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首页 大学英语精读五六册...doc

大学英语精读五六册...doc

大学英语精读五六册...doc

上传者: 川子夷 2013-06-26 评分 5 0 176 24 802 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《大学英语精读五六册..doc》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含“曲成奖学金”英语翻译大赛使用材料UNITTheauthorisnotapreacher,andyethedoesdeliverakindofser符等。

“曲成奖学金”英语翻译大赛使用材料UNITTheauthorisnotapreacher,andyethedoesdeliverakindofsermonhereWhoishisaudienceInterestingly,hisaudienceisyourteachersofAdvancedEnglishasaforeignlanguageTheauthorseekstohelpthemintheirdifficulttaskofteachingadvancedstudents,theirtaskofleadingtheirstudentstoahigherleverofabilityandfluencyDoesitencourageyoutoknowthatyouarenottheonlyonewhoisstrugglingatthisleveloflanguageacquisitionAKindofSermonbyWSFowlerItisprobablyeasierforteachersthanforstudentstoappreciatethereasonswhylearningEnglishseemstobecomeincreasinglydifficultoncethebasicstructuresandpatternsofthelanguagehavebeenunderstoodStudentsarenaturallysurprisedanddisappointedtodiscoverthataprocesswhichoughttobecomesimplerdoesnotappeartodosoItmaynotseemmuchconsolationtopointoutthattheteacher,too,becomesfrustratedwhenhiseffortsappeartoproducelessobviousresultsHefindsthatstudentswhowereeasytoteach,becausetheysucceededinputtingeverythingtheyhadbeentaughtintopractice,hesitatewhenconfrontedwiththe发vastuntouchedareaofEnglishvocabularyandusagewhichfallsoutsidethescopeofbasictextbooksHeseesthemstrugglingbecausethelanguagetheythoughttheyknewnowappearstoconsistofabewilderingvarietyofidioms,clichédandacceptedphraseswithdifferentmeaningsindifferentcontextsItishardtoconvincethemthattheyarestillmakingprogresstowardsfluencyandthattheirEnglishiscertaintoimprove,giventimeanddedicationInsuchcircumstancesitishardlysurprisingthatsomegiveupindisgust,whileothersstillwaithopefullyfortheteachertogivethemthesameconfidentguidancehewasabletoofferthematfirstTheteacher,forhispart,frequentlyreducedtotryingtoexplaintheinexplicable,maytakerefugeinquotingproverbstohiscolleaguessuchas:"Youcanleadahorsetowaterbutyoucan'twhatyousayIt'sthewaythatyousayit"Hisstudentsmightfeelinclinedtocounterthesewith:"ThemoreIlearn,thelessIknow"OfcoursethisisnottrueWhatbothstudentsandteachersareexperiencingistherecognitionthatthemorecomplexstructuresoneencountersinalanguagearenotasvitaltomakingoneselfunderstoodandsohavealessimmediatefieldofapplicationForthesamereason,fromtheteacher'spointofview,selectingwhatshouldbetaughtbecomesamoredifficulttaskItismucheasiertogetfoodofanykindthantochoosethedishyouwouldmostliketoeatonagivendayfromavastmenuDefiningtheproblemiseasierthanprovidingthesolutionOnecansuggestthatstudentsshouldspendtwoorthreeyearsinanEnglishspeakingcountry,whichamountstowashingone'shandsofthemFewstudentshavethetimeorthemoneytodothatItisoftensaidthatwidereadingisthetimeorthemoneytodothatItisoftensaidthatwidereadingisthebestalternativecourseofactionbutevenhereitisnecessarytomakesomekindofselectionItisnousetellingstudentstogotothelibraryandpickupthefirstbooktheycomeacrossMyownadvicetothemwouldbe:"readwhatyoucanunderstandwithouthavingtolookupwordsinadictionary(butnotwhatyoucanunderstandataglance)readwhatinterestsyoureadwhatyouhavetimefor(magazinesandnewspapersratherthannovelsunlessyoucanreadthewholenovelinaweekorso)readtheEnglishwrittentoday,notyearsagoreadasmuchasyoucanandtrytorememberthewayitwaswrittenratherthanindividualwordsthatpuzzledyou"Andinsteadof"read",Icouldjustaswellsay"listento"MyadvicetoteacherswouldbesimilarinawayIwouldsay"It'snogoodthinkingthatanythingwilldo,orthatalllanguageisusefulIt'snogoodrelyingonstudentstoexpressthemselveswithouttherighttoolsforexpressionIt'sstillyourdutytochoosethebestpathtofollownearthetopofthemountainjustasitwastoproposeapracticableshortcutawayfromthebeatentrackinthefoothillsAndifthepathyouchooseistooovergrowntomakefurtherprogress,thewholepartywillhavetogobackandyouwillhavetochooseanotherrouteYouarestillthepaidguideandexpertandthereisawaytothetopsomewhere"UNITBeginningwiththeearliestpioneers,Americanshavealwayshighlyvaluedtheirfreedoms,andfoughthardtoprotectthemAndyet,theauthorpointsoutthatthereisabasicfreedomwhichAmericansareindangeroflosingWhatisthisendangeredfreedomForwhatreasonscouldfreedomlovingAmericanspossiblyletthisfreedomslipawayAndwhatstepscantheytaketoprotectittheirfifthfreedom TheFifthFreedombySeymourStJohn MorethanthreecenturiesagoahandfulofpioneerscrossedtheoceantoJamestownandPlymouthinsearchoffreedomstheywereunabletofindintheirowncountries,thefreedomswestillcherishtoday:freedomfromwant,freedomfromfear,freedomofspeech,freedomofreligionTodaythedescendantsoftheearlysettlers,andthosewhohavejoinedthemsince,arefightingtoprotectthesefreedomsathomeandthroughouttheworldAndyetthereisafifthfreedombasictothosefourthatweareindangeroflosing:thefreedomtobeone'sbestStExuperydescribesaragged,sensitivefacedArabchild,hauntingthestreetsofaNorthAfricantown,asalostMozart:hewouldneverbetrainedordevelopedWashefree"Noonegraspedyoubytheshoulderwhiletherewasstilltimeandnoughtwillawakeninyouthesleepingpoetormusicianorastronomerthatpossiblyinhabitedyoufromthebeginning"Thefreedomtobeone'sbestisthechanceforthedevelopmentofeachpersontohishighestpowerHowisitthatweinAmericahavebeguntolosethisfreedom,andhowcanweregainitforournation'syouthIbelieveithasstartedslippingawayfromusbecauseofthreemisunderstandingsFirst,themisunderstandingofthemeaningofdemocracyTheprincipalofagreatPhiladelphiahighschoolisdriventocryforhelpincombatingthenotionthatitisundemocratictorunaspecialprogramofstudiesforoutstandingboysandgirlsAgain,whenagoodindependentschoolinMemphisrecentlyclosed,somethoughtfulcitizensurgedthatitbetakenoverbythepublicschoolsystemandusedforboysandgirlsofhighability,thatithaveentrancerequirementsandgiveanadvancedprogramofstudiestosuperiorstudentswhowereinterestedandabletotakeitTheproposalwasrejectedbecauseitwasundemocratic!Thus,coursesaregearedtothemiddleoftheclassThegoodstudentisunchallenged,boredTheloaferreceiveshispassinggradeAndthelackofanoutstandingcoursefortheoutstandingstudent,thelackofastandardwhichaboyorgirlmustmeet,passesfordemocracyThesecondmisunderstandingconcernswhatmakesforhappinessTheaimsofourpresentdaycultureareavowedlyeaseandmaterialwellbeing:shorterhoursashorterweekmorereturnforlessaccomplishmentmoresoftsoapexcusesandfewerhonest,realisticdemandsInourschoolsthisisreflectedbythevanishinghickorystickandtheemergingpsychiatristThehickorystickhaditsfaults,andthepsychiatristhashisstrengthsButthetrendisclearToutcomprendrec'esttoutpardoner(Tounderstandeverythingistoexcuseeverything)DowereallybelievethatoursofteningstandardsbringhappinessIsitoursoundandconsideredjudgmentthatthetoughersubjectsoftheclassicsandmathematicsshouldbethrownaside