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首页 心理学

心理学

心理学

曾果果-
2013-05-14 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《心理学pdf》,可适用于高等教育领域

ehEtmgenitaleaeseasuideMenaremorephysicallyaggressivethanwomenThisgendereand)ahasbemblayMoreoingselres(Ailler,anger–exhibitsnoreliablegenderdifferencewhatsoever(seeArcher()forametaanalyticreview)Assuch,thecurrentinvestigationwasdesignedtoexaminethepsychologicalprocessesmediatingthegenderdifferenceinphysicalaggressionItisimportanttonotethatourgoalwasnotexistingevolutionaryandsociallearningtheoriestoinformouramoredominantpositioninthesocialhierarchy(eg,Buss,)AccordingtoDalyandWilson(),thesefactorshaveconvergedandmademenmorepronetoaggressiveretaliationinthefaceofminorprovocationsInordertodetermalerivalsfromaggressionandtoachieveadominantstatus,menneedtoestablishareputationfor‘‘toughness’’(ie,thattheyarenotvulnerabletomistreatmentbyothers)Thus,evenminorinsultsdemandswiftandforcefulretaliationConsistentwiththis,crimestatistics(DalyWilson,WilsonDaly,)andlaboratoryexperiments(Griskeviciusetal,)havebothshownthatmenaremorelikelytorespond⇑CorrespondingauthorAddress:UniversityofWyoming,DepartmentofPsychology,Department,EUniversityAve,Laramie,WY,UnitedStatesFax:JournalofResearchinPersonality()–ContentslistsavailableatJournalofResearcwEmailaddress:BWilkowsuwyoedu(BMWilkowski)Despitethiscleargenderdifference,psychologistshavestruggledtoexplainwhymenaremorephysicallyaggressivethanwomenTraditionally,explanationshavehighlightedeitherevolutionarypressures(eg,Archer,)orsociallearningprocesses(eg,EagleyWood,WoodEagley,)Arecentexchangebetweenthesetwogroupsoftheorists(Archer,EagleyWood,)involvedagreatdealofspeculationregardingpotentialmediatorsofthegenderdifferenceinphysicalaggressionThroughoutthisexchange,theonlyestablishedempiricalfindingpresentedwasthatoneplausiblemediator–namelytraitBussDuntley,CluttonBrock,DalyWilson,)Accordingtothistheory,menaretypicallyundergreaterevolutionarypressurestobehaveaggressivelythanwomenBecausewomenaresometimesunavailableforreproductionduetopregnancy,womenarearguedtobeamorevaluablereproductiveresourceforwhichmenmustcompeteMencandosobyaggressivelyexcludingothermenfrommatingopportunitiesorbyseekingtoattractwomenEvolutionarytheoristshavetraditionallyarguedthatmenmainlyseektoattractwomenbyestablishingdifferencehasbeendocumentedtim(),BettencourtandMiller(()formetaanalyticreviews)Itentages(Baillargeonetal,Treentculturalgroups(Archer,)usingdiversemethodologies,includ(Archer,),observationalmeasulaboratorymeasures(BettencourtMtics(eg,DalyWilson,)$seefrontmatter�ElsevierIncAhttp:dxdoiorgjjrptimeagain(seeArcherndEagleyandSteffenenfoundacrossdifferetal,)anddifferver,ithasbeenfoundfreportquestionnairesrcher,),objective),andcrimestatispredictionsWespecificallyproposedthatwhileangryaffectdoesnotmediategenderdifferencesinphysicalaggression,revengemotivationdoesWeconductedthreestudiesusingbothpersonalityquestionnairesandlaboratorymeasurestotestthishypothesisEvolutionarypressuresformentoretaliateSexualselectiontheoryisthemostprominentevolutionaryexplanationofgenderdifferencesinphysicalaggression(Archer,Introductiontodirectlyaddresstheevolutionversussociallearningdebate(Archer,WoodEagley,)Nonetheless,