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首页 自尊心理学

自尊心理学.pdf

自尊心理学

binghuo3765
2013-06-08 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《自尊心理学pdf》,可适用于自然科学领域

PageiiiThePsychologyofSelfEsteemARevolutionaryApproachtoSelfUnderstandingThatLaunchedaNewErainModernPsychologyNathanielBrandenPageivCopyright©byNathanielBranden,PrefacetothendAnniversaryEditionandEpiloguecopyright©byNathanielBrandenFIRSTJOSSEYBASSEDITIONPUBLISHEDINTHISBOOKWASORIGINALLYPUBLISHEDBYNASHPUBLISHINGJosseyBassisaregisteredtrademarkofJosseyBassInc,AWileyCompanyNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,scanning,orotherwise,exceptaspermittedunderSectionsoroftheUnitedStatesCopyrightAct,withouteitherthepriorwrittenpermissionofthePublisherorauthorizationthroughpaymentoftheappropriatepercopyfeetotheCopyrightClearanceCenter,RosewoodDrive,Danvers,MA,(),fax()RequeststothePublisherforpermissionshouldbeaddressedtothePermissionsDepartment,JohnWileySons,Inc,ThirdAvenue,NewYork,NY,(),fax(),email:permreqwileycomJosseyBassbooksandproductsareavailablethroughmostbookstoresTocontactJosseyBassdirectly,call(),faxto(),orvisitourwebsiteatwwwjosseybasscomSubstantialdiscountsonbulkquantitiesofJosseyBassbooksareavailabletocorporations,professionalassociations,andotherorganizationsFordetailsanddiscountinformation,contactthespecialsalesdepartmentatJosseyBasseISBNThistitleisalsoavailableinprintasISBN(pbkalkpaper)FormoreinformationaboutWileyproducts,visitourwebsiteatwwwWileycomFIRSTEDITIONPagevCONTENTSPrefacetothendAnniversaryEditionviiIntroductionxiPartOne:TheFoundationsPsychologyasaScienceMan:ALivingBeingMan:ARationalBeingMan:ABeingofVolitionalConsciousnessEmotionsMentalHealthPartTwo:ThePsychologyofSelfEsteemTheNatureandSourceofSelfEsteemPseudoSelfEsteemPathologicalAnxiety:ACrisisofSelfEsteemSocialMetaphysicsSelfEsteemandRomanticLovePsychotherapyEpilogue:WorkingwithSelfEsteeminPsychotherapyNotesIndexAbouttheAuthorPageviiPREFACETOTHENDANNIVERSARYEDITIONIwrotethisbookduringthesanditwaspublishedinItisasourceofimmensesatisfactiontohavethisopportunitytowriteanewPrefaceforthendanniversaryeditionAlthoughIhavewrittenmanybookssincethisone,forasignificantnumberofmyreadersitremainstheirfavoriteofmyworksCertainlyitlaidthefoundationforeverythingIwrotesubsequentlyaboutselfesteemAretherethingsthatIwoulddodifferentlyifIwerewritingthebooktodayOfcourseItisimpossibleforanauthortorereadabookwrittenmorethanthreedecadesagoandnotfeel,"TodayIcoulddoitbetter"However,IhavechosentoleavethebookinitsoriginalformuneditedandunchangedforthiseditionIthas,Iamconvinced,anintegrity,orinternallogic,thatwouldbeunderminedifIattemptedtocomingleitwithperspectivesarrivedatlaterThisbookismorephilosophicalthanmostofmysubsequentwritings,whichIdonotregret,andmoremoralistic,ifonlybyimplicationwhichIdoregretItsethicalvisionisnarrowerthanthatofferedinsuchbooksofmineasTheSixPillarsofSelfEsteem()andTheArtofLivingConsciously()AndyetpeopleinthefieldsofpublishingandpsychologytellmerepeatedlythatthisbookhasdonemoretoawakenconsciousnessconcerningtheimportanceofselfesteemtohumanwellbeingthananyothersingleworkIftrue,IamproudofthatIstruggletomakereal,attheageofseventy,thatImademyfirstnotesonselfesteemwhilestillinmytwentiesandbeganwritingthisbookwhenIwasthirtythreeWantingtoofferthereadersomesenseofhowmythinkingaboutselfesteemhasdeveloped,IofferanEpilogueentitledPageviii"WorkingwithSelfEsteeminPsychotherapy"Asingleessaycannotretraceallthestepsinvolvedinmyevolvingandexpandingvisionofthedynamicsofselfesteem,butitwillconveyagood(ifhighlydistilled)introductiontomymorerecentthinking,anditwilldisclosehowthebasicconceptualstructurefirstpresentedinThePsychologyofSelfEsteemstillstandsTocommentononesmalllinguisticchange:inthepresentvolumeIspeakofthetwocomponentsofselfesteemasselfconfidenceandselfrespectInmylaterwork,IspeakofselfefficacyandselfrespectThereasonforthechangeisthatselfconfidenceistoogeneral,tooabstract,toovagueWhatIwantedtoconveywasspecificallytheexperienceofbeingefficaciousinthefaceoflife'schallengesIhavelearnedwhatIknowaboutselfesteemfromseveralsourcesfromreasoningabouthumanexperiencethatismoreorlessavailabletoeveryone,fromworkingwithclientsinpsychotherapyformorethanfourdecadesandhavingtoconstantlytestmyideasagainstthechallengeofneedingtoachievespecificresults,andfromworkingonmyowndevelopmentInTheSixPillarsofSelfEsteem(whichIregardasthegrandchildofthepresentvolume),Itellanumberofstoriesaboutmyself,aboutmistakesImade,andaboutthelessonsIlearnedfromthosemistakesallofwhichdeepenedmyunderstandingofwhatstrengthensselfesteemandwhatunderminesitItisdifficulttohelpothersgrowinselfesteemifwedonotunderstandhowitsdynamicsoperateinourselvesOneofthemostimportantthingsthisbookmakesclearisthatselfesteemisnotafeelgoodphenomenonOurneedofitisrooteddeepinournature,andifweunderstandthatneed,weunderstandthatitcannotbesatisfiedarbitrarilyorcapriciouslybyjustanypursuitthatmighthappentoattractusSelfesteemrestsontheappropriateexerciseofmind,andwhatthatmeansspecificallyisexaminedinthepagesthatfollowWewillseethatselfesteem,rationality,perseverance,selfresponsibility,andpersonalintegrityareallintimatelyrelatedWewillalsoseethateventhoughothersmayhelpusorobstructusonthepathtoselfesteem,especiallywhenweareyoung,noonecanliterallygiveusselfesteemItmustbegeneratedfromwithinPageixThebestanalogyIcanthinkofistophysicalfitnessgettinginshapeOtherscanencourageusorteachusprinciplesofexerciseandhealthynutrition,butnoonecanmakeusagiftofbeingphysicallyfitThatisastatewemustachieveourselvesthroughtheactionsandpracticeswecultivatePreciselythesameistrueofselfesteemWemakeamusclestrongbyusingitThatishowwemakeamindstrongAristotletaughtusthatwebuildagoodcharacterthroughthedisciplineofconvertingvirtuouspracticesintohabitsHowthisideaappliestobuildingselfesteem,weshallshortlyproceedtoconsiderButfirstwemustlookatthecontextinwhichtheneedforselfesteemarisesWhatisitinthenatureofrealityandofmindthatmakesselfesteemanurgentconcernThisiswhereourinquirybeginsNATHANIELBRANDENLOSANGELES,CALIFORNIAOCTOBERPagexiINTRODUCTIONInhisquesttounderstandtheuniverseinwhichhelives,manisconfrontedwiththreefundamentalfactsofnature:theexistenceofmatter,oflife,andofconsciousnessInresponsetothefirstofthesephenomena,hedevelopedthesciencesofphysicsandchemistryinresponsetothesecond,hedevelopedthescienceofbiologyinresponsetothethird,hedevelopedthescienceofpsychologyItisnotoriousthat,todate,thegreatestadvancesinknowledgehavebeenachievedinthefieldofphysicstheleast,inthefieldofpsychologyTheexplanationofthisdifferenceinthecomparativeratesofprogresslies,atleastinpart,intherespectivechallengesposedbythesethreesciencesInseekingtoidentifylawsofnature,manbasicallyisseekingtoidentifytheprinciplesofactionexhibitedbyentitiesintheirbehavior:tograspwhatentitiesdoindifferentcontextsandwhyGiventhistask,thejobofthephysicistissimplerthanthatofthebiologist:thenumberofvariableswithwhichhemustcopeinstudyingtheactionofinanimatematter,thevarietyofactionspossibletoinanimateentities,isfarlessthanthatencounteredinthebehavioroflivingorganismsButthejobofthebiologistissimplerthanthatofthepsychologist:aconsciouslivingorganismsuchasmanexhibitsacomplexityandvarietyofbehaviorgreaterbyfarthanthatexhibitedbyanyotherentity,livingornonlivingAsabeingwhopossessesthepowerofselfconsciousnessthepowerofcontemplatinghisownlifeandactivitymanexperiencesaprofoundneedforaconceptualframeofreferencefromwhichtoviewhimself,aneedforaselfintelligibilitywhichitisthetaskofpsychologytoprovideThisbookisofferedasasteptowardtheachievementofthatgoalItisnopartofmyintention,inthiscontext,toengageinpolemicsagainstcontemporarypsychologyortoarguethatithasPagexiifailedtoprovidemanwiththeselfknowledgeheneedsSoIwillsimplysaythatsuchismyconvictionandthatmyreasons,aswellasthenatureofmydifferenceswithcurrentschoolsofpsychology,willbecomeclearasweproceedIfthescienceofpsychologyistoachieveanaccurateportraitofman,itmust,Isubmit,questionandchallengemanyofthedeepestpremisesprevalentinthefieldtodaymustbreakawayfromtheantibiological,antiintellectual,automatonviewofhumannaturethatdominatescontemporarytheoryNeithertheviewofmanasaninstinctmanipulatedpuppet(psychoanalysis),northeviewofhimasastimulusresponsemachine(behaviorism),bearsanyresemblancetomanthebiologicalentitywhomitisthetaskofpsychologytostudy:theorganismuniquelycharacterizedbythepowerofconceptualthought,propositionalspeech,explicitreasoningandselfawarenessThecentralthemeofthisbookistheroleofselfesteeminman'slife:theneedofselfesteem,thenatureofthatneed,theconditionsofitsfulfillment,theconsequencesofitsfrustrationandtheimpactofaman'sselfesteem(orlackofit)onhisvalues,responses,andgoalsVirtuallyallpsychologistsrecognizethatmanexperiencesaneedofselfesteemButwhattheyhavenotidentifiedisthenatureofselfesteem,thereasonswhymanneedsit,andtheconditionshemustsatisfyifheistoachieveitVirtuallyallpsychologistsrecognize,ifonlyvaguely,thatthereissomerelationshipbetweenthedegreeofaman'sselfesteemandthedegreeofhismentalhealthButtheyhavenotidentifiedthenatureofthatrelationship,northecausesofitVirtuallyallpsychologistsrecognize,ifonlydimly,thatthereissomerelationshipbetweenthenatureanddegreeofaman'sselfesteemandhismotivation,ie,hisbehaviorinthespheresofwork,love,andhumanrelationshipsButtheyhavenotexplainedwhy,noridentifiedtheprinciplesinvolvedSucharetheissueswithwhichthisbookdealsMoreprecisely,sucharetheissuesdealtwithinPartTwoofthisbookPartOneisconcernedwiththepsychologicalfoundationsofmytheoryofselfesteemwiththeviewofmanonwhichitrestsThisentailsanexaminationofthenatureoflivingorganisms,withspecialreferencetotheconceptofbiologicalandpsychologicalneedsthenatureofman'smind,ascontrastedwiththeconsciousnessofloweranimalstheissueofpsychologicalfreedomandPagexiiiselfresponsibilitythenatureandsourceofemotions,therelationshipofreasonandemotion,theproblemofemotionalrepressionand,finally,theconceptsofmentalhealthandillnessSomeofthematerialinthisbookoriginallyappearedinTheObjectivist(formerlyTheObjectivistNewsletter),ajournalofideasofwhichIwascofounderwithAynRand,and,fromto,coeditorSomeofthematerialinonechapteroriginallyappearedinmybookWhoIsAynRandAlthoughIamnolongerassociatedwithMissRand,IwelcomethisopportunitytoacknowledgetheinvaluablecontributionwhichherworkasaphilosopherhasmadetomyownthinkinginthefieldofpsychologyIindicate,throughoutthetext,specificconceptsandtheoriesofMissRand'sphilosophy,Objectivism,whicharecruciallyimportanttomyownideasTheObjectivistepistemology,metaphysics,andethicsarethephilosophicalframeofreferenceinwhichIwriteasapsychologistIndeed,formanyyears,whenlecturingonmypsychologicaltheories,itwasmypracticetodesignatemysystemas"ObjectivistPsychology"Iknew,however,thatthiswasonlyatemporarydesignationaworkingtitleandthatitisnotappropriatetonameasystemofpsychology,oranyscience,afteraphilosophyOnewouldnot,forinstance,speakof"ObjectivistPhysics,"evenifaphysicistweretomakeuseoftenetsofObjectivistepistemologyormetaphysicsThenameIeventuallyselectedarosefrommyconvictionthatpsychologymustbefirmlyrootedinabiologicalorientationthatastudyofthenatureofmanmustbeginwithastudyofthenatureoflifethatman'spsychologicalnaturecanonlybeunderstoodinthecontextofhisnatureasalivingorganismandthatman'snatureandneedsasaspecifickindoforganismarethesourcebothofhisuniqueachievementsandofhispotentialproblemsThebiocentricapproach(ie,thebiologicallyoriented,lifecenteredapproach)isbasictomythinkingandtomymethodofanalyzingpsychologicalproblemsForthisreason,Icallmysystem:BiocentricPsychologyItis,ofcourse,anindicationthatascienceisatanearlystageofdevelopmentwhenthatscienceisstilldividedintoschools,eachwithitsownnameInthissense,IregretthatitisnecessarytodesignatemyworkbyanynameatallAnd,intruth,inmyownmindIdonotcallwhatIamdoingBiocentricPsychologyIcallitpsychologyPagePARTONETHEFOUNDATIONSPageChapterOnePsychologyasaScienceTheDefinitionofPsychologyTherearetwoquestionswhicheveryhumanbeingwithrareexceptionsaskshimselfthroughmostofhislifeTherareexceptionsarethepersonswhoknowtheanswertothefirstofthesequestions,atleasttoasignificantextentButeveryoneasksthesecond,sometimesinwonder,oftenindespairThesetwoquestionsare:HowamItounderstandmyselfand:HowamItounderstandotherpeopleHistoricallyinthedevelopmentofthehumanraceandinthelifeofanindividualthesequestionsconstitutethestartingpointof,andinitialimpetusto,psychologicalinvestigationTheinquiryimplicitinthesequestionscanbecastinawider,moreabstractform:WhydoesapersonactashedoesWhatwouldberequiredforhimtoactdifferentlyWritingintheearlyyearsofthiscentury,theGermanpsychologistHermannEbbingausmadeanobservationthathasbecomefamous:''Psychologyhasalongpast,butonlyashorthistory"Hisstatementwasintendedtoacknowledgethefactthat,throughoutrecordedhistory,menhavebeenintenselyconcernedwithissuesandproblemsofapsychologicalnature,butthatpsychology,asadistinctscientificdiscipline,emergedonlyinthesecondhalfofthenineteenthcenturyUptothattime,thedomainofpsychologyhadnotbeenisolatedassuchandstudiedsystematicallyitexistedonlyasapartofphilosophy,medicine,andtheologyTheestablishmentofWilhelmWundt'sexperimentallaboratoryinisoftenregardedastheformalbeginningofscientificpsychologyButPagewhenoneconsiderstheviewsofmanandthetheoriesofhisnaturethathavebeenputforthasknowledgeinthepasthundredyears,itremainsamootquestionwhetherthestartingdateofthescienceofpsychologyliesbehindusoraheadScienceistherationalandsystematicstudyofthefactsofrealityitsaimistodiscoverlawsofnature,toachieveacomprehensive,integratedknowledgethatwillmaketheuniverseintelligibletomanManrequiressuchknowledgeinordertodealwithrealitysuccessfully,inordertoliveIf"nature,tobecommanded,mustbeobeyed"thenthepurposeofscienceistoprovidemanwiththeintellectualmeansofhissurvivalAnewscienceisbornwhen,outofthecountlessquestionsthatmanasksconcerningthenatureofthings,certainquestionsareisolatedandthenintegratedintoadistinctcategoryisolatedandintegratedbyadefiningprinciplethatdistinguishesthesequestionsfromallothersandidentifiestheircommoncharacteristicsIttookmanycenturiesbeforephysics,chemistry,biology,andphysiology,forinstance,wereconceptualizedasspecificsciencesWhatisthescienceofpsychologyHowisittobedefinedWhatisitsspecificdomainConsiderthefollowingproblemstheyaretypicalofthosewithwhichpsychologydealsandconsiderbywhatprincipleoneisabletorecognizethattheyarepsychologicalAscientiststrugglestoanswersomedifficultquestionthathasariseninhisworkAftermonthsofeffort,hefeelsnoclosertoasolutionthanwhenhebeganThen,oneday,whileheisoutforawalk,thesolutionunexpectedlyflashesintohismindWhatmentalprocessesunderlieandaccountforthisphenomenon,thephenomenonofsudden"insight"or"inspiration"Amongouracquaintanceswenotethatonepersoncharacteristicallyisserene,confident,eventemperedthatanotherisirritable,nervous,unsureofhimselfthatathirdistense,brooding,emotionallyfrozenthatafourthisemotionallyexplosive,volatile,elatedonemomentanddepressedthenextWhataccountsforsuchdifferencesWhatarethecausesofaperson'scharacterandpersonalityWhatarecharacterandpersonalityAmanawakensinthemiddleofthenight,hisbodytremblingandhisheartbeatingviolentlyTothebestofhisknowledge,hehasnocausetobeafraidYetwhathefeelsisterrorThroughaPagesleeplessnight,thenthroughthedaysandweeksthatfollow,thesenseofimpendingdisasterpersists:thedreadinvadeshim,asifsomealienpowerhadtakenpossessionofhisbodyFinally,heseeksthehelpofapsychotherapistHelearnsthathisproblemisshared,invaryingdegreesofintensity,bymillionsofpeopleItiscalledpathologicalanxietyWhatisitscauseWhatdoesitsignifyHowisittobecuredTheseexamplespertaintohumanbeings,butpsychologyisnotrestrictedexclusivelytothestudyofmanitincludesthestudyofanimalsWhenascientistinvestigatesthelearningprocessesofadog,ortherelativeeffectivenessofrewardandpunishmentonamonkey,orthe"familylife"ofachimpanzeehispursuitandconcernaredistinctlypsychologicalIf,ontheotherhand,ascientiststudiestheactionsofastronomicalbodiesortheheliotropicactionofaplant,hisinvestigationisclearlynotpsychologicalHowdowerecognizethisWhatistheprincipleofthedifferencePsychologyisconfinedtothestudyoflivingorganismsOfalllivingorganismsNoofthoselivingorganismswhichareconscious,whichexhibitawarenessIfonewishestounderstandthedefinitionanddistinctivenatureofaparticularscience,thequestiontoansweris:Whatarethe

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