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首页 Film Directing Fundamentals - See Your Film Befo…

Film Directing Fundamentals - See Your Film Before Shooting 3rd.pdf

Film Directing Fundamentals - S…

tianyang009
2013-06-26 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Film Directing Fundamentals - See Your Film Before Shooting 3rdpdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

FILMDIRECTINGFUNDAMENTALSThispageintentionallyleftblankFilmDirectingFundamentalsThirdEditionSeeYourFilmBeforeShootingNicholasTProferesAMSTERDAM•BOSTON•HEIDELBERG•LONDON•NEWYORK•OXFORDPARIS•SANDIEGO•SANFRANCISCO•SINGAPORE•SYDNEY•TOKYOFocalPressisanimprintofElsevierFocalPressisanimprintofElsevierCorporateDrive,Suite,Burlington,MA,USALinacreHouse,JordanHill,OxfordOXDP,UKCopyright©,Elsevier,IncAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orotherwise,withoutthepriorwrittenpermissionofthepublisherPermissionsmaybesoughtdirectlyfromElsevier’sScienceTechnologyRightsDepartmentinOxford,UK:phone:(�),fax:(�),Email:permissionselseviercomYoumayalsocompleteyourrequestonlineviatheElsevierhomepage(http:elseviercom),byselecting“SupportContact”then“CopyrightandPermission”andthen“ObtainingPermissions”Recognizingtheimportanceofpreservingwhathasbeenwritten,ElsevierprintsitsbooksonacidfreepaperwheneverpossibleLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataProferes,NicholasTFilmdirectingfundamentals:seeyourfilmbeforeshootingNicholasTProferesrdedpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN:(pbk:alkpaper)MotionpicturesProductionanddirectionITitlePNPP’dcBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryISBN:ForinformationonallFocalPresspublicationsvisitourwebsiteatwwwbookselseviercomTypesetbyCharonTecLtd,AMacmillanCompany(wwwmacmillansolutionscom)PrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaToFrankDanielAgreatteacher,agenerouscolleague,adelightfulfriendThispageintentionallyleftblankCONTENTSFOREWORDxiiiACKNOWLEDGMENTSxvINTRODUCTIONxviiPARTONEFILMLANGUAGEANDADIRECTINGMETHODOLOGYChapterIntroductiontoFilmLanguageandGrammarTheFilmWorldFilmLanguageShotsFilmGrammarTheDegreeRuleTheDegreeRuleScreenDirectionFilmTimeCompressionElaborationFamiliarImageChapterIntroductiontotheDramaticElementsEmbeddedintheScreenplaySpinesWhoseFilmIsItCharacterCircumstanceDynamicRelationshipWantsExpectationsActionsActivityActingBeatsDramaticBlocksNarrativeBeatsFulcrumChapterOrganizingActioninaDramaticSceneDramaticElementsinAlfredHitchcock’sNotoriousPatioSceneNotoriousPatioSceneAnnotatedChapterStagingPatternsofDramaticMovementChangingtheStagewithinaSceneStagingasPartofaFilm’sDesignWorkingwithaLocationFloorPlanFloorPlanforNotoriousPatioSceneChapterCameraTheCameraasNarratorRevealEntrancesObjectiveCameraSubjectiveCameraWhereDoIPutItVisualDesignStyleCoverageCameraHeightLensesCompositionWheretoBeginWorkingtowardSpecificityinVisualizationLookingforOrderDramaticBlocksandCameraShotLists,Storyboards,andSetupsTheProseStoryboardChapterCamerainNotoriousPatioSceneFirstDramaticBlockSecondDramaticBlockThirdDramaticBlockFourthDramaticBlockandFulcrumFifthDramaticBlockPARTTWOMAKINGYOURFILMChapterDetectiveWorkonScriptsReadingYourScreenplayAPieceofApplePieScreenplayWhoseFilmIsItCharacterCircumstanceSpinesforAPieceofApplePieDynamicRelationshipsWantsActionsActingBeatsActivityToneforAPieceofApplePieviiiCONTENTSBreakingAPieceofApplePieintoActionsDesigningaSceneVisualizationIdentifyingtheFulcrumandDramaticBlocksSupplyingNarrativeBeatstoAPieceofApplePieDirector’sNotebookChapterStagingandCameraforAPieceofApplePieStagingCameraConclusionChapterMarkingShootingScriptwithCameraSetupsChapterWorkingwithActorsCastingAuditionsFirstReadThroughDirectingDuringRehearsalsDirectingActorsontheSetChapterManagerialResponsibilitiesoftheDirectorDelegatingAuthorityWhileAcceptingResponsibilityTheProducerTheAssistantDirectorARealisticShootingScheduleWorkingwiththeCrewWorkingwiththeDirectorofPhotographyChapterPostproductionEditingMusicandSoundLockingPicture,or,HowDoYouKnowWhenIt’sOverAnAudienceandaBigScreenPARTTHREEORGANIZINGACTIONINANACTIONSCENEChapterStagingandCameraforOverEasyActionSceneDevelopmentofScreenplayDirector’sPreparationforDirectinganActionSceneWheretoBeginOverEasyActionSceneStagingandCameraAnglesforStoryboardArtistPARTFOURORGANIZINGACTIONINANARRATIVESCENEChapterStagingandCameraforWandaNarrativeSceneWhatIstheScene’sJobChoosingaLocationCONTENTSixStagingCameraStyleinWandaPARTFIVELEARNINGTHECRAFTTHROUGHFILMANALYSISChapterAlfredHitchcock’sNotoriousOverviewofStyleandDesignFirstActSecondActThirdActSummaryChapterPeterWeir’sTheTrumanShowOverviewofStyleandDesignFirstActSecondActThirdActSummaryChapterFedericoFellini’s½AMasterpieceTheDirectorasAuteurDramaticConstructionOverviewofStyleandDesignDetectiveWorkFirstActSecondActThirdActSummaryChapterStylesAndDramaticStructuresStyleNarrative,Dramatic,andPoeticVisualStylesTheVarietyofDramaticStructuresTokyoStory,YasujiroOzu(,Japan)SomeLikeItHot,BillyWilder()TheBattleofAlgiers,GilloPontecorvo(,France)Red,KrzysztofKieslowski(,Poland,France,Switzerland)Sex,Lies,andVideotape,StevenSoderbergh()ShallWeDance,MasayukiSuo(,Japan)TheCelebration,ThomasVinterberg(,Denmark)TheInsider,MichaelMann()TheThinRedLine,TerrenceMalick()IntheMoodforLove,KarWaiWong(,China)LittleChildren,ToddField()ChapterWhatNextBuildingDirectorialMusclesWritingfortheDirectorxCONTENTSBeginThinkingaboutYourStoryConcoctingYourFeatureScreenplay“Writing”SceneswithActorsShootingYourFilmbeforeYouFinishWritingItTheFinalScriptShootingwithoutaScreenplayQuestionsDirectorsShouldAskaboutTheirScreenplaysConclusionBIBLIOGRAPHYINDEXCONTENTSxiThispageintentionallyleftblankFOREWORDHowdoyouteachfilmdirectingNickProferes’sbook,FilmDirectingFundamentals,answersthequestionperfectlybyprovidingaclearandconcisemethodologytothedirectingstudentItistheonlybookIknowofthataddressesboththeartandcraftofdirectingItnotonlyoffersastepbystepprocesstofollow,butitengagesthereaderasifyouaresittinginNick’sclassHislanguageisaccessible,andheuseswonderfulexamplesandclear,indepthanalysisthatinspiresyoutothehighestkindofeffortWhenIfirststartedteachingatColumbiaUniversity,IlookedthroughmanytextstofindonetorecommendtofilmstudentswhowantedtobecomedirectorsSomebookswereinformativebutextremelytechnicalandhardtofollowotherswereoversimplified,orwereanecdotesbyaparticulardirectorNoneofferedthestudentsaconcrete,organicapproachAtColumbia,NickaddressedthisproblembyteachingalecturecourseforallbeginningstudentsinourgraduatefilmprogramHisfocusisontrainingdirectorstoengagetheiraudienceemotionallybyfirstofallbecomingclearontheirstory(detectivework),thenhelpingthedirectortoorchestratetheprogressionanddramaticescalationofthatstoryTheorganizationofactionthroughdramaticblocks,narrativebeats(director’sbeats),andafulcrumaroundwhichadramaticscenemovesarecategoriesNickidentifiesforthefirsttimeFilmDirectingFundamentalsalsoprovidesacloseanalysisofthreefeaturefilmstogivethereaderachancetolookatandunderstandhowtousethedramaticelementsastoolsintheirownworkThebookleadsusthroughanalmostshotbyshotdiscussionofdramaticstructureandnarrator’svoiceinHitchcock’sNotorious,Fellini’s½,andPeterWeir’sTheTrumanShowandexaminesstyleanddramaticstructureinotherfeaturefilmsThethirdedition’sadditionoftwonewsignificantsections,“OrganizingActioninActionScenes”and“OrganizingActioninNarrativeScenes,”extendsthebook’smethodologytotheseotherformsofcinematicexpressionLikewise,theinclusionoftwonewfilms,IntheMoodforLoveandLittleChildren,offersaninsightfulcomparisonoftheirstylesanddramaticstructuresAlthoughIhavebeenanartistandadirectorforanumberofyears,itwasn’tuntilIstartedteachingthatItrulybegantounderstandmyownprocessTohaveabookthattrackstheprocesssopreciselyisinvaluabletomeasateacherandasafilmmakerIconsultedthisbookbefore,during,andaftermylastfilmproject,anditiscertainlyabookIwilluseagainandagainBetteGordonChairandDirectingSupervisorofColumbiaUniversityFilmDivisionDirectorofthefeaturefilmsVariety,LuminousMotion,andHandsomeHarryThispageintentionallyleftblankACKNOWLEDGMENTSThisbookcouldnothavebeenwrittenwithoutfeedbackfromthehundredsofstudentswhoattendedmydirectingworkshopsatColumbiaUniversityTheirprobingquestionsandimpassionedworkforcedmetoconstantlyclarifymyteachingtobetterservethem,andIthankthemoneandallIamalsoimmenselygratefultomycolleaguesfortheirsupport,especiallyBetteGordonandTomKalin,andforanyoftheirwisdomthatImayhavepurloinedwithoutattributionIowesinceregratitudetothedirectorJamesGoldstoneforhisvaluableprofessionalsuggestions,andtoAndyPawelczak,BranislavBala,andmysonTedProferesfortheirastuteeditorialcontributionstoSonnyQuinnfortheThePieceofApplePiestoryboards,GregBunchforthediagrams,andPatrickO’Connorfordigitizingtheartworktomypublisher,MarieLee,whomadethishappen,andtomywonderfuleditor,TerriJadickForthesecondeditionIsincerelythankmyneweditorElinorActipis,whohasbeenagodsend,BranislavBalaandPedjaZdravkovic,fortheNotoriousdiagramsandartwork,andProfessorWarrenBassforhisclosereadingandinvaluablesuggestionsthroughouttheentireprocessForthisthirdeditionImustagainexpressmygratitudetoElinorActipisandWarrenBassaugmentedbytheprofessionalandacademicinsightsofBruceSheridan,PhilSouth,andDavidOThomastheshepherdingofthiseditionbyAssociateEditorMicheleCroninmystoryboardartist,JorgeAlexeisReyesandtoCecilMatthaiEsquivelObregónforhistechnicalsupportForallthreeeditionsIamdeeplygratefultothedirectorsandwriterswhosefilmsIhavereliedonfortheirmasterfuldemonstrationofthedirectingcraftThispageintentionallyleftblankINTRODUCTIONExcitement,passion,beauty,surprise,laughter,andtearsthesearesomeofthethingswemightthinkaboutwhenplanningafilm,buttheycannotberealizedunlessthedirector’svisionisweddedtoafirmgraspofthedirectingcraftWiththatendinmind,thisbooksetsouttointroduceyoutotheconceptualaspectsofthiscraftandtoofferastepbystepmethodologythatwilltakeyoufromthescreenplaytothescreenThismethodologyisbasedontheexperiencesofmyownprofessionalcareerasadirector,cameraman,filmeditor,producer,writer,andgraduatefilmmakingteacherforyearsatColumbiaUniversityintheSchooloftheArts’FilmDivisionIhavetaughtmorethansemesterlongdirectingworkshopswherestudentshavemadecountlesshundredsoffilms,andIhavedirectlysupervisedwelloverthesisfilmsItwasasateacherthatIrealizedtheneedforanorganic,comprehensivetextondirectingToputoffthejobofwritingsuchatext,IdevelopedaseriesoflecturesthatIdeliveredatColumbiaandatseminarsinEuropeStillmystudentswantedabookIbeganwithapagehandoutthathasevolvedovertheyearsintothisthirdandfinaleditionTheemphasisthroughoutisonthecraftofnarrativestorytellinginthe“classical”senseThegoalistoofferatoolboxthatisfullyequippedwitheveryessentialtoolthatcanthenbeusedtocraftanykindofstoryTouseanothermetaphor,Iwanttodevelopallofthestudent’sdirectorialmusclesImakeanassumptionabouttheaudienceforthisbookthattheywillwanttoengagetheiraudienceinacinematicstoryEverythingcontainedinthisbookisaimedatthatgoal,whichIbelieveisalaudableoneHumanbeingsareinneedofnarrativeandalwayshavebeenIthasplayedasignificantpartinallthediverseculturesoftheworld,andperhapsevenindevelopmentofthespeciesitselfOutofconcernforsurvival,ourbrainsareconstructedtomakesenseofincomingstimuliGivenanythreefactsorimages,I,we,allofus,includingourancestorsfromthousandyearsago,areonourwaytomakingsenseofthesefacts:inotherwords,tomakingastoryAmovementinthegrass,birdstakingflight,anunnaturalstillness,andaCroMagnonmightbeginconcoctingascenarioofaleopardstalkinghimWhenIfirstbeganteaching,studentsaskedmewhatbookstheyshouldreadaboutfilmmaking,andItoldthemDearTheo,VincentvanGogh’sletterstohisbrotherIstillthinkanyoneaspiringtobeafilmdirectorshouldreadthisbooknotforthecraftoffilmmaking,obviously,butfortheinspirationtopursuethecreationofartthroughthepainstakingdevelopmentofcraftForyearsvanGoghdrewwithcharcoalHespentcountlesshoursdrawingpotatofarmersdigginginthefields,hiseyesburningthroughtheirclothingtoimaginethebonesandmusclesunderneathHebuiltanunwieldyperspectivedevicehewouldcarryformilestodevelopthisinvaluableskilloftherepresentationalartistAftermanyyears,anotherpaintermentionedtovanGoghthathehadsurelydoneenoughdrawingandshouldbegintoworkwithcolorVanGogh’sresponse:“Theproblemwithmostpeople’scoloristhattheycannotdraw”ThepointIwishtomakeisthatalthougheveryoneofyouisinahurryto“usecolor,”itwouldbehooveyoutofirstlearntodrawwellAndthatiswherewewillstartThe“drawing”ormethodologyinthisbookisbasedonthepropositionthatthescreenplaytheblueprintofafilminformseverythingthedirectordoesWewillbeginbyfocusingonfourareas:detectiveworkonthescript,blockingactors,thecameraasnarrator,andworkwiththeactorsDoallgooddirectorsfollowthismethodologyIbelievetheydo,whethertheyknowitornotForsomeitproceedsfromaninnatedramaticinstinctForothersitisforgedinthefireofexperienceMostlikelyitisacombinationofbothButIalsoknowfrommyyearsatColumbiathatitispossibletoteachtheseprinciplesAndIknowthatitisnearlyimpossibletoengageanaudiencefully,topullthemintoyourstoryandkeepthemthere,elicitingtheiremotionswhichis,afterall,themainpoweroffilmifthestepscalledforherearenotpaidattentiontoonsomelevelTherearemanyattributesthatarenecessaryforagoodfilmdirector:imagination,tenacity,knowledgeofthecraft,knowledgeofpeople,abilitytoworkwithothers,willingnesstoacceptresponsibility,courage,stamina,andmanymoreButthemostimportantattributethatcanbetaught,theonethatifmissingwillnegatealltherest,isclarityclarityaboutthestoryandhoweachelementinitcontributestothewhole,andthenclarityaboutwhatisconveyedtotheaudienceInthisthirdeditionIhaveaddednewsectionson“OrganizingActioninanActionScene”and“OrganizingActioninaNarrativeScene”tocomplementthefirsttwoeditions’emphasisondramaticscenesThesenewsectionsofferamorecomprehensiveviewofthediversitytobefoundinnarrative–dramaticfilmsandhowwemightapplyaspectsofourmethodologytotheseareasOutsideofadirectingtextbookthesedistinctionsmighthavelittleuse,butinateachingenvironmenttheycanhelpustoidentifymoreclearlywhatmightbeparticulartoeach,andmostimportantly,howwemightgoaboutrenderingeachtypeofscenemosteffectivelyAkeyingredientinlearninghowtodrawistostudydrawingsdonebymasterartistsItisnotonlyinspirational,butifwelookcloselywecanseewhataspectsofcrafttheartisthasusedtocreatehereffectThesameprocessisnecessaryinbecominganaccomplishedfilmdirectorWemuststudyfilms,andwemuststudythemcloselyWemuststudythemuntilweunderstandpreciselyhowthevariouspartsfittogether,howeachdiscreteelementaddstothecumulativeeffectofthewholeTothatend,PartFive,“LearningtheCraftThroughFilmAnalysis,”whichexploresvariousvisualstylestohelpinformourownvisualstorytelling,hasbeenexpandedThisthirdeditionalsoincludesaninstructor’smanualthatoffersinstructorsamedleyofcurriculaoptionsincludingaweekbyweek“IntroductoryDirectingWorkshop”andan“AdvancedDirectingWorkshop,”completewithfieldtestedexercisesdesignedtofacilitatethestudent’smasteryofthemethodologyofferedinthisbookQualifiedinstructorscanaccessthemanualbysigningupattextbookselseviercomAlfredHitchcocksaidthatifhewererunningafilmschool,hewouldnotletstudentsnearacameraforthefirsttwoyearsIntoday’sworldthatfilmschoolwouldsoonfinditselfbereftofstudents,forthecameraservesasavalidationthatoneisindeedpursuingtheartoffilmmakingButnevertheless,therearethingsoneshouldbeawareofbeforepickingupacamera,sowewillbeginourjourneyinPartOnewithanintroductiontofilmlanguageanditsgrammaticalrules,thenmoveontoexplorethedramaticelementsembeddedinthescreenplayxviiiINTRODUCTIONPARTONEFILMLANGUAGEANDADIRECTINGMETHODOLOGYItisimportantinlearninganylanguagetounderstanditsgrammar,anditisnodifferentforfilmlanguageThisiscoveredinChapterChaptersthroughintroducethebedrockofthisbook’smethodology:ajourneyofdiscoveringanswerstoquestionssuchasHowdoIstageasceneWheredoIputthecameraandWhatdoItellanactorTheanswers,Ibelieve,aretobefoundinyourscreenplaytherefore,muchofourtimewillbespentonthe“detectivework”neededtouncovertheseanswersInJuneFrancesFordCoppolavisitedColumbiaandtalkedcandidlyabouthimselfandtheinfluencesonhisworkPriortogoingtofilmschool,hestudiedtheaterforfouryears,andatColumbiahestatedcategoricallythatforhimthetwomostimportantaspectsofafilmareitstextandtheactorsthisfroma

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Film Directing Fundamentals - See Your Film Before Shooting 3rd

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