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首页 微观经济学

微观经济学

微观经济学

hamham
2013-06-15 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《微观经济学pdf》,可适用于经济金融领域

DownloadfreeebooksatbookbooncomKristerAhlerstenMicroeconomicsDownloadfreeebooksatbookbooncomMicroeconomics©KristerAhlerstenVentusPublishingApSISBNDownloadfreeebooksatbookbooncomPleaseclicktheadvertMicroeconomicsContentsIntroductionPlanSupply,Demand,andMarketEquilibriumDemandTheDemandCurveWhendoWeMovealongtheDemandCurve,andWhenDoesItShiftSupplyTheSupplyCurveEquilibriumHowtoFindtheEquilibriumPointMathematicallyPriceandQuantityRegulationsMinimumPricesMaximumPricesQuantityRegulationsConsumerTheoryBasketsofGoodsandtheBudgetLinePreferencesIndifferenceCurvesIndifferenceMapsTheMarginalRateofSubstitutionContentsDesignedforhighachievinggraduatesacrossalldisciplines,LondonBusinessSchool’sMastersinManagementprovidesspecificandtangiblefoundationsforasuccessfulcareerinbusinessThismonth,fulltimeprogrammeisabusinessqualificationwithimpactIn,ourMiMemploymentratewaswithinmonthsofgraduation*themajorityofgraduateschoosingtoworkinconsultingorfinancialservicesAswellasarenownedqualificationfromaworldclassbusinessschool,youalsogainaccesstotheSchool’snetworkofmorethan,globalalumni–acommunitythatofferssupportandopportunitiesthroughoutyourcareerFormoreinformationvisitwwwlondonedumm,emailmimlondoneduorgiveusacallon()MastersinManagementThenextstepfortopperforminggraduates*FigurestakenfromLondonBusinessSchool’sMastersinManagementemploymentreportDownloadfreeebooksatbookbooncomPleaseclicktheadvertMicroeconomicsIndifferenceCurvesforPerfectSubstitutesandComplementaryGoodsUtilityMaximization:OptimalConsumerChoiceMorethanTwoGoodsDemandIndividualDemandTheIndividualDemandCurveTheEngelCurveMarketDemandElasticityPriceElasticityIncomeElasticityCrossPriceElasticityIncomeandSubstitutionEffectsNormalGoodInferiorGoodChoiceunderUncertaintyExpectedValueExpectedUtilityRiskPreferencesCertaintyEquivalenceandtheRiskPremiumRiskReductionProductionTheProfitFunctionTheProductionFunctionContents©AgilentTechnologies,Incuscanada:TeachwiththeBestLearnwiththeBestAgilentoffersawidevarietyofaffordable,industryleadingelectronictestequipmentaswellasknowledgerich,onlineresourcesforprofessorsandstudentsWehave’sofcomprehensivewebbasedteachingtools,labexperiments,applicationnotes,brochures,DVDsCDs,posters,andmoreSeewhatAgilentcandoforyouwwwagilentcomfindEDUstudentswwwagilentcomfindEDUeducatorsDownloadfreeebooksatbookbooncomPleaseclicktheadvertMicroeconomicsAverageandMarginalProductTheLawofDiminishingMarginalReturnsProductionintheShortRunTheProductCurveintheShortRunProductionintheLongRunTheMarginalRateofTechnicalSubstitutionTheMarginalRateofTechnicalSubstitutionandtheMarginalProductsReturnstoScaleCostsProductionCostsintheShortRunProductionCostintheLongRunTheRelationbetweenLongRunandShortRunAverageCostsPerfectCompetitionIntroductionConditionsforPerfectCompetitionProfitMaximizingProductionintheShortRunStrategytoFindtheOptimalShortRunQuantityTheFirm’sShortRunSupplyCurveTheMarket’sShortRunSupplyCurveShortRunEquilibriumLongRunProductionTheLongRunSupplyCurvePropertiesoftheEquilibriumofaPerfectlyCompetitiveMarketMarketInterventionsandWelfareEffectsWelfareAnalysisContents©UBSAllrightsreservedwwwubscomgraduatesLookingforacareerwhereyourideascouldreallymakeadifferenceUBS’sGraduateProgrammeandinternshipsareachanceforyoutoexperienceforyourselfwhatit’sliketobepartofaglobalteamthatrewardsyourinputandbelievesinsucceedingtogetherWhereveryouareinyouracademiccareer,makeyourfutureapartofoursbyvisitingwwwubscomgraduatesYou’refullofenergyandideasAndthat’sjustwhatwearelookingforDownloadfreeebooksatbookbooncomPleaseclicktheadvertMicroeconomicsMonopolyBarrierstoEntryDemandandMarginalRevenueProfitMaximumTheDeadweightLossofaMonopolyWaystoReduceMarketPowerPriceDiscriminationFirstDegreePriceDiscriminationSecondDegreePriceDiscriminationThirdDegreePriceDiscriminationGameTheoryTheBasicsofGameTheoryThePrisoner’sDilemmaNashEquilibriumFindingtheNashEquilibriuminaGameinMatrixFormAMonopolywithNoBarrierstoEntryFindingtheNashEquilibriumforaGameTreeBackwardInductionOligopolyKinkedDemandCurveHowdoesthePriceintheKinkedDemandCurveAriseCournotDuopolyStackelbergDuopolyBertrandDuopolyContents©DeloitteToucheLLPandaffiliatedentities°thinkingDiscoverthetruthatwwwdeloittecacareers©DeloitteToucheLLPandaffiliatedentities°thinkingDiscoverthetruthatwwwdeloittecacareers©DeloitteToucheLLPandaffiliatedentities°thinkingDiscoverthetruthatwwwdeloittecacareers©DeloitteToucheLLPandaffiliatedentities°thinkingDiscoverthetruthatwwwdeloittecacareersDownloadfreeebooksatbookbooncomPleaseclicktheadvertMicroeconomicsMonopolisticCompetitionConditionsforMonopolisticCompetitionMarketEquilibriumShortRunLongRunLaborTheSupplyofLaborTheMarginalRevenueProductofLaborTheFirm’sShortRunDemandforLaborPerfectCompetitioninboththeInputandOutputMarketMonopolyintheOutputMarketMonopsonyintheInputMarketBilateralMonopolyCapitalPresentValueBondsStocksCorrectionforRiskDiversifiableandNondiversifiableRiskCAPM:PricingAssetsPricingBusinessProjectsGeneralEquilibriumA“RobinsonCrusoe”EconomyEfficiencyContentsDownloadfreeebooksatbookbooncomPleaseclicktheadvertMicroeconomicsTheEdgeworthBoxEfficientConsumptioninanExchangeEconomyTheTwoTheoremsofWelfareEconomicsEfficientProductionTheTransformationCurveParetoOptimalWelfareADefinitionofParetoOptimalWelfareExternalitiesDefinitionTheEffectofaNegativeExternalityRegulationsofMarketswithExternalitiesPublicGoodsDefinitionofPublicandPrivateGoodsTheAggregateWillingnesstoPayFreeRidingAsymmetricInformationAdverseselectionInsuranceUsedCarsSignalingandHowtoReduceProblemswithAdverseSelectionMoralhazardHowtoReduceProblemswithMoralHazardKeyWordsContentsyourchancetochangetheworldHereatEricssonwehaveadeeprootedbeliefthattheinnovationswemakeonadailybasiscanhaveaprofoundeffectonmakingtheworldabetterplaceforpeople,businessandsocietyJoinusInGermanyweareespeciallylookingforgraduatesasIntegrationEngineersfor•RadioAccessandIPNetworks•IMSandIPTVWearelookingforwardtogettingyourapplication!Toapplyandforallcurrentjobopeningspleasevisitourwebpage:wwwericssoncomcareersDownloadfreeebooksatbookbooncomMicroeconomicsIntroductionIntroductionEconomicsisoftendefinedassomethingalongthelinesof“thestudyofhowsocietymanagesitsscarceresources”ThestartingpointofmostsuchstudiesisthatindividualsallocatetheirresourcessuchthattheythemselveswillgetthehighestpossiblelevelofutilityAnindividualhasanideaofwhattheconsequencesofdifferentactionswillbe,andshechoosesthatactionshebelieveswillproducethebestresultforherSheis,inotherwords,selfishandrationalNotethatsheisalsoforwardlookingSheactssothatsheinthefuturewillgetthehighestpossiblelevelofutility,independentlyofwhatshehasalreadydoneThatsheisselfishdoesnothavetomeanthatsheisanegoistHowever,itdoesmeanthatshewillonlyvoluntarilysharewithothersifshebelievesthatshetherebywillmaximizeherownutilityWeoftencallthissimplificationofhumanbeingsHomoEconomicusTheresourcesthatwearetalkingaboutherecouldbelabor,capital(suchasmachines),andrawmaterialsThattheyarescarcemeanstherearenotenoughresourcestoproduceeverythingwewantThat,inturn,meansthatonehastoweightdifferentthingsagainsteachotherTogetmoreofonething,onehastogiveupsomethingelseIfyou,eg,wanttosleepanextrahour,itisimpossibletodosowithoutgivingupsomethingelse,suchasanhourofstudyingThereis,consequently,asortofahiddencosttosleepinglongerThistypeofcostiscalledopportunitycost(oralternativecost)Aclassicalsayingineconomicsisthat“thereisnosuchthingasafreelunch”Thismeansthat,evenifyoudonotactuallypayforthelunch,youalwayshavetogiveupatleastthetimewhenyoucouldhavedonesomethingelseThatis,youalwayshavetopaytheopportunitycostWhenwestudymicroeconomics,itisprimarilyindividualhumanbeingsandindividualfirms,agents,thatwestudyThisisincontrasttomacroeconomics,whereonestudieswholeeconomies,andquestionssuchasunemploymentandinflationRoughlyspeaking,therearethreetypesofdecisionsthatneedtobemadeinaneconomy:Whichgoodsandservicestoproduce,howtoproducethem,andwhoshouldgetthemOftenineconomicmodels,thepricesofgoods(orservices,labor,capital,etc)automaticallycoordinatethesedecisionsinamarketAmarketisanymechanismwherebuyersandsellersmeetThatcouldbe,forexample,amarketsquare,astockexchange,oracomputernetworkwhereonecanbuyandsellthingsMicroeconomicsisoftenbasedonmodelsWetrytodescribearealphenomenonassimplyaspossiblebyonlyhighlightingafewcentralfeaturesManyeconomicmodelscanbeusedforpredictionsandcanthereforebetestedagainstrealitySuchmodelsarecalledpositiveTheoppositekindofmodels,modelsthatareaboutvalues,iscallednormativeForexample,todecideaboutaneconomicpolicyonewouldfirstusepositiveeconomicstomakeassessmentsabouttheconsequencesofdifferentalternativesThenonewoulduseone’sopinionsaboutwhatisdesirableandwhatisnottochoosebetweenthedifferentalternativesThatisthenanormativedecisionEconomics:ThestudyofhowsocietymanagesitsscarceresourcesHomoEconomicus:AmodelofhumanbeingsSheisassumedtomaximizeherownutilityResources:Labor,capitalandrawmaterialsThethingsweusetoproducegoodsandservicesOpportunityalternativecost:The(hidden)costofchoosingonealternativeinsteadofanotherMicroeconomics:ThestudyoftheeconomicbehaviorofindividualhumanbeingsandfirmsAgent:Anentitythatiscapableofmakingadecision,egahumanbeingorafirmMacroeconomics:ThestudyofwholeeconomiesMarket:MeetingplacewherebuyersandsellersareabletotradewitheachotherModel:AsimplifieddescriptionofrealityPositiveeconomics:AtestableeconomicmodelNormativeeconomics:Aneconomicmodelthatincludesvalues(andthereforeisnottestable)DownloadfreeebooksatbookbooncomMicroeconomicsIntroductionPlanBeforewebegin,itisprobablywisetomakeitclearwherewearetryingtogoWewanttodevelopanumberofmodelsthattogethercandescribehowaneconomyworksTheyshouldbeabletoproduceclearandtestablepredictionsandbeassimpleaspossiblexInamarket,productsandorservicesarebeingboughtandsold(ortraded)Webeginbylookingatconsumersandproducers,andtheirrespectivedemandandsupplyinamarketThatway,wewillseeanexampleofhowthemarketpriceofagoodisdeterminedxConsumersandproducers,however,havedifficultproblemstosolvebeforetheyarriveattheirrespectivedemandandsupplyFirst,welookataconsumer’sprobleminaverysimplecase:ShehastochoosebetweentwodifferentgoodsforwhichshehasdifferentpreferencesWeshowhowitispossibletogofromherpreferencesandincometoherdemandforoneofthegoodsThenweshowhowonecanderivethedemandforthewholemarketxThenwechangeperspectivesandstudyaproducer’sproblemWewillthendiscoverthatthemodellooksverysimilartothatoftheconsumerTheproducerhastoproducethegoodwiththehelpoflaborandcapital,anddifferentcombinationsofthetwowillleadtodifferentquantitiesofthegoodShealsohastothinkaboutthefactthat,differentcombinationswillhavedifferentcostsTheresultswillhelpustoshowhowthemarketsupplyisdeterminedxThereareusuallyquitemanyconsumersbutsubstantiallyfewerproducersThishasalargeimpactonhowthemarketoperates,andwethereforecontinuetostudydifferentmarketformsWewilldifferentiatebetweencaseswherethereareone,two,some,andmanyproducersWealsostudythewelfareeffectsofdifferentmarketformsxTheproducershaveademandforlaborandtheworkerssupplyitThelabormarkethassomeoddfeaturesthatwewilltreatseparatelyxEquilibriumisacentralconceptineconomicsWeshowhowconsumerandproducermarkets,aswellasthemarketforgoods,simultaneouslyreachequilibriuminasimpleandstylizedeconomyxLastly,werelaxsomeoftheassumptionswehavemadesofarWeshowhowundesirableresultscanarisebecauseofsocalledmarketfailures,egbecausedifferentagentshavedifferentamountsofinformationaboutagood,orbecauseitisdifficulttokeepoutuserswhodonotpayDownloadfreeebooksatbookbooncomPleaseclicktheadvertMicroeconomicsSupply,Demand,andMarketEquilibriumSupply,Demand,andMarketEquilibriumWebeginourstudyofmicroeconomicsbylookingatamarketwithmanybuyersandsellers,ieamarketwherethereisalargeamountofcompetitionWewillstudysuchamarketinmoredepthinChapter,aswellasothermarkettypes,butstartingheremakesiteasytogetafeelforhowthesubjectworksDemandTheDemandCurveThedemandcurveshowswhatquantitiesofagoodbuyersarewillingtobuyatdifferentpricesNotetheexpression“arewilling”Itisnotabouthowmuchtheyactuallybuy,butabouthowmuchtheywouldwanttobuyifacertainpricewasofferedAdemandcurveisonlyvalidifallotherrelevantfactorsareheldconstant(ceterisparibus:withotherthingsthesame)Themostimportantotherfactorsthatcanaffectdemandare:Demandcurve:ShowshowmuchthebuyersarewillingtobuyatdifferentpricesofagoodCeterisparibus:Latinfor“withotherthingsthesame”WewillturnyourCVintoanopportunityofalifetimeDoyoulikecarsWouldyouliketobeapartofasuccessfulbrandWewillappreciateandrewardbothyourenthusiasmandtalentSendusyourCVYouwillbesurprisedwhereitcantakeyouSendusyourCVonwwwemployerforlifecomDownloadfreeebooksatbookbooncomMicroeconomicsSupply,Demand,andMarketEquilibriumxThebuyers’incomexPricesandpricechangesonothergoodsWewillmakeadistinctionbetweencomplementarygoodsandsubstitutegoodsAnexampleofcomplementarygoodsisrightandleftshoesIfthepriceofrightshoesrisesthenthedemandforrightshoeswilltypicallydecreaseHowever,thedemandforleftshoeswillalsotypicallydecreaseConsequently,thedemandforleftshoespartlydependsonthepriceofanothergood:rightshoesSubstitutegoodsworkintheoppositewayAnexamplecouldbeblueandgreenpens:Ifonecannotuseblue,onecanoftenusegreeninsteadIfthepriceofgreenpensrises,thedemandforgreenpenstypicallydecreasesHowever,ifthepriceofbluepensisunchangedonecanusetheseinsteadofthegreenones,andthenthedemandforbluepensincreasesConsequently,thedemandforbluepensdependsonthepriceofanothergood:greenpensNotethatforsubstitutegoods,ariseinthepriceoftheothergoodleadstoanincreaseinthedemandforthegoodweareanalyzing,whereasforcomplementarygoodsitistheotherwayaroundariseinthepriceoftheothergoodleadstoadecreaseinthedemandforthegoodanalyzedxPreferencesWhatconsumersdemandislargelyamatteroftasteIfthereisachangeintaste,thereisusuallyalsoachangeindemandTastecanchangeformanydifferent,underlying,reasonsForexample,changesinmoralperceptionorinfashionIfthesefactorsareheldconstant,thenthedemandcurveisvalidanditusuallyslopesdownwardsInotherwords,thelowerthepriceisthehigheristhedemand,andviceversaDemandisdefinedforacertainperiodOnecanforexamplethinkofitasdefinedoveramonth,correspondingtoamonthlysalaryWhendrawingademandcurveinadiagram,thequantitydemandedisontheXaxisandthepriceisontheYaxisThisisslightlyodd,sinceweoftenthinkofthequantitydemandedasafunctionoftheprice,nottheotherwayaroundTherearehistoricalreasonsfordrawingitthiswayWhendoWeMovealongtheDemandCurve,andWhenDoesItShiftTherelationbetweenpriceandquantitythatisdescribedbythedemandcurveisvalidonlyifitisthepriceofthegooditselfthatchangesLookatFigureandthedemandcurveDIf,inthebeginning,thepriceisp,thenthequantitydemandedisQ(pointA)Ifthepriceofthegoodfallstop,thenthequantitydemandedchangestoQ(pointB)We,consequently,movealongthedemandcurvewhenthepriceofthegoodchangesComplementarygoods:GoodsthataretypicallyconsumedtogetherSubstitutego

用户评价(2)

  • 未了末了 英语版的,看着很累呢~

    2013-09-10 03:06:51

  • Hyas 英文的,作者Krister Ahlersten.

    2013-07-20 00:44:15

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