,assuggestedbysomeeducators,fordollplayingSmallwonderthatCharlesMalik,LebanesedelegateattheUN,writes:"ThereisintheWest"(intheUnitedStates)"ageneralweakeningofmoralfiber(Our)leadershipdoesnotseemtobeadequatetotheunprecedentedchallengesoftheage"ThelastmisunderstandingisintheareaofvaluesHerearesomeofthemostinfluentialtenetsofteachereducationoverthepastfiftyyears:thereisnoeternaltruththereisnoabsolutemorallawthereisnoGodYetallofhistoryhastaughtusthatthedenialoftheseultimates,theplacementofmanorstateatthecoreoftheuniverse,resultsinaparalyzingmassselfishnessandthefirstsignsofitarealreadyfrighteninglyevidentArnoldToynbeehassaidthatallprogress,alldevelopmentcomefromchallengeandaconsequentresponseWithoutchallengethereisnoresponse,nodevelopment,nofreedomSofirstweowetoourchildrenthemostdemanding,challengingcurriculumthatiswithintheircapabilitiesMichelangelodidnotlearntopaintbyspendinghistimedoodlingMozartwasnotanaccomplishedpianistattheageofeightastheresultofspendinghisdaysinfrontofatelevisionsetLikeEveCurie,likeHelenKeller,theyrespondedtothechallengeoftheirlivesbyadisciplinedtraining:andtheygainedanewfreedomThesecondopportunitywecangiveourboysandgirlsistherighttofailure"Freedomisnotonlyaprivilege,itisatest,"writesDeNouyWhatkindofatestisit,whatkindoffreedomwherenoonecanfailThedayispastwhentheUnitedStatescanaffordtogivehighschooldiplomastoallwhositthroughfouryearsofinstruction,regardlessofwhetheranyvisibleresultscanbediscernedWeliveinanarrowedworldwherewemustbealert,awaketorealismandrealismdemandsastandardwhicheithermustbemetorresultinfailureThesearehardwords,buttheyarebrutallytrueIfwedepriveourchildrenoftherighttofailwedeprivethemoftheirknowledgeoftheworldasitisFinally,wecanexposeourchildrentothebestvalueswehavefoundByrelatingourlivestotheevidencesoftheages,byjudgingourphilosophyinthelightofvaluesthathistoryhasproventruest,perhapsweshallbeabletoproducethat"ringingmessage,fullofcontentandtruth,satisfyingthemind,appealingtotheheart,firingthewill,amessageonwhichonecanstakehiswholelife"Thisisthemessagethatcouldmeanjoyandstrengthandleadershipfreedomasopposedtoserfdom  UNITDoyouwantabetterlifeAccordingtotheauthorofthefollowingarticle,thesolutioniseasySimplychangethewayyoulookatyourselfandyouwillchangethewayyouliveImprovingyourselfimageisyourkeytolivingabetterlifeYourKeytoaBetterLifebyMaxwellMaltzThemostimportantpsychologicaldiscoveryofthiscenturyisthediscoveryofthe"selfimage"Whetherwerealizeitornot,eachofuscarriesaboutwithusamentalblueprintorpictureofourselvesItmaybevagueandilldefinedtoourconsciousgazeInfact,itmaynotbeconsciouslyrecognizableatallButitisthere,completedowntothelastdetailThisselfimageisourownconceptionofthe"sortofpersonIam"IthasbeenbuiltupfromourownbeliefsaboutourselvesButmostofthesebeliefsaboutourselveshaveunconsciouslybeenformedfromourpastexperiences,oursuccessesandfailures,ourhumiliations,ourtriumphs,andthewayotherpeoplehavereactedtous,especiallyinearlychildhoodFromallthesewementallyconstructa"self,"(orapictureofaself)Onceanideaorabeliefaboutourselvesgoesintothispictureitbecomes"true",asfaraswepersonallyareconcernedWedonotquestionitsvalidity,butproceedtoactuponitjustasifitweretrue   Thisselfimagebecomesagoldenkeytolivingabetterlifebecauseoftwoimportantdiscoveries:   Allyouractions,feelings,behaviorevenyourabilitiesarealwaysconsistentwiththisselfimage   Inshort,youwill"actlike"thesortofpersonyouconceiveyourselftobeNotonlythis,butyouliterallycannotactotherwise,inspiteofallyourconsciouseffortsorwillpowerThemanwhoconceiveshimselftobea"failuretypeperson"willfindsomewaytofail,inspiteofallhisgoodintentions,orhiswillpower,evenifopportunityisliterallydumpedinhislapThepersonwhoconceiveshimselftobeavictimofinjustice,one"whowasmeanttosuffer"willinvariablyfindcircumstancestoverifyhisopinions   Theselfimageisa"premise,"abase,orafoundationuponwhichyourentirepersonality,yourbehavior,andevenyourcircumstancesarebuiltBecauseofthisourexperiencesseemtoverify,andtherebystrengthenourselfimages,andaviciousorabeneficentcycle,asthecasemaybe,issetup   Forexample,aschoolboywhoseeshimselfasan"F"typestudent,oronewhois"dumbinmathematics,"willinvariablyfindthathisreportcardbearshimoutHethenhas"proof"Ayounggirlwhohasanimageofherselfasthesortofpersonnobodylikes,willfindindeedthatsheisavoidedattheschooldanceSheliterallyinvitesrejectionHerwoebegoneexpression,herhangdogmanner,heroveranxiousnesstoplease,orperhapsherunconscioushostilitytowardsthosesheanticipateswillaffrontherallacttodriveawaythosewhomshewouldattractInthesamemanner,asalesmanorabusinessmanwillalsofindthathisactualexperiencestendto"prove"hisselfimageiscorrect   Becauseofthisobjective"proof"itveryseldomoccurstoapersonthathistroubleliesinhisselfimageorhisownevaluationofhimselfTelltheschoolboythatheonly"thinks"hecannotmasteralgebra,andhewilldoubtyoursanityHehastriedandtried,andstillhisreportcardtellsthestoryTellthesalesmanthatitisonlyanideathathecannotearnmorethanacertainfigure,andhecanproveyouwrongbyhisorderbookHeknowsonlytoowellhowhardhehastriedandfailedYet,asweshallseelater,almostmiraculouschangeshaveoccurredbothingradesofstudents,andintheearningcapacityofsalesmenwhentheywereprevailedupontochangetheirselfimages   TheselfimagecanbechangedNumerouscasehistorieshaveshownthatoneisnevertooyoungnortoooldtochangehisselfimageandtherebystarttoliveanewlife   Oneofthereasonsithasseemedsodifficultforapersontochangehishabits,hispersonality,orhiswayoflife,hasbeenthatheretoforenearlyalleffortsatchangehavebeendirectedtothecircumferenceoftheself,sotospeak,ratherthantothecenterNumerouspatientshavesaidtomesomethinglikethefollowing:"Ifyouaretalkingabout'positivethinking',I'vetriedthatbefore,anditjustdoesn'tworkforme"However,alittlequestioninginvariablybringsoutthattheseindividualshaveemployed"positivethinking,"orattemptedtoemployit,eitheruponparticularexternalcircumstances,oruponsomeparticularhabitorcharacterdefect("Iwillgetthatjob""Iwillbemorecalmandrelaxedinthefuture""Thisbusinessventurewillturnoutrightforme,"etc)Buttheyhadneverthoughttochangetheirthinkingofthe"self"whichwastoaccomplishthesethings   Jesuswarnedusaboutthefollyofputtingapatchofnewmaterialuponanoldgarment,orofputtingnewwineintooldbottles"Positivethinking"cannotbeusedeffectivelyasapatchoracrutchtothesameoldselfimageInfact,itisliterallyimpossibletoreallythinkpositivelyaboutaparticularsituation,aslongasyouholdanegativeconceptofselfAnd,numerousexperimentshaveshownthatoncetheconceptofselfischanged,otherthingsconsistentwiththenewconceptofself,areaccomplishedeasilyandwithoutstrain   