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首页 微观经济学范里安第八版原版第一章.ppt

微观经济学范里安第八版原版第一章.ppt

微观经济学范里安第八版原版第一章.ppt

上传者: 小强 2013-04-30 评分 3 0 29 4 131 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《微观经济学范里安第八版原版第一章ppt》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含微观经济学微观经济学介绍教材教材Microeconomics:AModernApproach(SixthEdition)byHalRVarianWW符等。

微观经济学微观经济学介绍教材教材Microeconomics:AModernApproach(SixthEdition)byHalRVarianWWNortonTheTheoryofEconomicsdoesnotfurnishabodyofsettledconclusionsimmediatelyapplicabletopolicyItisamethodratherthanadoctrine,anapparatusofthemind,atechniqueofthinkingwhichhelpsitspossessortodrawcorrectconclusionsJohnMaynardKeynesIsEconomicsUsefulIsEconomicsUsefulBecomingathinkerChangesthewayyouviewlifeandunderstandproblemsAnallroundmajorEconomicsGraduatesEconomicsGraduatesJobsforEconomistsJobsforEconomistsBusinesseconomistsGovernmenteconomistsAcademiceconomistsMicroeconomicsMicroeconomicsTheoryApplicationsLaboreconomicsEconomicsofeducationDevelopmenteconomicsAgriculturaleconomicsIndustrialorganizationsHealtheconomics……CourseOutlineCourseOutlineConsumertheory()Producertheory()Marketequilibrium(,)SpecialtopicsonequilibriumEconomicModelingEconomicModelingWhatcauseswhatineconomicsystemsWhichvariablesaredeterminedoutsidethemodel(exogenous)Whichvariablesaretobedeterminedbythemodel(endogenous)AtwhatlevelofdetailshallwemodelaneconomicphenomenonModelingtheApartmentMarketModelingtheApartmentMarketCentralquestion:HowareapartmentrentsdeterminedSuppose(simplifyingassumptions)apartmentsarecloseordistant,butotherwiseidenticaldistantapartmentsrentsareexogenousandknownmanypotentialrentersandlandlords,ie,competitivemarketANormativeQuestionANormativeQuestionWilltheallocationofapartmentsbedesirableNeedtoknow:WhowillrentcloseapartmentsAtwhatpriceTwoPrinciplesinEconomicsTwoPrinciplesinEconomicsOptimization:EachpersontriestochoosethebestalternativeavailabletohimorherEquilibrium:MarketpriceadjustsuntilquantitydemandedequalsquantitysuppliedModelingIndividualDemandModelingIndividualDemandDiscretecommodity:orunitChooseeitherdistantorcloseapartmentCloseapartmentsaremoredesirablebutmoreexpensiveTendtochoosecloseapartmentifDistantapartmentsarealsoexpensiveHigherincomeDecide:ThemaximumrentyouarewillingtopayforacloseapartmentModelingMarketDemandModelingMarketDemandDemand:Supposethemostanyonepersoniswillingtopaytorentacloseapartmentis$monthThenp=$QD=Supposethepricehastodropto$beforeandpersonwouldrentThenp=$QD=ModelingApartmentDemandModelingApartmentDemandTheloweristherentalratep,thelargeristhequantityofcloseapartmentsdemandedpQDThequantitydemandedvspricegraphisthemarketdemandcurveforcloseapartmentsMarketDemandCurveforApartmentsMarketDemandCurveforApartmentspQDModelingApartmentSupplyModelingApartmentSupplySupply:Ittakestimetobuildmorecloseapartmentssointhisshortrunthequantityavailableisfixed(atsay)MarketSupplyCurveforApartmentsMarketSupplyCurveforApartmentspQSCompetitiveMarketEquilibriumCompetitiveMarketEquilibrium“low”rentalpricequantitydemandedofcloseapartmentsexceedsquantityavailablepricewillrise“high”rentalpricequantitydemandedlessthanquantityavailablepricewillfallCompetitiveMarketEquilibriumCompetitiveMarketEquilibriumQuantitydemanded=quantityavailablepricewillneitherrisenorfallsothemarketisatacompetitiveequilibriumCompetitiveMarketEquilibriumCompetitiveMarketEquilibriumpQD,QSCompetitiveMarketEquilibriumCompetitiveMarketEquilibriumpQD,QSpeCompetitiveMarketEquilibriumCompetitiveMarketEquilibriumpQD,QSpePeoplewillingtopaypeforcloseapartmentsgetcloseapartmentsCompetitiveMarketEquilibriumCompetitiveMarketEquilibriumpQD,QSpePeoplewillingtopaypeforcloseapartmentsgetcloseapartmentsPeoplenotwillingtopaypeforcloseapartmentsgetdistantapartmentsCompetitiveMarketEquilibriumCompetitiveMarketEquilibriumQ:WhorentsthecloseapartmentsA:ThosemostwillingtopayQ:WhorentsthedistantapartmentsA:ThoseleastwillingtopaySothecompetitivemarketallocationisby“willingnesstopay”ComparativeStaticsComparativeStaticsWhatisexogenousinthemodelpriceofdistantapartmentsquantityofcloseapartmentsincomesofpotentialrentersWhathappensiftheseexogenousvariableschangeComparativeStaticsComparativeStaticsSupposethepriceofdistantapartmentrisesDemandforcloseapartmentsincreases(rightwardshift),causingahigherpriceforcloseapartmentsMarketEquilibriumMarketEquilibriumpQD,QSpeMarketEquilibriumMarketEquilibriumpQD,QSpeHigherdemandMarketEquilibriumMarketEquilibriumpQD,QSpeHigherdemandcauseshighermarketpricesamequantitytradedComparativeStaticsComparativeStaticsSupposethereweremorecloseapartmentsSupplyisgreater,sothepriceforcloseapartmentsfallsMarketEquilibriumMarketEquilibriumpQD,QSpeMarketEquilibriumMarketEquilibriumpQD,QSHighersupplypeMarketEquilibriumMarketEquilibriumpQD,QSpeHighersupplycausesalowermarketpriceandalargerquantitytradedComparativeStaticsComparativeStaticsSupposepotentialrenters’incomesrise,increasingtheirwillingnesstopayforcloseapartmentsDemandrises(upwardshift),causinghigherpriceforcloseapartmentsMarketEquilibriumMarketEquilibriumpQD,QSpeMarketEquilibriumMarketEquilibriumpQD,QSpeHigherincomescausehigherwillingnesstopayMarketEquilibriumMarketEquilibriumpQD,QSpeHigherincomescausehigherwillingnesstopay,highermarketprice,andthesamequantitytradedImperfectlyCompetitiveMarketsImperfectlyCompetitiveMarketsAmongstmanypossibilitiesare:amonopolisticlandlordaperfectlydiscriminatorymonopolisticlandlordacompetitivemarketsubjecttorentcontrolAMonopolisticLandlordAMonopolisticLandlordWhenthelandlordsetsarentalpricepherentsD(p)apartmentsRevenue=pD(p)RevenueislowifpRevenueislowifpissohighthatD(p)AnintermediatevalueforpmaximizesrevenueMonopolisticMarketEquilibriumMonopolisticMarketEquilibriumpQDLowpriceLowprice,highquantitydemanded,lowrevenueMonopolisticMarketEquilibriumMonopolisticMarketEquilibriumpQDHighpriceHighprice,lowquantitydemanded,lowrevenueMonopolisticMarketEquilibriumMonopolisticMarketEquilibriumpQDMiddlepriceMiddleprice,mediumquantitydemanded,largerrevenueMonopolisticMarketEquilibriumMonopolisticMarketEquilibriumpQD,QSMiddlepriceMiddleprice,mediumquantitydemanded,largerrevenueMonopolistdoesnotrentallthecloseapartmentsMonopolisticMarketEquilibriumMonopolisticMarketEquilibriumpQD,QSMiddlepriceMiddleprice,mediumquantitydemanded,largerrevenueMonopolistdoesnotrentallthecloseapartmentsVacantcloseapartmentsPerfectlyDiscriminatoryMonopolisticLandlordPerfectlyDiscriminatoryMonopolisticLandlordImaginethemonopolistkneweveryone’swillingnesstopayCharge$tothemostwillingtopay,charge$tothendmostwillingtopay,etcDiscriminatoryMonopolisticMarketEquilibriumDiscriminatoryMonopolisticMarketEquilibriumpQD,QSp=$DiscriminatoryMonopolisticMarketEquilibriumDiscriminatoryMonopolisticMarketEquilibriumpQD,QSp=$p=$DiscriminatoryMonopolisticMarketEquilibriumDiscriminatoryMonopolisticMarketEquilibriumpQD,QSp=$p=$p=$DiscriminatoryMonopolisticMarketEquilibriumDiscriminatoryMonopolisticMarketEquilibriumpQD,QSp=$p=$p=$DiscriminatoryMonopolisticMarketEquilibriumDiscriminatoryMonopolisticMarketEquilibriumpQD,QSp=$p=$p=$peDiscriminatorymonopolistchargesthecompetitivemarketpricetothelastrenter,andrentsthecompetitivequantityofcloseapartmentsRentControlRentControlLocalgovernmentimposesamaximumlegalprice,pmax<pe,thecompetitivepriceMarketEquilibriumMarketEquilibriumpQD,QSpeMarketEquilibriumMarketEquilibriumpQD,QSpepmaxMarketEquilibriumMarketEquilibriumpQD,QSpepmaxExcessdemandMarketEquilibriumMarketEquilibriumpQD,QSpepmaxExcessdemandThecloseapartmentsarenolongerallocatedbywillingnesstopay(lottery,lines,largefamiliesfirst)WhichMarketOutcomesAreDesirableWhichMarketOutcomesAreDesirableWhichisbetterRentcontrolPerfectcompetitionMonopolyDiscriminatorymonopolyParetoEfficiencyParetoEfficiencyVilfredoParetoAParetooutcomeallowsno“wastedwelfare”ietheonlywayoneperson’swelfarecanbeimprovedistoloweranotherperson’swelfareParetoEfficiencyParetoEfficiencyJillhasanapartmentJackdoesnotJillvaluestheapartmentat$Jackwouldpay$foritJillcouldsublettheapartmenttoJackfor$Bothgain,soitwasParetoinefficientforJilltohavetheapartmentCriterionforParetoEfficiencyCriterionforParetoEfficiencyAParetoinefficientoutcomemeansthereremainunrealizedmutualgainstotradeAnymarketoutcomethatachievesallpossiblegainstotrademustbeParetoefficientParetoEfficiencyParetoEfficiencyCompetitiveequilibrium:allcloseapartmentrentersvaluethematthemarketpricepeormoreallothersvaluecloseapartmentsatlessthanpesonomutuallybeneficialtradesremainsotheoutcomeisParetoefficientParetoEfficiencyParetoEfficiencyDiscriminatoryMonopoly:assignmentofapartmentsisthesameaswiththeperfectlycompetitivemarketsothediscriminatorymonopolyoutcomeisalsoParetoefficientParetoEfficiencyParetoEfficiencyMonopoly:notallapartmentsareoccupiedsoadistantapartmentrentercouldbeassignedacloseapartmentandhavehigherwelfarewithoutloweringanybodyelse’swelfaresothemonopolyoutcomeisParetoinefficientParetoEfficiencyParetoEfficiencyRentControl:somecloseapartmentsareassignedtorentersvaluingthematbelowthecompetitivepricepesomerentersvaluingacloseapartmentabovepedon’tgetcloseapartmentsParetoinefficientoutcomeHarderQuestionsHarderQuestionsOvertime,willthesupplyofcloseapartmentsincreaserentcontroldecreasethesupplyofapartmentsamonopolistsupplymoreapartmentsthanacompetitiverentalmarketTestingHypothesesTestingHypothesesWhatcauserentstochangepriceofdistantapartmentsincomesofpotentialrentersquantityofcloseapartmentsNeedeconometrics

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