wedrewuponMendon’tjustgetmadtheygeteven:RgenderdifferencesinphysicalaggressionBenjaminMWilkowski⇑,CynthiaMHartung,SaraUniversityofWyoming,UnitedStatesarticleinfoArticlehistory:AvailableonlineJuneKeywords:GenderdifferencesPhysicalaggressionRevengeAngerabstractPastresearchindicatesthaexaminedmediatorsofthissiblemediator–namelytraselectiontheoryandsocialenceeventhoughangerdoandobjectivelaboratorymprovidesomeofthefirstevjournalhomepage:wwllrightsreservedvengebutnotangermediatesCrowe,ChristopherAChaienaremorephysicallyaggressivethanwomen,butverylittleresearchhasderdifferenceIndeed,theonlyestablishedfindingtodateisthatoneplaunger–showsnoreliablegenderdifferencewhatsoeverDrawingonsexualrningtheories,wepredictedthatrevengemaymediatethisgenderdiffernotThreestudiesusingbothpersonalityquestionnaires(Studiesand)resofaggression(Study)providedsupportforthiscontentionTheresultsnceforareliablemediatorofgenderdifferenceinphysicalaggression�ElsevierIncAllrightsreservedSciVerseScienceDirecthinPersonalityelseviercomlocatejrpearctotrivialprovocationswithextremeretaliationAlargeproportionofmurderscanbeattributedtomenrespondingtominorprovocations,butsimilarincidencesareexceedinglyrareamongwomen(DalyWilson,WilsonDaly,)Moreover,laboratoryexperimentsshowthatprimingstatusgoalsleadsmen(butnotwomen)tobemorephysicallyaggressiveinthefaceofminorprovocations(Griskeviciusetal,)SocialpressuresformentoretaliateWhileevolutionaryandsociallearningtheoristsfrequentlydisagree,itisinterestingtonotethatanemphasisonmaleretaliationisquitecompatiblewithmanysociallearningtheories(eg,Bandura,NisbettCohen,WoodEagley,)Sociallearningtheoristshavelargelyacknowledgedthatmenaregeneticallypredisposedtowardgreaterphysicalstrengththanwomen(EagleyWood,WoodEagley,)Becauseofthis,menoftenoccupyhigherstatuspositionsacrossmany(butnotall)cultures,andtheyareoftenmoreresponsibleforprovidingresourcesaswell(EagleyWood,WoodEagley,)Onceplacedinsuchsocialroles,basicsociallearningprocessescouldreinforcemenfortheirphysicallyaggressivebehaviors(Bandura,)Socialrewards(eg,verbalpraiseorstatusconferral)havebeenfoundtoreinforceindividualsfortheiraggressiveactions(GeenPigg,GeenStonner,,StaplesWalters,)Forexample,beingtoldthataggressionisasignof‘‘masculinityandmaturity’’increasesaggressioninmen(Baron,)Incultureswheremenhaveprivilegedaccesstohighstatuspositions,theyaremorelikelytobereinforcedinthismannerMoreover,thereareseveralsourcesofdataindicatingthataggressionislikelytoresultinstatusrewardsAggressioncanbeusedasapunishmenttodeterothermenfromseekingthehighstatuspositionsandresourcesonedesires(seeTedeschiFelson,)Menwhoarethevictimofsuchaggressiveactionscanalsouseaggressiontoretaliateagainsttheirattackers,thuspunishingthemfortheiraggressiveactionsanddiscouragingsuchbehaviorinthefuture(eg,Baron,,PisanoTaylor,)Incombinationwithecologicalfeaturesinthelocalenvironment,thesebasicsociallearningprocessescanleadtoincreasedratesofmalephysicalaggressioninsomeculturescomparedtoothersNisbettandCohen’s()cultureofhonortheoryprovidesanaptillustrationofthisThistheoryfocusesoncultureswhichwereoriginallybasedonaherdingeconomy,suchastheAmericanSouthInsuchcultures,thecostsoftheftwerequitehigh,asmencouldlosetheirherdandthustheirentiresubsistencetoasingleactoftheftMeninthesecultureswerethusundergreatpressuretoestablishareputationfortoughnesstodiscouragesuchtheftsCrimestatistics(Nisbett,NisbettCohen,)andlaboratoryexperiments(Cohen,Nisbett,Bowdle,Schwarz,)bothsupportthistheory,inthatmenfromtheAmericanSoutharemorelikelytoretaliateagainsttrivialprovocations(eg,aminorinsult)relativetomenfromtheAmericanNorthInsum,thesuggestionthatmenareundergreatersocialpressuretoretaliateisquitecompatiblewithmanysociallearningtheories(Baron,NisbettCohen,WoodEagley,)AngerandrevengeasrelatedbutdistinctconstructsBasedontheabovereviewedtheories,somehavesuggestedthatgenderdifferencesinaggressionmaybemediatedbyindividualdifferencesinangerAfterall,theemotionofangerisclearlyassociatedwithgoalsandactiontendenciestowardrevenge(Roseman,Wiest,Swartz,),withapproachmotivationBMWilkowskietalJournalofRes(CarverHarmonJones,),andwiththeassociatedneuralsignatureofleftlateralizedprefrontalactivity(CarverHarmonJones,)Thus,itisplausiblethatmendevelopedgreaterpronenesstowardangerinordertomotivatethemtoretaliatewhenprovokedThereisonlyoneproblemwiththisargumentStudyafterstudyhasshownthatmenarenomoreangerpronethanwomen(Archer,Campbell,)Thus,angerclearlycannotmediategenderdifferencesinphysicalaggressionHowever,acloseinspectionofsexualselectiontheory(Archer,BussDuntley,CluttonBrock,DalyWilson,)andsociallearningtheories(eg,NisbettCohen,)revealsthatboththeoriesrefermostdirectlytorevengeandnotangerWhilerevengeandangerarecertainlyrelatedconstructs,theyarenonethelessdistinctConceptually,angerreferstoasubjectiveemotionalexperiencethatisfrequentlyelicitedfollowingprovocation(McCullough,Bono,Root,Spielberger,WilkowskiRobinson,)whilerevengereferstothemotivationtoactaggressivelytowardone’sprovocateur(McCulloughetal,)Consistentwiththisdistinction,weusethetermangertorefertoanaffectivestate,andweusethetermrevengetorefertoamotivationWereservethetermaggressiontorefertobehavioralactsintendedtoharmanotherperson(Baron,),andwereservethetermretaliationtorefertoinstancesofbehavioralaggressionthatfollowprovocation(Martin,Watson,Wan,WilkowskiRobinson,)Empirically,thereisevidencethatangryaffectandrevengemotivationarerelatedbutdistinctconceptsForexample,Denson,Pederson,andMiller(,Study)foundthatmeasuresoftraitangerandtraitrevengeplanningwerecorrelatedatr=Similarly,Fehr,Gelfand,andNag()foundthatstateangerandstaterevengemotivationwerecorrelatedatr=inametaanalyticreviewThesefindingsclearlyindicatethatangerandrevengearesignificantlyrelated,buttheircorrelationsarenotsohighastosuggestequivalenceBeyondsuchconceptualandempiricaldistinctions,thereisevidencethatrevengemotivationcansometimesbeassociatedwithaverydifferentemotionthanangerSpecifically,revengemotivationissometimesaccompaniedbypositiveemotionsThefirstsourceofevidenceforthiscomesfromneurologicalresearchsuggestingthatpeoplefeelmorepositiveaffectwhilepursuingrevengegoalsSpecifically,deQuervainetal()scannedparticipantswhiletheywerecontemplatingwhethertoretaliateagainsta‘‘freeriding’’partnerwhohadtakenanunfairshareofmoneyfromthemDuringthistime,activityinthestriatumincreased,andindividualswhoshowedgreaterstriatumactivitysubsequentlyspentagreateramountofmoneytopunishtheir‘‘freeriding’’partnerActivityinthestriatumhasbeenrepeatedlylinkedtorewardprocessingandthepursuitofpositiveincentivestimuli(eg,KnutsonBhanji,)FollowupresearchbySingeretal()alsoindicatesacleargenderdifferenceinthispatternWhenmenwatcheda‘‘freerider’’undergoapainfulprocedure,theyexhibitedaclearincreaseinstriatumactivity,andthisincreasewascorrelatedwiththeirlevelofselfreportedrevengemotivationHowever,womenexhibitedadifferentneurologicalresponseundertheseconditions,centeredintheanteriorcingulatecortexandindicativeofempathyandsharedpainThus,neurologicalresearchsuggeststhatthereisagenderdifferenceinthetendencytoexperiencepositiveaffectwhilepursuingrevengerelatedgoalsResearchalsosuggeststhatretaliatingagainstone’sprovocateurcansometimesleadtofeelingsofsatisfactionGollwitzer,Meder,andSchmitt()providedparticipantswiththeopportunitytotakerevengeagainstapersonwhohadgiventhemanunfair,negativeevaluationWhentheotherpersonsentanoteindicatingtheyunderstoodthatrevengewaspunishmentforimproperbehavior,revengetakingparticipantsfeltagreatdealofhinPersonality()–satisfactionFinally,developmentalresearchindicatesthatretaliatoryactscansometimesbemotivatedbytheproactivepursuitofstatus,womenearcWhilewecouldlocatenopriorstudywhichdirectlytestedthishypothesis,pastgenderdifferenceresearchisconsistentwithitArcher’s()metaanalysisfoundnosignificantgenderdifferenceinangryaffect,butMiller,Worthington,andMcDaniel’s()metaanalysisindicatedthatmenexhibitmuchstrongertendenciestowardrevengemotivationthanwomenAssuch,weconductedthreestudiestotestthishypothesisStudyInStudy,weadministeredwellvalidatedpersonalityquestionnaireswhichmeasureangryaffect(BussPerry,),revengemotivation(Densonetal,),andphysicalaggression(BussPerry,)WepredictedthatrevengemotivationbutnotangryaffectwouldmediategenderdifferencesinphysicalaggressionMethodParticipantsEightynineundergraduatepsychologystudents(womenmenMage=)fromtheUniversityofWyomingparticipatedinexchangeforcoursecreditProceduresandapparatusParticipantsarrivedatthelaboratory,providedinformedconsentandbasicdemographicinformation,andthencompletedthemeasuresinarandomizedorderThesemeasureswereallcompletedononeoffiveWindowsbasedcomputersusingEPrimesoftware(version)Withineachquestionnaire,individualitemswerepresentedinarandomizedorderMeasuresAggressionquestionnaireStudyparticipantscompletedratherthanangryemotionalreactions(seeHubbard,McAuliffe,Morrow,andRomano()forarecentreview)ThisliteraturehasisolatedagroupofchildrenwhobehaveaggressivelyforentirelyproactiveandinstrumentalpurposesWhentheseindividualsareprovoked,theyexpectotherstorespectandlikethemmoreiftheyretaliate,andtheyexpecttofeelbetterfollowingsuchacts(seeSmithmyer,Hubbard,andSimons()foranespeciallyillustrativestudycfArsenio,Gold,andAdams(),CrickandDodge(),Dodge,Lochman,Harnish,Bates,andPettit()andSchwartzetal()forsimilarresults)Interestingly,thissamegroupofchildrenisnomorepronetoangerthancompletelynonaggressivechildren(Hubbardetal,)Insum,thisliteratureindicatesthatproactiveaggressorsengageinbehavioralretaliationbecausetheyexpectthepositiveoutcomeofincreasedstatus,notbecausetheyareangryThesefindingssuggestanimportanthypothesisSexualselectiontheory(DalyWilson,)andsociallearningtheories(eg,Baron,NisbettCohen,)proposethatmenareultimatelyseekingstatusthroughtheirretaliatoryactsSincerevengemotivationcansometimesbeaccompaniedbypositiveaffectandexpectationsofincreasedstatusratherthanangryaffect(deQuervainetal,Gollwitzeretal,Smithmyeretal,),revengemaymediategenderdifferencesinphysicalaggressioneventhoughangerdoesnotWeconsideredthisanintriguinghypothesisAfterall,pastresearchshowingthatmenarenomorepronetoangryaffectthanwomen(Archer,)couldeasilysuggestthatmenarenomorepronetorevengemotivationthanBMWilkowskietalJournalofResthephysicalaggressionandtraitangersubscalesofBussandPerry’s()AggressionQuestionnaireThephysicalaggressionscalecontainsninestatementsindicativeoftendenciestowardphysicallyaggressivebehaviors(eg,‘‘Igetintofightsalittlemorethantheaverageperson’’)Thetraitangersubscalecontainssevenitemsindicativeoftendenciestowardangryaffect(eg,‘‘SomeofmyfriendsthinkI’mahothead’’)Participantsindicatedhowwelleachstatementdescribedthemusinga(extremelyuncharacteristicofme)to(extremelycharacteristicofme)responsescaleBothscalescontainonereversescoreditemFinalscoreswerecalculatedbyaveragingparticipants’responsesacrossallitems(physicalaggression:M=SD=angryaffect:M=SD=)Bothscalesexhibitstrongconvergent,discriminant,andcriterionvalidityandtest–retestreliability(Bettencourt,Talley,Benjamin,Valentine,BushmanAnderson,BussPerry,Martinetal,),andbothscaleswereinternallyreliableinthecurrentstudy(physicalaggressiona=angryaffecta=)DisplacedaggressionquestionnaireTomeasurerevengemotivation,therevengeplanningsubscaleoftheDisplacedAggressionQuestionnaire(Densonetal,)wasalsoadministeredinStudyThisscalecontainselevenstatementsindicativeoftendenciestowardrevengemotivation(eg,‘‘Whensomeonemakesmeangry,Ican’tstopthinkingabouthowtogetbackatthisperson’’)Participantsindicatedhowwelleachstatementdescribedthemusinga(extremelyuncharacteristicofme)to(extremelycharacteristicofme)responsescale(M=SD=)Thisscaleexhibitsstrongconvergent,discriminant,andcriterionvalidityandtest–retestreliability(Densonetal,),anditwasinternallyreliableinthecurrentstudy(a=)ScaleintercorrelationsConsistentwithpastresearch(BussPerry,Densonetal,Martinetal,),physicalaggressionwaspositivelycorrelatedwithbothangryaffect,r=,p=,andrevengemotivation,r=,p<Moreover,angryaffectandrevengemotivationwerealsopositivelycorrelated,r=,p<Whilethesecorrelationswereallstatisticallysignificant,noneofthemweresohighastosuggestequivalenceResultsAnalyticplanAccordingtotraditionalstandards(BaronKenny,),mediationisconfirmedwhenfourcriteriaaremet:()thepredictorexhibitsasignificantzeroorderrelationshipwiththeoutcome()thepredictorexhibitsasignificantzeroorderrelationshipwiththehypothesizedmediator()thehypothesizedmediatorexhibitsasignificantrelationshipwiththeoutcomewhenthepredictorisstatisticallycontrolledand()therelationshipbetweenthepredictorandtheoutcomeisreducedinmagnitudeoncethehypothesizedmediatorisstatisticallycontrolledThesecriteriawereappliedtotestthehypothesisthatrevengemotivationbutnotangryaffectwouldmediatetherelationshipbetweengenderandphysicalaggressioninthecurrentstudiesSincegender(thepredictor)isadichotomousvariable,independentsamplettestswereusedtotestBaronandKenny’s()firstandsecondcriteriaTofacilitatecomparisonswithlateranalyses,effectsizesforthese

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