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首页 监狱话语:作为控制与抵抗方式的语言

监狱话语:作为控制与抵抗方式的语言.pdf

监狱话语:作为控制与抵抗方式的语言

九月虺
2013-05-26 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《监狱话语:作为控制与抵抗方式的语言pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

PrisonDiscourseLanguageasaMeansofControlandResistanceAndreaMayrPrisonDiscourseThispageintentionallyleftblankPrisonDiscourseLanguageasaMeansofControlandResistanceAndreaMayr©AndreaMayrAllrightsreservedNoreproduction,copyortransmissionofthispublicationmaybemadewithoutwrittenpermissionNoparagraphofthispublicationmaybereproduced,copiedortransmittedsavewithwrittenpermissionorinaccordancewiththeprovisionsoftheCopyright,DesignsandPatentsAct,orunderthetermsofanylicencepermittinglimitedcopyingissuedbytheCopyrightLicensingAgency,TottenhamCourtRoad,LondonWTLPAnypersonwhodoesanyunauthorisedactinrelationtothispublicationmaybeliabletocriminalprosecutionandcivilclaimsfordamagesTheauthorhasassertedherrighttobeidentifiedastheauthorofthisworkinaccordancewiththeCopyright,DesignsandPatentsActFirstpublishedbyPALGRAVEMACMILLANHoundmills,Basingstoke,HampshireRGXSandFifthAvenue,NewYork,NYCompaniesandrepresentativesthroughouttheworldPALGRAVEMACMILLANistheglobalacademicimprintofthePalgraveMacmillandivisionofStMartin’sPress,LLCandofPalgraveMacmillanLtdMacmillan®isaregisteredtrademarkintheUnitedStates,UnitedKingdomandothercountriesPalgraveisaregisteredtrademarkintheEuropeanUnionandothercountriesISBN–––hardbackThisbookisprintedonpapersuitableforrecyclingandmadefromfullymanagedandsustainedforestsourcesAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataMayr,Andrea,–Prisondiscourse:languageasameansofcontrolandresistanceAndreaMayrpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN–––PrisonersEducationScotlandImprisonmentScotlandCorrectionalpersonnelLanguagePrisonersLanguageSocialcontrolLanguageandeducationCriticaldiscourseanalysisITitleHVGS’’dcPrintedandboundinGreatBritainbyAntonyRoweLtd,ChippenhamandEastbourneContentsAcknowledgementsixTranscribingNonstandardConversationsxIntroductionBackgroundtothestudyOutlineofthebookAsocialtheoryofdiscourseInstitutionaldiscourseEthnomethodologyandConversationAnalysis(CA)TheconceptofdiscourseSystemicFunctionalLinguistics(SFL):amultifunctionalviewofdiscourseCriticalDiscourseAnalysis(CDA)HegemonyanddiscourseFoucaultandtheanalysisofdiscourseFoucault’smodelofproductivepowerAcritiqueofFoucaultSummaryResearchContext,MethodsandDataCollectionIntroductionTheinstitutionalhistoryoftheScottishPrisonService(SPS)Staff–inmaterelationshipsImprisonmentinScotlandtodayPower,discourseandthemovetowardsManagerialismintheSPSOffenderrehabilitation:thecognitivemodelBackground:howtheprojectstartedDatacollectionandtranscriptionRecordingproceduresParticipantobservationTranscriptionsystemSummaryvprevxiiqxd:PMPagevCriticalDiscourseAnalysisandtheLanguageofSocialControlIntroductionTheconceptofsocialcontrolCorrectionalchangesandsocialcontrolideologiesTheCognitiveSkillsHandbookAnalysisoftheCognitiveSkillsHandbooktexts:applyingSFLLexicogrammaticalanalysisoftextDiscoursesemanticanalysisoftextLexicogrammaticalanalysisoftextDiscoursesemanticanalysisoftextLexicogrammaticalanalysisoftextDiscoursesemanticanalysisoftextSummaryofthelexicogrammaticalanalysisoftheCognitiveSkillsHandbooktextsMoodanalysisTransitivityanalysisThemeanalysisSummaryofdiscoursesemanticanalysisLexicalizationintheCognitiveSkillsHandbooktextsConclusionCriticalDiscourseAnalysisandtheStudyofOfficer–InmateInteraction:SocialControlinActionIntroductionOutlineoftheValuesEnhancementmoduleAnalysisofinteractionalcontrolfeaturesintextTurntakingTopiccontrolClassroomquestionsandsteeringofdiscourseInterruptionFormulationEnforcingexplicitnessPolitenessMoodandModality:grammaticalpatternsintextBasicMoodtypesMoodchoicesintextAnalysisofinteractionalcontrolfeaturesintextClassroomquestionsandsteeringofdiscourseviContentsprevxiiqxd:PMPageviInterruptionFormulationandenforcingexplicitnessTopiccontrolTurntakingPolitenessSummaryofinteractionalcontrolfeaturesintextMoodandModalityintextConclusionResistingandAcquiescingwithSocialControlIntroductionConstructingresistanceandsolidarityAppraisalintextsandAffect:expressingfeelingsandemotionsJudgement:expressingjudgementsaboutbehaviourAmplification:resourcesforgradingSummaryandinterpretationofAppraisalitemsInvolvementintextsandSwearingVocativesSlangor‘antilanguage’:expressinganalternativerealitySpeechfunctionanalysisintextHalliday’sfunctionalsemanticmodelofdialogueSpeechfunctionclassesinconversationOpeningspeechfunctionsSustainingmoves:continuingspeechfunctionsReactingspeechfunctions:respondingReacting:rejoindermovesAppraisalintextInterpretingspeechfunctionsintextConclusionConclusionsSummarySuggestionsforfutureresearchAfterthought:anassessmentoftheCognitiveSkillsProgrammeContentsviiprevxiiqxd:PMPageviiAppendixIOutlineofSFLandAnalysisofCognitiveSkillsHandbookTextsAppendixIITranscriptsNotesBibliographyIndexviiiContentsprevxiiqxd:PMPageviiiAcknowledgementsMygreatestdebtistomydoctoralsupervisor,DrJohnCorbett,whogenerouslyspenttimeonanearlierversionofthetextasadoctoralthesisandthefinaldraftforthebookandgavemuchusefuladviceManythanksarealsoduetoProfessorPatriciaO’Connor,whoreadthroughearlyandlatedraftsofmychaptersandmademanyvaluablesuggestionsandcommentsforbringingthisbooktofruitionAndfortheiradviceonstylisticmattersIshouldliketoacknowledgeProfessorRogerStephensonandProfessorPaulBishop,whosegeneralsupportwasmuchappreciatedIamparticularlyindebtedtoEdwardWozniakandJimCarniefromtheScottishPrisonServiceforgrantingmeaccesstoPrisonXIamespeciallygratefultoEdwardWozniakforhishelpfulsuggestionspriortomyresearchandhisgeneroussupportthroughouttheresearchprojectandthewritingupstageIamalsogreatlyindebtedtothetwoprisonofficersandtheinmateswhoallowedmetotakepartintheCognitiveSkillsCourseatPrisonXandwhomademyfieldworkamostrewardingexperienceThisbookcouldneverhavebeenwrittenwithouttheirsupportIshouldalsoliketothankthelateKayBlackstock,whowastheinspirationbehindmydecisiontoconductprisonresearchInaddition,thefollowingpeoplehaveofferedsupportandadvice,whichIshouldliketoacknowledgehere:HaraldMayr,DavidScott,DavidPorter,KevinJordan,DrPeterHaslerandPhilKeenanManythanksarealsoduetoBernhardHuberforhishelpintheearlystagesofmyresearchandtoStephenWilsonandNicholasEndacottfortheirencouragementinmomentsofdifficultyFinally,Ishouldliketothankmymother,brotherandsisterforalltheirassistanceIamalsogratefultoGiuseppeLombardoforhispatienceandemotionalsupportinthefinalstagesofgettingthebookreadyLastbutnotleast,IamgratefulforhavingbeenabletocompleteworkonthisbookintheDepartmentofGermanLanguageandLiteratureattheUniversityofGlasgowTheauthorhasmadeeffortstotracecopyrightholdersif,however,anyhavebeeninadvertentlyoverlooked,theauthorandpublisherwillmakeamendsattheearliestopportunityJuneANDREAMAYRixprevxiiqxd:PMPageixTranscribingNonstandardConversationsInrepresentingtheclassroominteractionsinwrittenform,IhavedecidedtotranscribethespokentextsinawaywhichattemptstobefaithfultotheScottishdialectIusedmoderatenonstandardspellingsfortheclassroominteractions,whicharealsoaccessibletoreadersunfamiliarwiththedialectAglossisprovidedforparticularlyScottishandprisonslangexpressionswheretheyappearinthetextsTranscriptionconventions(adaptedfromEgginsandSlade,)(a)Nontranscribablesegmentsoftalk:theseareshownbyaquestionmarkinsideroundbrackets()(b)Unsuretranscriptions:wordswithinroundbracketsindicatethetranscriber’sguess(unsure)(c)Paralinguisticandnonverbalinformation:informationaboutrelevantnonverbalbehaviour(egchangeofpostureorpointingatinteractants)isgivenwithincurlybracketseitherbeforeorafterthesegmentoftalk,dependingonwhereinthetalkitoccurs{nonverbal}(d)Fillers:themostcommonlyusedfillersaretranscribedaccordingtoestablishedusageasfollows:umm:doubtmhm:agreementeh:query(e)Intervalswithinandbetweenutterances(iehesitations):thesebriefpauses(notexceedingsecondsinlength)areindicatedbythreedots…(f)Intervalsbetweenturns:forpausesexceedingsecondsinlength,thelengthofpauseisindicatedbetweensquarebracketspausesecs(g)Latching:toindicatecontiguousutteranceswithoutanintervalbetweenturnsthesymbolsofanequalsign�isusedForexample:John:Onemandoesnaemakethelawyeknow�Barry:�What�O:�Sorryxprevxiiqxd:PMPagexThisindicatesthatthereisnointervalbetweenadjacentutterancesbyplacingthe�signattheendofonespeaker’sturnandatthebeginningofthefollowingspeaker’sturn(h)Overlapsinterruptions:twospeakerstalkingatthesametimeoronespeakerinterruptinganotherareindicatedbyasquarebracket,whichisplacedatthepointatwhichspeakersbegintalkingBarry:Naw,’costhenO:Howcome,ifthepolicecannygetthistypeayinformation,wheredaeyegetitthenThisshowsthattheofficerbegantalkingwhenBarryhadnotyetfinishedhisutteranceTheofficer’sturncanthereforebeseenasaninterruptionSummarizedtranscriptionkeyThetranscriptionsymbolsIusedfortheoral,conversationaltextsinthisbookareasfollows(basedonJefferson,Tannen,,Schiffrin,Ribeiro,EgginsandSlade,):SymbolMeaningoverlappingutterances:twospeakerstalkingatthesametimeturniscompletelycontainedwithinanotherspeaker’sturnapropernoun,suchasthenameofaprisonerorofficerleftouttoassureconfidentiality()questionmarkinsteadofwordsinroundbracketindicatesinaudiblewords(unsure)wordsinroundbracketsareunsuretranscriptions{nonverbal}descriptionofnonverbalbehaviour(egchangesinposture)appearbeforeorafterthesegmentoftalkincurlybracketshhchucklehhhlaughter�whenthereisnointervalbetweenadjacentutterances,thesecondbeinglatchedimmediatelytothefirst(withoutoverlappingit),theutterancesarelinkedtogetherwithequalsignsTranscribingNonstandardConversationsxiprevxiiqxd:PMPagexiunderlineemphaticstress…threedotsintranscriptsindicatepausesoflessthansecondspausesecsindicationofinterturnpauselengthexceedingsecondsummdoubtmhmagreementehqueryPrisonershavebeengivenfictitiousnames,thetwoofficersteachingtheCognitiveSkillsCoursearenamedOfficer(O)andOfficer(O),respectivelyIrefertomyselfasAndreaxiiTranscribingNonstandardConversationsprevxiiqxd:PMPagexiiIntroductionBackgroundtothestudyTheresearchreportedhereisastudyoflanguageasameansofcontrolandresistanceinaprisoneducationalsettingItisbasedonthelinguisticanalysisofaCognitiveSkillsProgrammeforprisonersandinvestigatestheroleofdiscourseintheproduction,reproductionandnegotiationofideology,dominanceandpowerUsingCriticalDiscourseAnalysis(CDA),combinedwithSystemicFunctionalLinguistics(SFL),asaframework,thisstudyexploressomeofthewaysinwhichideologicalmeaningsaboutoffendersmaybeconstructedinspokenandwritten‘crimecontrol’discourseBritishprisoncommentatorsFitzgeraldandSim(:)observedthat‘Educationisatoolforlivingandisalsoaweaponforcontrolinthehandsoftheprisonauthorities’Others(egWilsonandReuss,)pointoutthatwhilethisisrootedatthelevelofinstitution,thereisalsoapoliticaldimensiontotheprovisionofeducationinprisons,whichexistsbeyondtheinstitutionallevelEducationinprisonalsodependsonattitudesandideologiespertainingtoimprisonmentandcrimewhichforeveroscillatebetweenpunishmentandthedesiretorehabilitatetheoffenderThusthediscoursesofprisoneducationandoffenderrehabilitationarenotvaluefreeandrespondtochangesingovernmentandpublicpolicyOfthetwodominantapproachestotherehabilitationofoffendersbasedonsociologyandpsychology,itwasthelatterwhichpavedthewayforamedicalizedandcognitiveapproachinthetwentiethcenturyUnlikesociologicalapproachestodeviance,whichregardcrimelargelyasaresultofpovertyordesperatesocialconditions,thecognitiveapproachconsiderscriminalactivitytobearesultoftheindividualmakingpoorchaqxd:PMPage(iecriminal)decisionsClaimingtobe‘directlyrehabilitative’,thisschoolofthoughtisbasedoncognitivedevelopmenttheory(Piaget,Kohlberg,Kohlbergetal,)andneoliberalperspectivesondevianceCognitivedevelopmenttheoryhadasignificantinfluenceonprisoneducationinCanadainthes,wheretheCorrectionalServiceofCanadaadoptedRossandFabiano’s()cognitivemodelofdelinquencyprevention,ReasoningandRehabilitationSincethen,criminaljusticesystemsintheUSA,BritainandEuropehaveincreasinglyturnedtothecognitivebehaviouralapproachtooffenderrehabilitationReasoningandRehabilitationwasfirstintroducedinScotlandinandistaughtbyprisonofficersonlyItisanexampleofthetypesofprogrammesbeingcurrentlyintroducedtoprisonregimes,whichfocusprimarilyonaddressingoffendingbehaviour,sometimesattheexpenseoftraditionaleducationalcourseswhichprisonerschoosetoattendwhiledoingtimeTheimplementationoftheseprogrammesappearstostemnotsomuchfromadesiretounderstandwhytheprisonerhasoffended,butfromamoreatheoreticalinterestinmanagingtheprisonpopulationManagerialismindeviancycontrolanditsassociateddiscourses(‘enterprisediscourse’)isthepragmaticreactiontoclaimsmadebyscholarlycriticsoftheprisoninthes,suchasMorris(),Martinson()andFoucault(),abouttheapparentfailureoftheprisonasaninstitutionfortherehabilitationoftheindividualItrestsupontheassumptionthatmodernmanagerialtechniques,suchasthoseusedinprivatesectorbusinesses,canbesuccessfullyappliedtotheproblemsofcrimeandpunishment(seeBottomsandStevenson,Cavadino,)ThisapproachwasadoptedbytheScottishPrisonService(SPS)intheearlysafteraperiodofcrisisManagerialismincrimecontrolcanbeseenaspartofwidersocialandculturalchangesincontemporarysociety(latemodernity),whereeconomicthinkingandeconomicdiscoursepracticeshaveencroachedonmanyinstitutionsinsociety(seeGiddens,Fairclough,Garland,)CognitiveSkillsProgrammessuchasReasoningandRehabilitationcanbeseenasoneexampleoftheapplicationofthemanagerialapproachtotheproblemofcrime:managingoffenders’mindsandbehaviourhasbecomeafavouritetoolfortheirrehabilitationThechangeinthinkingandbehaviouristobebroughtaboutbyacombinationofintrospection,interactionandresponsetoexternalpressureRelatedtothisistheconceptof‘discipline’,developedbyFoucault(),tocharacterizetheattempttotransformthe‘soul’oftheprisonerAsweshallsee,PrisonDiscoursechaqxd:PMPagethisattemptattransformingtheprisonerisenactedbydiscursivestructuresandstrategies,whichare,however,opentocontestationfromprisonersFromwhathasbeensaidsofar,itbecomesevidentthateducationinprisoncannotavoidbeingcaughtupinthepowerandpoliticsofcrimeandsocialcontrolSocialcontrolandpowerareincreasinglyexercisedindiscourse(Cohen,,Fairclough,)ItistheobjectofthisbooktohighlightthisdiscursivenatureofsocialdominationTheresearchpresentedherethereforefocusesonspokenandwritteninstitutionaldiscourseinanattempttoexposetheideologiesexpressedandthereforetheinterestsservedininstitutionaldiscourseAcentralthemerunningthroughthisbookisthatprisoneducationispoliticalandservesfirstandforemostinstitutionalgoalsAtthesametime,thepossibilityoftheCognitiveSkillsProgrammeasaformofpersonalempowermentfortheprisonerisnotdiscardedaltogetherandwillbegivensomeconsiderationalsoOutlineofthebookInChapterIsetouttheconceptualandtheoreticalframeworkformyanalysisofinstitutionaldiscoursewhichisinformedbyCDA(Fairclough,,)andSFL(Halliday,,)Twootherimportantapproachestoinstitutionaldiscourse,EthnomethodologyandConversationAnalysis(Sacksetal,),willalsobereviewedChaptercontextualizesthelinguisticresearchbygivinganaccountofthedevelopmentofthecognitivemodelofoffenderrehabilitationandthemovewithintheSPStowardsamanagerialapproachtoimprisonment(‘enterprisingmanagerialism’)withitsconcomitantreformulationofdiscoursesThischapteralsodescribesmyresearchmethodologyasaparticipantobserverintheCognitiveSkillsclassroomandmyapproachtothetranscriptionofnonstandarddataChapterchartsthedevelopment,natureandramificationsofcrimecontroldiscourseThisisfollowedbyananalysisofkeytextsfromReasoningandRehabilitation:aHandbookforTeachingCognitiveSkills(Rossetal,),usingSFLasmyframeworkIalsoexaminetheevaluativelexisoftheseHandbooktexts,usingMartin’s()modelofAppraisalChapters

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监狱话语:作为控制与抵抗方式的语言

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