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首页 僵硬的大地

僵硬的大地.pdf

僵硬的大地

晴耕雨读charles
2013-05-08 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《僵硬的大地pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

PreferredCitation:Stross,RandallETheStubbornEarth:AmericanAgriculturalistsonChineseSoil,Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,chttp:arkcdliborgark:ftgmToMaureenPreferredCitation:Stross,RandallETheStubbornEarth:AmericanAgriculturalistsonChineseSoil,Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,chttp:arkcdliborgark:ftgmToMaureenAcknowledgmentsIamindebtedtomanyindividualsandinstitutionsfortheirhelp,andIamafraidthatbriefacknowledgmentherewillconveymostinadequatelythegenerousspiritthatIfoundsoofteninthecourseofseekingassistanceTheresearchfortheChinesesideofthestorytoldinthisbookbeganwithgraduateworkatStanfordUniversityHalKahnandLymanVanSlykewereidealadvisersalwaysinsistentuponhighstandards,yetunceasinglyencouragingandcaringThecooperativeandfamilialspiritinwhichtheynurturedtheirstudentsproducedacloselyknitbrood,andIlearnedmuchfromtheothersinthenest:GailHershatter,EmilyHonig,andHelenChaunceySinceleavingStanford,IhavecontinuedtorelyheavilyonguidanceprovidedbythemembersoftheoldgroupHal,Van,Gail,Emily,andHelenallreadthisbookindraftformandofferedcopiouseditorialsuggestionsIoweaspecialdebttoLarrySchneider,whohelpedmestartthepostdoctoralresearchinAmericanarchivesandwhocritiquedthedraftmanuscriptIalsoobtainedsuggestionsfromaTheStubbornEarthAmericanAgriculturalistsonChineseSoil,–RandallEStrossUNIVERSITYOFCALIFORNIAPRESSBerkeley·LosAngeles·Oxford©TheRegentsoftheUniversityofCaliforniaPageofTheStubbornEarthhttp:contentcdliborgxtfviewdocId=ftgmchunkid=docview=printnumberofothergraciousindividualswhoreadthemanuscriptandcontributednumerousimprovements:DanBromley,GouldColman,JohnDixon,ChrisGibbs,BillHaas,ChuckHayford,EmilyandNormRosenberg,VikramSeth,andBarryShankManyinstitutionswereunstintingintheirsupportOntheAmericanside,IreceivedtheassistanceoflibraryandarchivalstaffatStanfordandtheEastAsianCollectionoftheHooverInstitutiontheUniversityofCaliforniaatBerkeleyandtheBancroftLibrarytheRockefellerArchiveCenterYaleUniversityDivinitySchoolCornellUniversitytheLibraryofCongress,theNationalArchives,andtheNationalAgriculturalLibraryPennsylvaniaStateUniversityInternationalHarvesterCompanytheUniversityofMinnesotatheMidwestChinaCenterClaremontCollegeandtheUniversityofHawaiiatManoaOntheChineseside,IammostgratefultothehelpfulstaffandofficialsofNanjingUniversity,whocheerfullyhostedatwoyearstayIwouldalsoliketothankparticularlythoseindividualmembersofvariouslibrarystaffswhoassisted―x―meatNanjingUniversity,BeijingUniversity,theNanjingLibrary,theShanghaiLibrary,andtheBeijingLibraryBecauseIfoundthatmanylibrariesinChinadidnotwelcomeChinesepatrons,andwelcomedforeignpatronsevenless,theassistanceIreceivedattheseinstitutionswasdoublyappreciatedFundingtosupporttheresearchinChinawasprovidedbyStanfordUniversityandtheNationalAcademyofSciences'CommitteeonScholarlyCommunicationwiththePeople'sRepublicofChinaIntheUnitedStates,RockefellerUniversityawardedatravelgrantthatpermittedmetousethematerialsattheRockefellerArchiveCenterTwoinstitutionshelpedmeputtheresultsofmyresearchintobookformTheEastWestCenter,inHonolulu,awardedapostdoctoralfellowshipthatpermittedmetospendtheacademicyearatthecenter,freetodevotemyselftothetaskofwritingIwashelpedbymanyindividualsthere,andwouldliketothankKatinaClarkandSherylBrysoninparticularfortheirexcellenteditorialassistanceduringtheyearThecenteralsocommissionedPatPennywell,attheUniversityofHawaii,topreparetheendpapermapForthestayinHawaii,theColoradoSchoolofMinesprovidedfinancialassistanceandaleaveofabsence,apackagethatgavemeasabbaticallongbeforeajuniorfacultymembershouldhavebeeneligibleforoneAttheUniversityofCaliforniaPress,VictoriaScottandStanleyHolwitzdeservespecialthanksforthetendercaretheygavethebookRSGOLDEN,COLORADOJANUARY―xi―ANoteaboutTermsandRomanizationForreaderswhomaynotbefamiliarwithmodernChinesehistory,IhaveprovidedsomebackgroundmaterialintheintroductionandinthebodyofthetextAfewpreliminarywordsabouttermsmaybehelpfulThestandardmeasureoflandinChinaisthemou,aboutonesixthofanacrethestandardunitofcurrencyistheyuan,theexchangevalueofwhichfluctuatedintheearlytwentiethcenturybetweenUS$()and$()UnitedStatesequivalentsareprovidedinparentheseswhenevermouandyuanappearinthetextIusedpinyinformostChinesenamesandterms,butchangedneitherthenamesofChinesewhoadoptedtheirownspellingschemenorthoseoffiguressuchasSunYatsenandPageofTheStubbornEarthhttp:contentcdliborgxtfviewdocId=ftgmchunkid=docview=printChiangKaishek,whowerewellknowntoAmericansIalsoleftuntouchedtheidiosyncraticromanizationofChinesephrases,placesandpersonsthatoccurinthedirectlyquotedwritingsofAmericanswhowereresidentinChinaThereaderwhoisfamiliarwithMandarinmaybeirritatedbytheseinconsistencies,butisunlikelytobeledastrayOnebriefwordofcautionisneededtopointoutadistinctionbetween"Nanking"and"Nanjing,"howeverBothspellingsrecurthroughoutthebook,but"Nanjing"refersexclusivelytothecity,while"Nanking"isreservedfortheUniversityofNanking(Jinlingdaxue)justasitwasusedintheshorthandoftheuniversitystafffiftyyearsagoIhavenotcontinuedanotherconventionnamely,thatofreferringtoChinesewholivedinthecountrysideas"peasants,"aquainttaxonomictermthatAmericansusuallyemployedandthatservedtokeeptheChineseapartandrankedvaguelybelowthe"farmers"athomeLater,Americansocialscientistsperpetuatedtheseparation,givingrisetojournalsandconferencesdevotedto"peasantstudies"Thisbookfavorsaconsistentuseoftheterm"farmers,"appliedtoChineseandAmericansalike(astheChinesetermnongminconveys)Theirlivesinthetwocountriesweredifferentinimportantrespects,butthosedifferencesneednotbelinguisticallyloaded――IntroductionGeorgeWashingtonandtheQianlongemperorofChinawerecontemporariestheone,rulerofacountrysmallandnewtheother,ofacountrylargeandnotsonewDuringtheirsimultaneousreigns,bothcountrieswereoverwhelminglyagriculturalthemechanizationandscientificsupportofagriculturehadyettotakeholdwidelyineitheroneBothmendiedin,andinthehundredyearsthatfollowed,agricultureintheUnitedStateswasrapidlyrevolutionizedinChina,itremainedlargelyunchangedThereasonsforthedifferenceweremany,butthewidelydifferingpersonalinterestsofWashingtonandQianlongaugureddivergentpathsforthetwocountriesEachman,assovereignofanagriculturalcountry,wasawareoftheimportanceofagriculturetohisnation'sinterestsAndeachwasalargelandholderhimself:Washingtonatonetimeheldcloseto,acresscatteredinthirtysevenlocalitiesQianlongwasoneofthelargestlandlordsintheworld,sincethe"royalbanner"holdings(aswellasalllandintheChineseEmpire)werelegallyhisButWashington,unlikeQianlong,likednothingbetterthantofarmthelandhimself(hewasalsotheonlyoneoftheAmericanfounderswhofreedhisslaves)Hetinkeredwithnewtools,triedoutnewseedsandmanures,andranhisfiveholdingsatMountVernonasakindofexperimentstationToWashington,farmingwasmorethanapassinghobbyitwashisprimaryintellectualinterest,hisfavoritetopicofconversation,andthefocusofhisprivatecorrespondenceHisfriendsknewthatthewaytopleasehimwastosendhimnewseedsoranimalbreeds,andNoahWebstersaidthatatthetimeofhisvisittoMountVernon,whenWashingtonwasexperimentingwithusingmuckdredgedfromthePotomacasafertilizer,thestandingtoastwas,"Successtothemud!"InstarkcontrasttothemuckatMountVernonwastherarefiedatmosphereofthecourtofQianlong,attheapogeeoftheQingdynastyandthecenterofwhatmanyhistoriansregardasoneofthemostluxuriousreignsinChinesehistoryWhenBritain'sLordGeorgeMacartneyledamissiontoChinain,hetookthebestgiftsGeorgeIIIhadtooffer:Vulliamyclocks,Wedgwoodpor――celains,globes,orreries,andanentireplanetariumButthesecouldnotmatchtheChinesetreasuresthatcasuallyadornedthepalaceItwasthegreatageofdecorativeartinChina,andPageofTheStubbornEarthhttp:contentcdliborgxtfviewdocId=ftgmchunkid=docview=printQianlongwasasophisticatedpatron,bettertrainedinthearts,inliterature,andinhistorythanthegraduatesofmostEuropeanuniversitiesofthetimeTheQianlongcourtwasphysicallyandintellectuallyfarremovedfromagricultureinthehermeticinnersanctumoftheimperialcompound,mudwasnotthesubjectoftoastsWashingtonandQianlongnevercorrespondediftheyhad,WashingtonwouldhavefoundhimselfhopelesslyoutclassedQianlongwasanaccomplishedandprolificwriterwhobequeathedtoposteritymorethanfortythreethousandpoemsWashingtonleftmoreprosaicwritings,suchasadiaryfilledwithrecipesforcompostsandnotesonimprovedfarmtoolsItwouldbehardtopicturetheQianlongemperor,inallhisregalglory,notingasWashingtondidinatypicaldiaryentry:"SpentthegreaterpartofthedayinmakinganewplowofmyownInventionSheansweredverywell"AprovincialbumpkincomparedtoQianlong,WashingtonwasabletoseewhatQianlongandQianlong'ssuccessorscouldnot:theneedfordirectgovernmentalsupportofagriculturalimprovementInanumberofaddressestoCongress,Washingtonraisedthetopic,andinhislastannualmessage,in,heurgedthecreationofafederalboardofagriculture,"chargedwithcollectinganddiffusinginformation,andenabledbypremiumsandsmallpecuniaryaidstoencourageandassistaspiritofdiscoveryandimprovement"Theboardwouldstimulateadvancementby"drawingtoacommoncentertheresultseverywhereofindividualskillandobservationandspreadingthemthenceoverthewholenationExperienceaccordinglyhasshewnsicthattheyareverycheapinstrumentsofimmensenationalbenefits"WhileChinainhadapopulationofwellovermillion,theUnitedStateshadonlymillionitwasanationtoosmallandinexperiencedtoaffordtheluxuryofbeingindifferenttoothercountriesWashingtonandotherAmericanslookedabroadforexamplesofimprovedagriculturalpracticesorproductsworthyofimport,andmuchearlyattentionwasdirectedtowardEuropeWashingtoncorrespondedwithArthurYoungandotherleadingagriculturalistsinEnglandJeffersonwasmoreaggressivewhiletravelinginItalyhediscoveredanewvarietyofricethattheItaliansdidnotwanttoshareitsexportwasprohibited,hewastold,"onpainofdeath"andsmuggledoutapacketoftheseedfortestinginSouthCarolinaandGeorgiaChineseagriculturewaslargelyignoredexceptbyBenjaminFranklin,wholovedreadingaboutthingsChineseandhadtheimpressionthatChina"clothesitsInhabitantswithSilk,whileitfeedsthemplentifullyandhasbesidesavastQuantitybothofrawandmanufacturedsilktospareforExportation"HecarefullynotedanyenlighteningmaterialsthathehappenedacrossaboutChineseagricultureandsericulture,andgavethoughttowhatpracticesmightbesuitablefor――AmericanadoptionAfterreadingthatChinesefarmersinZhejiangProvincecollectedtwocropsofmulberryleavesayearforsilkwormfeedingFranklinwrotethatthis"mayaccountforthegreatPlentyofSilkthere,"but"perhapsthiswouldnotanswerwithus,sinceitisnotpractis'dinItaly,tho'itmightbetry'd"HenevervisitedChinahimself,butwheninEuropehesentbacktoAmericasilkwormeggsandmulberrycuttingsinanefforttostartasilkindustrylikethatof"themostpopulousofallCountries,"whichappearedtoFranklintoprovidesowellforitspeopleEarlyAmericancuriosityaboutChineseagriculturalpracticesdidnotleadtodirectcontacts,however,andtheChinesecouldscarcelyhavebeenlesscuriousabouttheAmericansInthenineteenthcentury,agricultureinthetwocountriestookseparatecoursesthatwerenotinfluencedbyeachother,andthemoredramaticeventstookplaceintheUnitedStatesEvenbeforetheCivilWar,theperiodcustomarilysaidtomarkthebeginningofmechanizedagricultureintheUnitedStates,aspectaculartechnologicalrevolutionwasunderwayColonialAmericanfarming,anamalgamofpracticesfromextensiveEuropeanagricultureandintensivenativeAmericanandAfricanfarming,usedplows,hoes,axes,scythes,andothertoolswhoseinefficiencyimposedatightlimitontheareaasinglefamilycouldcultivateButinthes,newdesignsandnewmachinesbegantoappearJohnLane,anIllinoisblacksmith,madeprairiesodbustingpossiblewhenhefashionedaplowwithashinymoldboardthatscouredwellandletthestickysoilslideoffJohnDeereaddedasteelshareandnewfeaturestheresultingdesignscouredsowellthatitwascalled"thesingingplow"ThenewplowsPageofTheStubbornEarthhttp:contentcdliborgxtfviewdocId=ftgmchunkid=docview=printactuallyranthroughthesoiltoofastandhadtobeputintogangs,withasmanyastwelveorfourteenplowspulledbyalargeteamofhorsesthejumpinproductivitywastremendousAtthesametime,newhorsedrawndrillsandseedersprovedmostprofitableonlargeracreages,furtherencouragingtheexpansionoftilledlandThemechanicalreaperwasperhapsthesingleinventionmostresponsiblefortherevolutioninAmericanfarmingduringthenineteenthcenturyAlthoughmanyAmericaninventorsofferedthesehorsedrawnmachines,whichwerevastlymoreefficientthanhandtoolssuchasthecradle,itwasCyrusMcCormick,amasterofbothselfpromotionandmechanicalinvention,whogarneredthemostpublicattentionMcCormickpatentedhisdesigninandinsenthismachinetotheLondonExhibition,whereEuropeanobserverslaughedatitsappearance:itwashuge,unwieldy,an"uglyduckling"ButinapracticaldemonstrationinawheatfieldafewmilesoutsideofLondon,themachinewentthroughthewheat,whichwasstillgreenandheavy,withoutdifficulty,cuttingaswathyardslonginsecondsAnAmericanobservernotedthattheMcCormickreapernotonlycutdownthegrainbutalso"moweddownBritishprejudiceandopenedthewayforthebringingofourcountrymenandtheircontributionsbeforethepublicinaproperlight"Whenthemachinewasreturnedtotheexhibitionhall,itwas――awardedtheGrandMedalandattractedmorevisitorsthanthefamedKohinoordiamondWiththenewplowsandmachines,whiteAmericanspressedwestwardatanacceleratingpacebeforetheCivilWarInMinnesota,forexample,only,acreswereplowedin,butbymorethanmillionacreswereincropsNationalgrainstatisticsalsoreflectedthistrend:duringthesamedecade,annualcornproductionfortheUnitedStatesdoubledand,evenmoredramatic,annualwheatproductionrosefrommillionbushelstoalmostmillionSuchincreasesfedanascentboastfulnessandacultofthemachineInthes,manyAmericans(includingAbrahamLincoln)prematurelyhailedsteampoweredplowsasanearthshakingadvanceThoughearthshakinginastrictlyliteralsense,theengineprovedtoocumbersometobehauledoverthefieldsandtooexpensiveforindividualfarmerstoownInventorJWFawkes,whosenametheWisconsinFarmerhaddeclaredwouldbe"immortal,"wassoonforgottenIncongratulatingthemselvesontheirmechanicalingenuity,AmericansatthetimedidnotfullycredittheforeignornonmechanicalcontributionstotheiragriculturalsuccessesIn,anEnglishtranslationofGermanchemistJustusvonLiebig'sChemistryandItsApplicationswaspublishedAclassicinagriculturalchemistry,itwaswidelyinfluentialandexplainedtheneedtoreplenishthenutrientsinthesoilUntilLiebig'sworkbecameknown,theprevailingunderstandinghadbeenthatplantsreceivedmostoftheirnourishmentfromtheairMoreimportantstill,yetlargelyunappreciated,werethenewlydevisedmeansoftransmittingagriculturalinformationtofarmersAnearlyfarmorganizationwastheagriculturalsocietyEstablishedinthes,itimitatedearlierEnglishorganizationsdedicatedtoseekingoutandencouragingmoreproductivewaysoffarmingAfterservingasPresident,ThomasJeffersonhelpedwritetheconstitutionofaVirginianagriculturalsociety,proposingthataccountsofgoodandbadfarmingbeassembledso"thechoicestprocesses"couldbeculledfromeachfarmIn,anexhibitionofMerinosheepinPennsylvanialaunchedthefirstlivestockandagriculturalfair,wherefarmerscouldshowthefruitsoftheirlaborandlearnfromothersAmericanfarmerswerealsoreadersMorethanfourhundredfarmperiodicalswerebegunbeforetheCivilWarWiththeincreasedinterestinagriculturalscience(RalphWaldoEmersonpredictedthat"thechemistwithateaspoonfulofguanocouldturnasandbankintoacornhill")cametheestablishmentofthefirstagriculturalschoolsIn,theFarmersHighSchoolwasfounded,latertobecomePennsylvaniaStateUniversityMichiganStateAgriculturalCollegewasestablishedtwoyearslaterAndaonemancollegeofagriculture,theSheffieldScientificSchoolatYale,earnedthepraiseofScientificAmerican,whichsaid,"ToseeYaleCollegesteppingoutfromamongthemistsofantiquityandthegrovesofdeadlanguagesandtakinguptheshovelandthehoeiscertainlyoneofthesignsofthetimes"PageofTheStubbornEarthhttp:contentcdliborgxtfviewdocId=ftgmchunkid=docview=print――ThesechangesinAmericanagriculturewentlargelyunnoticedinChinaOneexceptionwastheAmericansteampoweredplow,whichFengGuifen,ascholarandofficial,heardaboutandassumedwasamachinewidelyusedintheUnitedStatesapparentlyhewasunawareoftheexaggeratedandprematurenatureofAmericanclaimsFengwroteseveralessaysextollingthebenefitsofthefirewheeledmachine(huolunji)inopeningnewlandforcultivationHereported,"Theyrequirelittleeffortandarequitesuccessful"LittlenoticewastakenofFeng'srecommendationChinawaspreoccupiedwithproblemsthatweremoreseriousandpressingthananythingtheUnitedStateshadconfrontedWidespreadcorruptionduringQianlong'sreignhaddepletedtheimperialtreasurythemonarchyhaddifficultysuppressing

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