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首页 梅洛 - 庞蒂- 感知的世界 英文版.pdf

梅洛 - 庞蒂- 感知的世界 英文版.pdf

梅洛 - 庞蒂- 感知的世界 英文版.pdf

上传者: 外语书籍 2013-06-30 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《梅洛 - 庞蒂- 感知的世界 英文版pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含ketannaaecovervbjpgTheWorldofPerception‘Thisisthatraregenre,thecarefulpopu符等。

ketannaaecovervbjpgTheWorldofPerception‘Thisisthatraregenre,thecarefulpopularisation,donebytheoriginalauthorInsimpleproseMerleauPontytouchesonhisprincipalthemesHespeaksaboutthebodyandtheworld,thecoexistenceofspaceandthings,theunfortunateoptimismofscience–andalsotheinsidiousstickinessofhoney,andthemysteryofangerTheselecturesareslightbutnotsuperficial:youcanfeelthedeepconsonancewithLacanandtheunspokendebttoHeideggerBreton,Bataille,Blanchot,Ponge,Kafka,Proust,Cézanne,andSartrefloatthroughthetext,eachoneimpeccablywellcitedAnditisallposedinalovelycalmtone,whichIreadasMerleauPonty’sdeepandunacknowledgedaffinitywithhisfoil,Descartes’JAMESELKINS,AUTHORSTORIESOFARTANDPICTURESANDTEARS‘MerleauPontyisoneoftheseminalthinkersofthepostwarperiod,andtheseshorttalkstoaradioaudience,fromarelativelyearlymomentinhiswritingcareer,showhishumaneintelligenceatwork’MICHAELFRIED,JOHNSHOPKINSUNIVERSITYMAURICEMERLEAUPONTYTheWorldofPerceptionTRANSLATEDBYOLIVERDAVISFirstpublishedinFrenchasCauseriesEditionsduSeuil,FirstpublishedbyRoutledgeParkSquare,MiltonPark,Abingdon,OxfordshireOXRNSimultaneouslypublishedintheUSAandCanadabyRoutledgeWestthStreet,NewYork,NYRoutledgeisanimprintoftheTaylorFrancisGroupTranslationRoutledgeIntroductionThomasBaldwinThisbookissupportedbytheFrenchMinistryforForeignAffairs,aspartoftheBurgessProgrammeheadedfortheFrenchEmbassyinLondonbytheInstitutFrançaisduRoyaumeUniAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilisedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataMerleauPonty,Maurice,–CauseriesEnglishTheworldofperceptionMerleauPontypcmISBNX(Hardcover:alkpaper)Perception(Philosophy)ITitleBM′–dcISBN–––XThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,ISBNMasterebookISBNISBN(AdobeeReaderFormat)(PrintEdition)ContentsForewordbyStéphanieMénaséviiIntroductionbyThomasBaldwinTheWorldofPerceptionandtheWorldofScienceExploringtheWorldofPerception:SpaceExploringtheWorldofPerception:SensoryObjectsExploringtheWorldofPerception:AnimalLifeManSeenfromtheOutsideArtandtheWorldofPerceptionClassicalWorld,ModernWorldNotesIndexForewordThesevenlecturescollectedinthisvolumewerecommissionedbyFrenchnationalradioandbroadcastonitsNationalProgrammeattheendofCopieshavebeenkeptattheInstitutNationaldel’AudiovisuelforusebyresearchersandotherprofessionalsalikeTheseseventalkswerewrittenbyMauriceMerleauPontyforaseriesofradiobroadcastsanddeliveredbyhiminAccordingtotheofficialradiolistings,sixwerebroadcastontheFrenchnationalstation,oneeachweek,betweenSaturdayOctoberandSaturdayNovemberThelectureswererecordedforaprogrammecalled‘TheFrenchCultureHour’andwerereadcontinuously,withoutinterruptionCopiesoftherecordingshavebeenkeptattheInstitutNationaldel’Audiovisuel(INA)viiOnSaturdays,thegeneralthemeofthisprogrammewas‘Thedevelopmentofideas’MerleauPonty’slectureswerebroadcastonthesamedayasothersbyGeorgesDavy(onthepsychologyofprimitivepeoples),EmmanuelMounier(onthepsychologyofcharacter),MaximeLaignelLavastine(onpsychoanalysis)andEmileHenriotoftheAcadémieFrançaise(onpsychologicalthemesinliterature)TheINA’sarchivessuggestthatthereisnosurvivingrecordofthepreambleintroducingthespeakersandspecifyingtheprecisetopicofeachbroadcastThelecturesweredevisedbyMerleauPontytoformaseriesanditwashewhodecidedontheirorderandindividualtitles:()TheWorldofPerceptionandtheWorldofScience()ExploringtheWorldofPerception:Space()ExploringtheWorldofPerception:SensoryObjects()ExploringtheWorldofPerception:AnimalLife()ManSeenfromtheOutside()ArtandtheWorldofPerception()ClassicalWorld,ModernWorldThiseditionisbasedonthetypewrittentextpreparedbyMerleauPontyfromhiswrittenplanThesepapers(whicharepartofaprivatecollection)carrycorrectionsintheauthor’sownhandTherecordingis,forthemostpart,afaithfulrenditionbyMerleauPontyofhiswrittentextBibliographicalreferencesforewordareprecededbyanumberWehaveendeavouredtogobacktotheeditionsavailabletoMerleauPontyandhiscontemporariesOurresearchrevealsjusthowscrupulouslyattentiveMerleauPontywastorecentandnewlypublishedworkBooksreferredtoarelistedinthebibliographyattheendofthevolumeWewouldliketoexpressourparticularthankstothoseattheINAwhohaveassistedusinourresearchintothebroadcastingoftheselecturesStéphanieMénaséixIntroductionTHOMASBALDWINMAURICEMERLEAUPONTY(–)MerleauPontywasoneofthemostcreativephilosophersofthetwentiethcenturyHecombinedanewwayofthinkingaboutthebasicstructuresofhumanlifewithreflectionsonart,literatureandpoliticswhichdrawonthisnewphilosophyTheselivelyradiotalksfromshowhimattheheightofhispowers,movingeasilybetweenphilosophicalthemesanddiscussionsofpaintingandpoliticstheemphasisonpaintingisindeedspeciallynotablehere,asisthewayinwhichheusesthistoindicatehisphilosophicalthemesTheresultisabrieftextwhichprovidesthebestpossibleintroductiontohisphilosophy,especiallysincethisisdominatedbyalargerandmorecomplextextpublishedin–PhenomenologyofPerceptionButthesetalksshouldalsobevaluedintheirownright,forinmanyrespectsthecontrastswiththepastwhichMerleauPontydrawsandtheanxietieswhichhearticulatesarestilloursInmyownintroduction,afterabriefaccountofMerleauPonty’slifeandphilosophy,Ishallsayalittleabouteachtalk(‘lecture’),connectingthemwithMerleauPonty’sotherwritings,andalsoreflectingbrieflyontheirsignificanceforusLIFEMerleauPonty’sfatherdiedinwhilehewasstillasmallchild,and,alongwithhisbrotherandsister,hewasbroughtupinParisbyhiswidowedmotherThissituationofgrowingupwithoutafatherwasonewhichhesharedwithJeanPaulSartreandAlbertCamus,andwasindeedcommonthroughoutEuropeaftertheFirstWorldWarInMerleauPonty’scase,despitetheabsenceofafather,thisperiodseemstohavebeenoneofexceptionalhappinessandintimacy,andhecarriedthememoryofitthroughouthislife:ItisatthepresenttimethatIrealizethatthefirsttwentyfiveyearsofmylifewereaprolongedchildhood,destinedtobefollowedbyapainfulbreakleadingeventuallytoindependenceIfItakemyselfbacktothoseyearsasIactuallylivedthemandasIcarrythemwithinme,myhappinessatthattimecannotbeexplainedintermsofintroductiontheshelteredatmosphereoftheparentalhometheworlditselfwasmorebeautiful,thingsweremorefascinatingAfterattendinglycéeMerleauPontygainedadmissionintotheÉcoleNormaleSupérieure(wherehebrieflyencounteredSartre,thoughtheywerenotthenfriends)HegraduatedinandwenttoteachatalycéeinBeauvaisinhereturnedtoParistoajuniorpositionattheÉcoleNormaleDuringthisperiodhewasworkingonhisfirstdoctoralthesis,acriticalsurveyofpsychologicaltheorywithspecialemphasisonGestalttheoryThiswaspublishedasTheStructureofBehaviorin,duringtheGermanoccupationofFranceIn–MerleauPontyhadservedbrieflyintheFrencharmyasasecondlieutenant,butaftertheGermanvictoryhewasdemobilisedandreturnedtoParisTherehetaughtatacoupleoflycéeswhilewritingasecond,higher,doctoralthesis,astheFrenchacademicsystemthenrequiredofanyonewhowantedtopursueanacademiccareerintheUniversitysystemInthisworkMerleauPontycontinuedtheemphasisonpsychologyofhispreviousbook,buthenowapproachedthesubjectwithaperspectiveinformedby‘phenomenology’,thephilosophicalmethodwhichhadbeeninitiatedatthestartofthecenturybytheGermanphilosopher,EdmundHusserl,whoseunpublishedmanuscriptsMerleauPontyhadbeenabletostudyatLouvainshortlybeforethewarThissecondthesiswaspublishedin,soonaftertheliberationofFrance,asPhenomenologyofPerceptionThisisMerleauPonty’smajor,andenduring,contributiontophilosophyIsaymoreaboutitinmydiscussionbelowDuringtheGermanoccupationofFranceMerleauPontyinitiallyjoinedSartre,withwhomhenowbecameaclosefriend,inaquixoticattemptduringtoconstituteanintellectualresistancemovement(‘SocialismandFreedom’)distinctfromtheforcesofthecommunistsandtheGaullistsThismovementcollapsedattheendoftheyear,largelybecauseofitsineffectivenessandMerleauPontyandSartrethenwithdrewtowritetheirmajorworksofphilosophy(Sartre’sBeingandNothingnessdatesfromthisperiod)LaterinthewarSartreandMerleauPontyjoinedCamusinthegroupwhichpublishedtheresistancepaperCombat,thoughtheytooklittleactivepartintheresistanceNonetheless,theexperienceoftheGermanoccupationforcedMerleauPontytothinkmuchharderaboutpoliticsthanhehadpreviouslydone,andattheendofMerleauPontywasoneofthegroupofleadingintellectuals,ledbySartreandalsoincludingdeBeauvoirandAron,whofoundedtheinfluentialpoliticaljournalLesTempsModernesMerleauPontythenhelpedSartreeditthejournaluntilwhentheirdifferentpoliticaljudgmentsaboutcommunismmadecontinuedcollaborationimpossibleintroductionAfterthepublicationofPhenomenologyofPerceptioninMerleauPonty’sacademiccareerprogressedquicklyInhewasappointedaProfessoratLyoninhebecameProfessorofPsychologyattheSorbonneinParisandtheninhewasappointedtothemostprestigiouspositionforaFrenchphilosopher,thechairinphilosophyattheCollègedeFrance,apositionwhichhehelduntilhisunexpectedearlydeathinDuringthisperiodhepublishedthreecollectionsofessays:SenseandNonSense()whichbringstogetherhisearlypostessays,ofwhichmostareaboutMarxismandpoliticsTheAdventuresoftheDialectic()whichdealswithhisbreakwithSartreandincludeshislaterthoughtsabout‘Western’Marxismfinally,Signs()whichcontainssomenewphilosophicalwork,mainlyonlanguage,togetherwithfurtherpoliticalessaysAfterhisdeathitbecameapparentthatMerleauPontyhadbeenworkingonamajornewmonographThishadoriginallybeenintendedasastudyoflanguageandtruthwhichwoulddevelopthemesfromtheearlierwritingsunderthetitle‘TheOriginofTruth’butastheworkprogressedMerleauPontyfoundhimselfdrawnbacktosomeofthethemesconcerningperceptionthathehadaddressedinhisearlierphilosophy,andthemanuscriptthatwaspublishedposthumouslyinbearsMerleauPonty’slaterworkingtitle,TheVisibleandtheInvisibleAfterhisdeathMerleauPonty’sreputationinFrancedeclinedquicklyasFrenchphilosophersturnedawayfromFrenchexistentialphenomenologytothestudyofGermanphilosophy,especiallytotheworksofHeideggerandthe‘mastersofsuspicion’–Marx,NietzscheandFreudElsewhere,however,andespeciallyintheUnitedStates,hisformerpupilspreservedhisreputationandensuredthetranslationintoEnglishofallhismajorworksMorerecently,withintheanalytictradition,therehasbeenagrowthofinterestinhiswritings:hisdiscussionsofthe‘intentionality’ofconsciousness(especiallyofthewaysinwhichthingsarepresentedinperception)andoftheroleofthebodyinperceptionarerecognisedasimportantcontributionstotheunderstandingofthesedifficulttopicsItistobehopedthattheseradiotalkswillhelptomakehisideasavailabletoawiderpublichere,justastheirpublicationinFranceinisevidenceofalongoverduerevivalofinterestthereinhisworkMERLEAUPONTY’SPHILOSOPHY:PERCEPTIONANDTHEBODYMerleauPontysetsouthismainaimfortheselecturesattheendofthefirstparagraphofthisfirstlecture:‘Ishallsuggestthatoneofthegreatachievementsofmodernartandphilosophyintroductionhasbeentoallowustorediscovertheworldinwhichwelive,yetwhichwearealwayspronetoforget’Thisworldwhichwearetorediscoveristhe‘worldofperception’,whichistheworldasweperceiveit,the‘perceivedworld’(lemondeperçu)asitisoftencalledMerleauPontydevotesmostofhislecturestoexplorationsofthisperceivedworld,inordertoenablehisaudienceto‘rediscover’itforthemselvesButhedoesnotexplainstraightforwardlywhythisrediscoveryissoimportantSincethispointisacentralthemeofPhenomenologyofPerceptionitisworthsayingalittleaboutithereinordertohelpreadersoftheselecturesunderstandwhereMerleauPontyiscomingfromAnyphilosophywhichseekstotakeusbacktotheperceivedworldis,initsgeneralperspective,empiricistandMerleauPontysignalshisempiricismwhenheexplicitlyendorsesBerkeley’sthesisthat‘wecannotconceiveanythingthatisnotperceivedorperceptible’TheclassicalempiricismofBerkeleyandHume,however,isbasedontheclaimthatthecontentsofthoughtarerestrictedtopossiblecontentsofsenseexperience,andthisthesiswasfamouslyrevivedbytheLogicalPositivistphilosophersoftheswhentheyaffirmedthe‘verificationprinciple’thatthemeaningofapropositionisgivenbyitsmethodofverification,iebythewayinwhichitstruthorfalsitycanbesettledonthebasisofobservationMerleauPontymakesitclear,however,thathisempiricismisnotofthiskindThisispartlybecauseherejectstheemphasison‘scientific’observationthatwascharacteristicofthelogicalpositiviststhisconnectswiththecriticalattitudetothestatusofscienceheadoptsinthefirstlecture,whichIdiscussbelowBut,morefundamentally,MerleauPontyfollowsHusserlintakingitthattherelationshipbetweenperceptionandallothermodesofthought,includingscience,isoneof‘Fundierung’(foundation),whichinvolvesakindofrootednessthatdoesnotrestrictthecapacityformoresophisticatedarticulationsofexperienceinthelightofdeeperunderstandingsoftheworldSoheconsistentlyrejectsthoseformsofempiricismwhichaimtorestrictorreducethecontentsofthoughttopossiblecontentsofexperienceAfurtherrespectinwhichMerleauPontydepartsfromclassicalempiricismconcernsthe‘apriori’Classicalempiricistsheldthatbecauseallourideasarederivedfromexperience,thereisnolegitimateroleforideas,orconcepts,whicharenotthusderived,evenwherethereisnoobviousaccountofsuchaderivation,aswithmathematicalconceptssuchasinfinityThe‘rationalist’philosophersopposedtotheempiricists,suchasDescartes(whomMerleauPontyusesasafoilthroughouttheselectures),heldthatideasareinnatewithinthemind,andthattheroleofexperiencewasprimarilyjusttobringthemintousebyusThishypothesiswasnoteasytobelieve,butKantintroductionfamouslymovedthedebateforwardbydistinguishingbetweenaprioriconcepts,suchasidentity,thatareintegraltothepossibilityofexperienceandthought,andempiricalconceptsthatareacquiredonthebasisofexperienceandareanswerabletothewaysofthinkingabouttheworldwhicharebestconfirmedbyexperienceThusKantheldthatwhiletheempiricistswerelargelyrightaboutempiricalconcepts,therationalistswerelargelyrightaboutaprioriconcepts,whicharethemostimportantonesforphilosophyMostsubsequentphilosophershaveagreedwithKantonthispoint,andMerleauPontycertainlydoesButhegivesaverydistinctivetwisttotheKantianposition,bymaintainingthatourembodimentisintegraltotheroleofaprioriconceptsinsenseexperienceHesetsouthisattitudetoKantinthefollowingpassage:Kantsawclearlythattheproblemisnothowdeterminateshapesandsizesmaketheirappearanceinmyexperience,sincewithoutthemtherewouldbenoexperience,andsinceanyinternalexperienceispossibleonlyagainstthebackgroundofexternalexperienceButKant’sconclusionfromthiswasthatIamaconsciousnesswhichembracesandconstitutestheworld,andthisreflectioncausedhimtooverlookthephenomenonofthebodyandthatofthethingThecentralthemeofMerleauPonty’sphilosophy,fromTheStructureofBehaviortoTheVisibleandtheInvisible,ispreciselythewayinwhich‘thephenomenonofthebody’istobeintegratedintoaKantianphilosophy,sothateachofusisnotsomucha‘consciousness’asabodywhich‘embracesandconstitutestheworld’HeputsthepointinPhenomenologyofPerceptioninthefollowingway:‘bythusremakingcontactwiththebodyandwiththeworld,weshallrediscoverourself,since,perceivingaswedowithourbody,thebodyisanaturalselfand,asitwere,thesubjectofperception’Hismainclaimis,then,thatourembodimentbringstoourperceptualexperienceanaprioristructurewherebyitpresentsitselftousinconsciousnessasexperienceofaworldofthingsinspaceandtimewhosenatureisindependentofusItisour‘bodily’intentionalitywhichbringsthepossibilityofmeaningintoourexperiencebyensuringthatitscontent,thethingspresentedinexperience,aresurroundedwithreferencestothepastandfuture,tootherplacesandotherthings,tohumanpossibilitiesandsituationsThissoundslikeapsychologicalthesisandindeeditisone,substantiatedbyMerleauPontywithdetaileddiscussionsfromthepsychologicalliterature(mainlyfromtheworkofGermanpsychologistsofthes,suchasKurtGoldstein)Thisveryfact,however,invitestheaccusationof‘psychologism’,ofmisrepresentingapsychologicaltheoryconcerningintroductionthebodilycontributiontotheorganisationofperceptionasaphilosophicaltheoryabouttheaprioristructureofexperienceSinceHusserl’sphenomenologicalmethodwaspreciselymotivatedbyawishtosethimselfapartfromthe‘psychologism’,ashesawit,ofhiscontemporaries,itwouldbeironicifMerleauPonty’sphenomenologyturnedouttobeaformofpsychologismafterallButMerleauPontyanticipatedthisobjection:hisreplytoitisthatthealter

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