下载

1下载券

加入VIP
  • 专属下载特权
  • 现金文档折扣购买
  • VIP免费专区
  • 千万文档免费下载

上传资料

关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 Vendler 1957 verbs and times

Vendler 1957 verbs and times.pdf

Vendler 1957 verbs and times

jingxia08
2013-07-08 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Vendler 1957 verbs and timespdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

PhilosophicalReviewVerbsandTimesAuthor(s):ZenoVendlerReviewedwork(s):Source:ThePhilosophicalReview,Vol,No(Apr,),ppPublishedby:DukeUniversityPressonbehalfofPhilosophicalReviewStableURL:http:wwwjstororgstableAccessed::YouruseoftheJSTORarchiveindicatesyouracceptanceoftheTermsConditionsofUse,availableathttp:wwwjstororgpageinfoaboutpoliciestermsjspJSTORisanotforprofitservicethathelpsscholars,researchers,andstudentsdiscover,use,andbuilduponawiderangeofcontentinatrusteddigitalarchiveWeuseinformationtechnologyandtoolstoincreaseproductivityandfacilitatenewformsofscholarshipFormoreinformationaboutJSTOR,pleasecontactsupportjstororgDukeUniversityPressandPhilosophicalReviewarecollaboratingwithJSTORtodigitize,preserveandextendaccesstoThePhilosophicalReviewhttp:wwwjstororgVERBSANDTIMESITHEfactthatverbshavetensesindicatesthatconsiderationsinvolvingtheconceptoftimearerelevanttotheiruseTheseconsiderationsarenotlimitedmerelytotheobviousdiscriminationbetweenpast,present,andfuturethereisanother,amoresubtledependenceonthatconcept:theuseofaverbmayalsosuggesttheparticularwayinwhichthatverbpresupposesandinvolvesthenotionoftimeInanumberofrecentpublicationssomeattentionhasbeenpaidtothesefineraspects,perhapsforthefirsttimesystematicallyDistinctionshavebeenmadeamongverbssuggestingprocesses,states,dispositions,occurrences,tasks,achievements,andsoonObviouslythesedifferencescannotbeexplainedintermsoftimealone:otherfactors,likethepresenceorabsenceofanobject,conditions,intendedstatesofaffairs,alsoenterthepictureNeverthelessonefeelsthatthetimeelementremainscrucialatleastitisimportantenoughtowarrantseparatetreatmentIndeed,asIintendtoshow,ifwefocusourattentionprimarilyuponthetimeschematapresupposedbyvariousverbs,"weareabletothrowlightonsomeoftheobscuritieswhichstillremaininthesemattersThesetimeschematawillappearasimportantconstituentsoftheconceptsthatpromptustousethosetermsthewayweconsistentlydoThereareafewsuchschemataofverywideapplicationOncetheyhavebeendiscoveredinsometypicalexamples,theymaybeusedasmodelsofcomparisoninexploringandclarifyingthebehaviorofanyverbwhateverInindicatingtheseschemata,Idonotclaimthattheyrepresentallpossiblewaysinwhichverbscanbeusedcorrectlywithrespecttotimedeterminationnorthataverbexhibitingausefairlycoveredbyoneschemacannothavedivergentuses,whichIamawareofmydutytoexplainwhatexactlyImeanby"timeschema"inthiscontextIshalldoitinduecourse'ZENOVENDLERinturnmaybedescribedintermsoftheotherschemataAsamatteroffact,preciselythoseverbsthatcallfortwoormoretimeschematawillprovidethemostinterestinginstancesofconceptualdivergenceinthisrespectanambiguityWhich,ifundetected,mightleadtoconfusionThusmyintentionisnottogiverulesabouthowtousecertaintermsbuttosuggestawayofdescribingtheuseofthosetermsIshallpresentsome"objectsofcomparisonwhicharemeanttothrowlightonthefactsofourlanguagebywaynotonlyofsimilarities,butalsoofdissimilaritiesameasuringrodnotasapreconceivedideatowhichrealitymustcorrespond'IIOurfirsttaskthereforewillbetolocateandtodescribethemostcommontimeschemataimpliedbytheuseofEnglishverbsTodothisIneedsomeclearcutexampleswhich,atleastintheirdominantuse,showforththeseschematainpureformAtthisstage,IshalltrytoavoidambiguoustermsandignorestretchedandborderlineusesIstartwiththewellknowndifferencebetweenverbsthatpossesscontinuoustensesandverbsthatdonotThequestion,"Whatareyoudoing"mightbeansweredby"Iamrunning(orwriting,working,andsoon),"butnotby"Iamknowing(orloving,recognizing,andsoon)"Ontheotherhand,theappropriatequestionandanswer,"Doyouknow""Yes,Ido,"havenocounterpartslike"Doyourun""Yes,Ido"Thisdifferencesuggeststhatrunning,writing,andthelikeareprocessesgoingonintime,ie,roughly,thattheyconsistofsuccessivephasesfollowingoneanotherintimeIndeed,themanwhoisrunningliftsuphisrightlegonemoment,dropsitthenext,thenliftshisotherleg,dropsit,andsoonButalthoughitcanbetrueofasubjectthatheknowssomethingatagivenmomentorforacertainperiod,knowinganditskinarenotprocessesLWittgenstein,PhilosophicalInvestigations(NewYork,I),pti,noso'IThepresenceorabsenceofanobjectisirrelevanthere"Iampushingacart"isacorrectsentence,while"Iamlovingyou"remainsnonsenseUnlessaverydifferentmeaningof"running"isinvolved,whichIshalldiscusslaterIVERBSANDTIMESgoingonintimeItmaybethecasethatIknowgeographynow,butthisdoesnotmeanthataprocessofknowinggeographyisgoingonatpresentconsistingofphasessucceedingoneanotherintimeFirstletusfocusourattentiononthegroupofverbsthatadmitcontinuoustensesThereisamarkedcleavagewithinthegroupitselfIfIsaythatsomeoneisrunningorpushingacart,mystatementdoesnotimplyanyassumptionastohowlongthatrunningorpushingwillgoonhemightstopthenextmomentorhemightkeeprunningorpushingforhalfanhourOntheotherhand,ifIsayofapersonthatheisrunningamileorofsomeoneelsethatheisdrawingacircle,thenIdoclaimthatthefirstonewillkeeprunningtillhehascoveredthemileandthatthesecondwillkeepdrawingtillhehasdrawnthecircleIftheydonotcompletetheiractivities,mystatementwillturnouttobefalseThusweseethatwhilerunningorpushingacarthasnosetterminalpoint,runningamileanddrawingacircledohavea"climax,"whichhastobereachediftheactionistobewhatitisclaimedtobeInotherwords,ifsomeonestopsrunningamile,hedidnotrunamileifonestopsdrawingacircle,hedidnotdrawacircleButthemanwhostopsrunningdidrun,andhewhostopspushingthecartdidpushitRunningamileanddrawingacirclehavetobefinished,whileitdoesnotmakesensetotalkoffinishingrunningorpushingacartAccordingly,thequestion,"Forhowlongdidhepushthecart"isasignificantone,while"Howlongdidittaketopushthecart"soundsoddOntheotherhand,"Howlongdidittaketodrawthecircle"istheappropriatequestion,and"Forhowlongdidhedrawthecircle"issomewhatqueerAnd,ofcourse,thecorrespondinganswerswillbe,"Hewaspushingitforhalfanhour"and"Ittookhimtwentysecondstodrawthecircle"or"Hediditintwentyseconds,"andnotviceversaPushingacartmaygoonforatime,butitdoesnottakeanydefinitetimetheactivityofdrawingmayalsogoonforatime,butittakesacertaintimetodrawacircleAveryinterestingconsequencefollowsIfitistruethatsomeoneOfcourseitmightremaintruethattheytriedtorunamileordrawacircleZENOVENDLERhasbeenrunningforhalfanhour,thenitmustbetruethathehasbeenrunningforeveryperiodwithinthathalfhourButevenifitistruethatarunnerhasrunamileinfourminutes,itcannotbetruethathehasrunamileinanyperiodwhichisarealpartofthattime,althoughitremainstruethathewasrunning,orthathewasengagedinrunningamileduringanysubstretchofthosefourminutesSimilarly,incaseIwrotealetterinanhour,Ididnotwriteit,say,inthefirstquarterofthathourItappears,then,thatrunninganditskindgoonintimeinahomogeneouswayanypartoftheprocessisofthesamenatureasthewholeNotsowithrunningamileorwritingalettertheyalsogoonintime,buttheyproceedtowardaterminuswhichislogicallynecessarytotheirbeingwhattheyareSomehowthisclimaxcastsitsshadowbackward,givinganewcolortoallthatwentbeforeThuswehavearrivedatthetimeschemataoftwoimportantspeciesofverbLetuscallthefirsttype,thatof"running,""pushingacart,"andsoforthactivityterms,andthesecondtype,thatof"runningamile,""drawingacircle,"andsoforthaccomplishmenttermsThedescriptionofthesefirsttwocategoriesalsoillustrateswhatImeanbyexhibitingthe"timeschemata"ofverbsWhenoneturnstotheothergenus,thatis,totheverbslackingcontinuoustenses,onediscoversaspecificdifferencetheretooAswesaidabove,verbslike"knowing"and"recognizing"donotindicateprocessesgoingonintime,yettheymaybepredicatedofasubjectforagiventimewithtruthorfalsityNowsomeoftheseverbscanbepredicatedonlyforsinglemomentsoftime(strictlyspeaking),whileotherscanbepredicatedforshorterorlongerperiodsoftimeOnereachesthehilltop,winstherace,spotsorrecognizessomething,andsoonatadefinitemomentOntheotherhand,onecanknoworbelievesomething,loveordominatesomebody,forashortorlongperiodTheformofpertinentquestionsandanswersprovesthepointneatly:"AtwhatIntheabsenceofa"pure"terminologyIamforcedtobecontentwiththesenames(andtheothertwotobegiven),whichalsoconnoteaspectsbeyondtimestructure(eg,thatofsuccess)Ifwedonotforgetthatourpointofviewislimitedtotimeschemata,however,weshallnotbesurprisedwhen,forexample,"gettingexhausted"turnsouttobeanaccomplishmenttermand"dying"anachievementterminoursenseVERBSANDTIMEStimedidyoureachthetop"("Atnoonsharp")and"Atwhatmomentdidyouspottheplane("AtIO:AM")but"Forhowlongdidyouloveher"("Forthreeyears")and"Howlongdidyoubelieveinthestork"("TillIwasseven"),andnottheotherwayaroundBeforegoinganyfurtherletuscallthefirstfamily(thatof"reachingthetop")achievementterms,andthesecond(thatof"loving")statetermsThenwecansaythatachievementsoccuratasinglemoment,whilestateslastforaperiodoftimeOurconclusionaboutachievementsisreinforcedbyacuriousfeaturepointedoutinanexamplebyGRyle(followingAristotle),namely,that"Icansay'Ihaveseenit'assoonasIcansay'Iseeit'"Asamatteroffactthepointcanbemadestrongerstill:incasesofpureachievementtermsthepresenttenseisalmostexclusivelyusedashistoricpresentorasindicatingimmediatefuture"Nowhefindsthetreasure(orwinstherace,andsoon)"isnotusedtoreporttheactualfindingorwinning,whiletheseeminglyparadoxical"Nowhehasfoundit"or"Atthismomenthehaswontherace"isThefactthatweoftensaythingslike,"Ittookhimthreehourstoreachthesummit"or"Hefounditinfiveminutes"mighttemptanovicetoconfuseachievements(whichbelongtothesecondgenus)withaccomplishments(whichbelongtothefirst)AlittlereflectionissufficienttoexposethefallacyWhenIsaythatittookmeanhourtowritealetter(whichisanaccomplishment),IimplythatthewritingoftheletterwentonduringthathourThisisnotthecasewithachievementsEvenifonesaysthatittookhimthreehourstoreachthesummit,onedoesnotmeanthatthereachingofthesummitwentonduringthosehoursObviouslyittookthreehoursofclimbingtoreachthetopPutinanotherway:ifIwritealetterinanhour,thenIcansay,"Iamwritingaletter"atanytimeduringthathourbutifittakesthreeEvenin"Iknewitonlyforamoment,"theuseof"for"indicatesthataperiod,thoughveryshort,istobeunderstoodDilemmas(NewYork,I),pHequotesAristotle'sMetIX,vi,IOAsweshallseelater,thisparticularexampleisabitmisleadingForthosewholikeoddities:"Ittookthebattaliontwentyminutestocrosstheborder""Theyarecrossingtheborder"SucharetheborderlinecasesImeantoignoreatthisstageZENOVENDLERhourstoreachthetop,Icannotsay,"Iamreachingthetop"atanymomentofthatperiodAstostates,thelackofcontinuoustenses(eg,"Iamknowing,loving,andsoforth")isenoughtodistinguishthemfromactivitiesandaccomplishments,andtheformoftimedetermination("Howlong""Forsuchandsuchaperiod")shouldbesufficienttokeepthemfrombeingconfusedwithachievementsStill,Ithinkitmightbeusefultomention,bywayofdigression,asurprisingfeatureaboutstateswhichisnotstrictlyconnectedwithconsiderationsoftimeWhenIsaythatIcouldrunifmylegswerenottied,IdonotimplythatIwouldrunifmylegswerenottiedOntheotherhand,thereisasenseof"can"inwhich"HecouldknowtheanswerifhehadreadKant"doesmeanthatinthatcasehewouldknowtheanswerSimilarly,inanobvioussense,tosaythatIcouldlikeherifshewerenotselfishistosaythatIwouldlikeherifshewerenotselfishOnefeelssomethingstrangein"EvenifIcouldlikeherIwouldnotlikeher"Itappears,therefore,thatinconditionals"could"isofteninterchangeablewith"would"inconnectionwithstatesForthesamereason,"can"mightbecomeredundantinindicativesentencesofthiskindHencetheairyfeelingabout"Icanknow,""Icanlove,""Icanlike,"andsoforthThisalsoexplainswhy"Icanbelieveit"isveryoftenusedinsteadof"Ibelieveit"And,toanticipate,thequestion"Doyouseetherabbit"canbeansweredequivalentlyby"Yes,Icanseeit"or"Yes,Iseeit"Lateron,inconnectionwithaconcreteexample,IshalltakeupthismatteragainandtrytobemorespecificForthepresent,itisenoughtomentionthatwhiletobeabletorunisneverthesamethingastorunortobeabletowritealetterisbynomeansthesameastowriteit,itseemstobethecasethat,insomesense,tobeabletoknowistoknow,tobeabletoloveistolove,andtobeabletoseeistoseeOnemightpointoutthatsomeachievementsalsosharethisfeatureIndeed,insomesense,tobeabletorecognizeistorecognizeandtobeabletospottheplaneistospottheplaneOntheotherhand,tobeabletostartorstoprunningisbynomeansthesamethingastostartorstoprunning,althoughtostartortostoprunningareclearlyachievementsaccordingtotheirVERBSANDTIMEStimeschemaThusheretheconsiderationofthetimeelementisnotsufficientwehavetolookforanothercriterionIfweconsiderthatonecanstartorstoprunningdeliberatelyorcarefullyandalsothatonecanbeaccusedof,orheldresponsiblefor,havingstartedorstoppedrunningbutnotofhavingspottedorrecognizedsomething,thenwerealizethattheabovementionedcuriousbehaviorwithrespectto"can"ispropertoverbsdenotingachievementsthatcannotberegardedasvoluntary(orinvoluntary)actionsFollowingthisleadbacktostates,wefindindeedthatonecannotknow,believe,orlovedeliberatelyorcarefully,andnoneofuscanbeaccusedof,orheldresponsiblefor,having"done"soeitherWemayconcludethisdigressionbysayingthatstatesandsomeachievementscannotbequalifiedasactionsatallBywayofillustrationtothissection,IaddfourexampleswhichdemonstrateourtimeschematafromanotherangleForactivities:"Awasrunningattimet"meansthattimeinstanttisonatimestretchthroughoutwhichAwasrunningForaccomplishments:"Awasdrawingacircleatt"meansthattisonthetimestretchinwhichAdrewthatcircleForachievements:"Awonaracebetweentandt"meansthatthetimeinstantatwhichAwonthatraceisbetweentandtForstates:"Alovedsomebodyfromttot"meansthatatanyinstantbetweentandtAlovedthatpersonThisshowsthattheconceptofactivitiescallsforperiodsoftimethatarenotuniqueordefinite'Accomplishments,ontheotherhand,implythenotionofuniqueanddefinitetimeperiodsInananalogousway,whileachievementsinvolveuniqueanddefinitetimeinstants,statesinvolvetimeinstantsinanindefiniteandnonuniquesenseThisdivisionhasanairofcompletenessaboutitPerhapsitismorethanamerepresumptiontothinkthatallverbscanbeanalyzedintermsofthesefourschemataTheyarenot"done"or"performed"atallInmyremarkson"can"andintaking"deliberately"and"carefully"ascriteriaforgenuineactions,Ihavemadeuseofmy(notverytrustworthy)recollectionofProfessorJLAustin'slecturesatHarvard'ZEJNOVENDLERIIIHavingthusformedandpolishedourconceptualtools,inthislastsectionIshalltrytoshowhowtheycanbeusedinpracticeHere,ofcourse,itwouldbefoolishtoclaimanycompleteness:allIcandoistomakesomeremarksonafewverbsorgroupsofverbsandhopethatthereader,ifhedeemsitworthwhile,willbeabletoproceedtootherverbsinwhichheisinterestedThereisaverylargenumberofverbsthatfallcompletely,oratleastintheirdominantuse,withinoneofthesecategoriesAlittlereflectionshowsthatrunning,walking,swimming,pushingorpullingsomething,andthelikearealmostunambiguouscasesofactivityPaintingapicture,makingachair,buildingahouse,writingorreadinganovel,deliveringasermon,givingorattendingaclass,playingagameofchess,andsoforth,asalsogrowingup,recoveringfromillness,gettingreadyforsomething,andsoon,areclearlyaccomplishmentsRecognizing,realizing,spottingandidentifyingsomething,losingorfindinganobject,reachingthesummit,winningtherace,crossingtheborder,starting,stopping,andresumingsomething,beingborn,orevendyingfallsquarelyintotheclassofachievementsHaving,possessing,desiring,orwantingsomething,liking,disliking,loving,hating,ruling,ordominatingsomebodyorsomething,and,ofcourse,knowingorbelievingthingsaremanifestlystatesInconnectionwiththelastgroup,anobviousideaemergesFromthepointofviewoftimeschemata,beingmarried,beingpresentorabsent,healthyorill,andsoonalsobehavelikestatesButthenwecantakeonemorestepandrealizethatthisistrueofallqualitiesIndeed,somethingishard,hot,oryellowforatime,yettobeyellow,forinstance,doesnotmeanthataprocessofyellowingisgoingonSimilarly,althoughhardeningisaprocess(activityoraccomplishment),beinghardisastateNowperhapsweunderstandwhydesiring,knowing,loving,andsoon,thatis,thesocalled"immanentoperations"oftraditionalphilosophy,canbeandhavebeenlookeduponasqualitiesHabits(inabroadersenseincludingoccupations,dispositions,Inordertocutdowntheforestofinvertedcommas,Ishallbesomewhatcasualwithrespecttothe"useversusmention"ofverbsVERBSANDTIMESabilities,andsoforth)arealsostatesinoursenseComparethetwoquestions:"Areyousmoking"and"Doyousmoke"Thefirstoneasksaboutanactivity,thesecond,astateThisdifferenceexplainswhyache

用户评价(0)

关闭

新课改视野下建构高中语文教学实验成果报告(32KB)

抱歉,积分不足下载失败,请稍后再试!

提示

试读已结束,如需要继续阅读或者下载,敬请购买!

文档小程序码

使用微信“扫一扫”扫码寻找文档

1

打开微信

2

扫描小程序码

3

发布寻找信息

4

等待寻找结果

我知道了
评分:

/19

Vendler 1957 verbs and times

VIP

在线
客服

免费
邮箱

爱问共享资料服务号

扫描关注领取更多福利