologicalanalysisEverydisposition,nomatterhowstructured,stillbearstheparticularstampoftheparticularbeing,oneofapotentiallyinfinitenumberofbeings,inwhomitisembodiedEverypracticecomprisesapotentiallyinfinitearrayofparticularactions,eachoneofwhichcanbeinterpretedonlyrelativetotheparticularfeaturesoftheparticularsituationinwhichitunfoldsBourdieu’sargumentishardlyoriginalOnecanfinditinAristotle’sNicomacheanEthicsOnecanfinditinGeertzItentailsinanycasethattheanalystofpracticesisalwaysinthefaceofapotentialinfinitudeofvariablesMechanicalmodelscanaccommodateonlyafinitenumberofvariablesTheanalystofpracticesisthuscondemnedtobeamere“statistician”Soitgoes:butBourdieuhasgonefurther,proposingthatpracticesarenotsimplyunformalizablebutalsofundamentallyinformalthattheymaybewroughtwithreference,butneverfundamentallyindeference,torulesornormsTheproofthatBourdieuadducesisjustthis:thatpractitionersoftenenoughviolatethe“official”normsoftheirpracticeswithvirtualimpunitythattheyoftenenoughviolatethemnottosufferthesanctionsbutinsteadtoreaptherewardsoftheirdevianceTheconclusionhedrawsisthatallpracticesareatbasestrategicthatwhateverelsetheymayappeartobeandwhateverelsethosewhoareengagedinthemmightbelievethemtobe,theyareallatbasesimplydifferentmannersoftheseekingofthemaximizationofcapitalsymbolic,ormaterial,orbothBourdieu’s“brutal”reductionofpracticestoexploitspayslittleheedtothenative’spointofviewForBourdieu,thenativeisvirtuallyalwaysmorewrongthanrightThesamereductionmayappealtoourmodern,Westerncynicism,andespeciallytothatcynicismsuperficiallypopulistbutinfactprofoundlyelitistthatwouldpronounceallvaluesequalandallvaluesequallyillusoryOurown,“native”pointofviewmight,ofcourse,becorrectButBourdieu’sproofofitisexceptionallyweakSomepractitionersdo,nodoubt,violatethe“official”normsofthepracticestheypursue,attimeswithimpunity,attimesonlytoreapgreaterrewardsButeventhosepractitionerscandosoonlyexceptionallyThepractitionerwhoviolatestheofficialnormstoooftenortooregularlyislikelytobelabelednotcleverbutincompetentTheclever,the“masterful”practitionerknowsthatofficialnormscanbeviolatedonlysooften,andknowsthatsomenormsaremoreviolablethanothersNordoesthemastersimplyknowthatsomenormsmightoccasionallybeviolatedheorsheknows,too,thatmasterycanbeestablishedandmaintainedthroughtheiroccasionalviolationPracticalmasteryisinthisrespectjustasnormativelygovernedaspracticalcompetence,evenifthenormsoftheformerxivPREFACEmightcallfortheoccasionalviolationofcertainofthenormsofthelatterMightpracticalmasteryandpracticalcompetencebothstillbereducedtostrategiesforthemaximizationofcapitalTheymightbe,butonlyatthecostofoverlookingthattheendsthatpractitionerspursuemightandoftendohaveotherrationalesthanthesimplerationaleofprofitTheymightbe,butonlyatthecostofoverlookingthatthepursuitofcertainendscouldanddoes,incertaincircumstances,haveamorecogentrationalethanthepursuitofmanyothers:ofoverlookingasaconsequencethatnotallvaluesare,independentofcircumstance,quitesoillusoryastheymightseemInModernGreekLessons,IhaveresistedreductionandtriedtopreserveinsteadamultidimensionalanalysisatonceofpracticesandoftheendsandvaluestowardwhichtheyaredirectedThroughout,IhavetreatedallpracticeshistoricalconstructivismamongthemashavingthreeconstitutivedimensionsThefirstofthosedimensionsispreciselythedimensionofnormativityEvenpurelystrategicactionis,ofcourse,“normative”initswayEvenitisgovernedbysomeprincipleofmaximizationwhetherofcapital,orofprofit,orofsubjectiveutilityButIwould,paceBourdieu,followbothDurkheimandWeberinregardingstrategicactionasapracticeonlywhenitsgoverningnormiscollectivelyordainedandcollectivelysanctionedAsbothDurkheimandWeberrecognized,“rationalism”isofsociologicalinterest,andofsociologicalconsequence,onlyonceithasbecomeasocialfactAsWeberespeciallyrecognized,rationalismsarethemselvesofvariableprinciplesandonemightaddthatnotevenallmodern,occidentalpracticesarerationalinanyofthediverserespectsthatWeberspecifiedThenormativityofpracticesdistinguishesthemonlyfromsome(butbynomeansall)typesof“affective”oremotionallymotivatedconductAllpracticesimposeuponthosewhowouldpursuethemminimalnormsofcompetenceIhavenotassumed,however,thatallimposeadditionalnormsofmasteryNorhaveIassumedthatall,evenofthosepracticesthatwarrantadistinctionbetweenmereproficiencyandfullfledgedmastery,demandofthemastereventheoccasionalviolationofanynormswhatsoeverIhavetreatedallpracticesthepracticeofhistoricalconstructivismamongotherpracticesthatIhaveaddressedinModernGreekLessonsashavingalsoateleologicaldimensionNothingcontroversialhere,really:theoristsofpracticefromAristotlethroughBourdieuhaveagreedthatpracticesarealwaysdirectedtowardtherealizationofcharacteristictypesofendsorvalueseveniftheyhaveagreedonlittleelseTheyhaveconsequentlyagreedthatpracticesareneverpurely“expressive”allare“instrumental”Practicesare,however,necessarilyiterableNotallinstrumentalactionsmeetthesamecriterionImight,forexample,undertakeonsomerareoccasiontobreakintoanautomobileinwhichIhappenedtohavelockedmykeysIwouldcalluponmyscantknowledgeofengineering,andImightevensucceedinachievingmyaimMyactionswouldbeinstrumental,buttheyPREFACExvwouldnotbetokenapracticeIwouldbepursuingonlyaparticularend,nottheproperlyiterable,properlypracticalendofbreakingintowhateverautomobileshappenedtobelockedwiththeirkeysinsidethemwhentheoccasiondemandedIwouldnotdeservethetitleof“locksmith”(or“carthief”)Whetherpracticesandpractitionersmightbedefinedexclusivelybytheends(orvalues)theypursuehasremainedamatterofdebatefromAristotleforwardAristotleseemstohavethoughtthatpracticeshadathirdconstitutivedimension,amethodologicaldimensionthatsetthemapartfromactionsandactivitiesequallyinstrumentalbutprocedurallyonlyhookorcrookIwouldconcur,butwouldalsounderscoreAristotle’sownproviso:eventhemostmethodicalofpracticesretain,andmustretain,anelementofproceduralhookorcrookEventhemostmethodicalofpracticesunfoldinparticularcircumstancesandaimattherealizationofparticularinstancesofiterableendsEventhemostmethodicalofpracticesconsequentlyretainanelementofimprovisationthatnoamountofproceduralsystematizationcouldpossiblydispelBourdieumayholdtoanevenstronger,amoreradicalposition:thatpracticeshave,intheultimateanalysis,nomethodologicalsystematicitywhateverthattheyareinsteadstrictlyimprovisationalThepositionwouldbemoreplausiblewerepracticesindeedall(intheultimateanalysis)simplysomanystrategiesforthemaximizationofcapital,freeofthegovernanceof(anyother)normsThroughoutModernGreekLessons,IhavemaintainedapositionmuchclosertoAristotle’sthantoBourdieu’sModernandCountermodernPracticesMypositionmaybeclosertoAristotle’seventhantoWeber’s

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