OneoftheearliestandmostconvincingexperimentsalongthislinewasconductedbythelatePrescottLecky,oneofthepioneersinselfimagepsychologyLeckyconceivedofthepersonalityasa"systemofideas",allofwhichmustseemtobeconsistentwitheachotherIdeaswhichareinconsistentwiththesystemarerejected,"notbelieved,"andnotacteduponIdeaswhichseemtobeconsistentwiththesystemareacceptedAttheverycenterofthissystemofideasthekeystonethebaseuponwhichallelseisbuilt,istheindividual's"egoideal,"his"selfimage,"orhisconceptionofhimselfLeckywasaschoolteacherandhadanopportunitytotesthistheoryuponthousandsofstudents   Leckytheorizedthatifastudenthadtroublelearningacertainsubject,itcouldbebecause(fromthestudent'spointofview)itwouldbeinconsistentforhimtolearnitLeckybelieved,however,thatifyoucouldchangethestudent'sselfconception,whichunderliesthisviewpoint,hisattitudetowardthesubjectwouldchangeaccordinglyIfthestudentcouldbeinducedtochangehisselfdefinition,hislearningabilityshouldalsochangeThisprovedtobethecaseOnestudentwhomisspelledwordsoutofahundredandflunkedsomanysubjectsthathelostcreditforayear,madeageneralaverageofthenextyearandbecameoneofthebestspellersinschoolAboywhowasdroppedfromonecollegebecauseofpoorgrades,enteredColumbiaandbecameastraight"A"studentAgirlwhohadflunkedLatinfourtimes,afterthreetalkswiththeschoolcounselor,finishedwithagradeofAboywhowastoldbyatestingbureauthathehadnoaptitudeforEnglish,wonhonorablementionthenextyearforaliteraryprize   Thetroublewiththesestudentswasnotthattheyweredumb,orlackinginbasicaptitudesThetroublewasaninadequateselfimage("Idon'thaveamathematicalmind""I'mjustnaturallyapoorspeller")They"identified"withtheirmistakesandfailuresInsteadofsaying"Ifailedthattest"(factualanddescriptive)theyconcluded"Iamafailure"Insteadofsaying"Iflunkedthatsubject"theysaid"Iamafailure"Insteadofsaying"Iflunkedthatsubject"theysaid"Iamaflunkout"ForthosewhoareinterestedinleaningmoreofLecky'swork,Irecommendsecuringacopyofhisbook:selfconsistency,aTheoryofPersonalityTheIslandPress,NowYork,NYNUITAstheauthorpointsoutbelow,thesuccessofsciencehaslesstodowithaparticularmethodthanwithanessentialattitudeofthescientistThisattitudeisessentiallyoneofinquiry,experimentationandhumilitybeforethefactsTherefore,agoodscientistisanhonestoneTruescientistsdonotbowtoanyauthoritybuttheyareeverreadytomodifyorevenabandontheirideasifadequateevidenceisfoundcontradictingthemScientists,theydoplaceahighvalueonhonestyScienceandtheScientificAttitudebyPaulGHewitt   Scienceisthebodyofknowledgeaboutnaturethatrepresentsthecollectiveefforts,insights,findings,andwisdomofthehumanraceScienceisnotsomethingnewbuthaditsbeginningsbeforerecordedhistorywhenhumansfirstdiscoveredreoccurringrelationshipsaroundthemThroughcarefulobservationsoftheserelationships,theybegantoknownatureand,becauseofnature'sdependability,foundtheycouldmakepredictionstoenablesomecontrolovertheirsurroundings   SciencemadeitsgreatestheadwayinthesixteenthcenturywhenpeoplebeganaskinganswerablequestionsaboutnaturewhentheybeganreplacingsuperstitionbyasystematicsearchfororderwhenexperimentinadditiontologicwasusedtotestideasWherepeopleoncetriedtoinfluencenaturaleventswithmagicandsupernaturalforces,theynowhadsciencetoguidethemAdvancewasslow,however,becauseofthepowerfuloppositiontoscientificmethodsandideas   InaboutCopernicussuggestedthatthesunwasstationaryandthattheearthrevolvedaboutthesunHerefutedtheideathattheearthwasthecenteroftheuniverseAfteryearsofhesitation,hepublishedhisfindingsbutdiedbefo

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