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首页 Understanding Children\'s Literature, 1st Ed. (2…

Understanding Children\'s Literature, 1st Ed. (2000).pdf

Understanding Children\'s Litera…

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简介:本文档为《Understanding Children\'s Literature, 1st Ed. (2000)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含UnderstandingChildren’sLiteratureUnderstandingChildren’sLiteratureEditedby符等。

UnderstandingChildren’sLiteratureUnderstandingChildren’sLiteratureEditedbyPeterHuntKeyessaysfromtheInternationalCompanionEncyclopediaofChildren’sLiteratureLondonandNewYorkFirstpublishedbyRoutledgeNewFetterLane,LondonECPEEThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,SimultaneouslypublishedintheUSAandCanadabyRoutledgeWestthStreet,NewYork,NYPeterHunt,selection,editorialmatter,chapters,andglossaryRoutledgeallothermatterAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilisedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataUnderstandingchildren’sliteratureeditedbyPeterHuntpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexChildren’sliteratureHistoryandcriticismIHunt,PeterPNAU’–dc–ISBNMasterebookISBNISBN(AdobeeReaderFormat)ISBN(PrintEdition)ContentsContributorsviiIntroduction:TheWorldofChildren’sLiteratureStudiesPeterHuntEssentials:WhatisChildren’sLiteratureWhatisChildhoodKarínLesnikObersteinTheSettingofChildren’sLiterature:HistoryandCultureTonyWatkinsTheImpossibilityofInnocence:Ideology,Politics,andChildren’sLiteratureCharlesSarlandAnalysingTextsforChildren:LinguisticsandStylisticsJohnStephensDecodingtheImages:IllustrationandPictureBooksPerryNodelmanReaders,Texts,Contexts:ReaderResponseCriticismMichaelBentonReadingtheUnconscious:PsychoanalyticalCriticismHamidaBosmajianFromSexRoleStereotypingtoSubjectivity:FeministCriticismLissaPaulInspectingtheFoundations:BibliographicalStudiesPeterHuntRelatingTexts:IntertextualityChristineWilkieVeryAdvancedTexts:MetafictionsandExperimentalWorkRobynMcCallumviContentsChildrenBecomingReaders:ReadingandLiteracyGeoffreyWilliamsCanStoriesHealHughCragoGeneralBibliographyGlossaryIndexContributorsMichaelBentonisaProfessorofEducationintheResearchandGraduateSchoolofEducation,UniversityofSouthamptonHismaincriticalorientationisthatofreaderresponsetheoryandpracticethemainargumentofhisresearchisthatapedagogygroundedinreaderresponseoffersEnglishteachersthemostcoherentpositioninrelationtotheirworkbecauseitfocusesupontheliveprocessesofliteraryexperienceTwocoauthoredbookswrittenfromthisstandpointare:TeachingLiterature–,withGeoffFox()andYoungReadersRespondingtoPoems,withthreeteachers()Inrecentyears,hisresearchhaswideneditsremittoencompassaspectsofthevisualarts,especiallypaintingandpicturebooksThisdevelopmentisrepresentedbySecondaryWorlds:LiteratureTeachingandtheVisualArts(),byseveralarticlesinTheBritishJournalofAestheticsandintheJournalofAestheticEducation,andbythreeclassroomanthologiesofpairedpaintingsandpoems,compiledandeditedwithhisbrother:DoubleVision(),PaintingwithWords()andPicturePoems(),allpublishedbyHodderandStoughtonHamidaBosmajianisProfessorofEnglishatSeattleUniversitywheresheteacheschildren’sliterature,mythology,andliterarytheoryaswellasaseminarinliteratureandlawShehaspublishedwidelyinchildren’sliterature,buthermainscholarlyfocusisliteratureforyoungreadersaboutNazismandtheHolocaustInherbookMetaphorsofEvil:ContemporaryGermanLiteratureandtheShadowofNazism()shenoticedthatmanyadultsrememberthechildinhistoricaltraumasChildrenhavefarfewerdefencemechanismsthanadultstheyconfronttraumawithoutanalysisandinterpretationInlaterlifesuchexperienceshauntthemdifferentlythandotraumaticeventsexperiencedbyadultsHercurrentprojectiscalled‘SparingtheChild:YoungReaders’LiteratureAboutNazismandtheHolocaust’Shealwaystellsherstudents:‘Wheneverandwhereverthenightmareofhistoryoccurstherearechildrenthere’HughCragoiscurrentlycoeditorwithMaureenCragoofTheAustralianandNewZealandJournalofFamilyTherapyHehasworkedasanindividualandfamilytherapistforthepastsixteenyears,andwasSeniorLecturerinCounsellingattheUniversityofNewEngland(Australia)untilHehasalsostudiedandtaughtEnglishHeiscoauthor,withMaureen,ofPreludetoLiteracy(),andofaviiiContributorsnumberofotherempiricalandtheoreticalstudiesofchildren’sandadults’interactionswithstories,whichcombinetheperspectivesofreaderresponseandpsychoanalyticcriticismHisnewbook,ACircleUnbroken:HowOurUniqueLivesUnfoldinPredictablePatternswillbepublishedininAustralia)PeterHuntisProfessorofEnglishandChildren’sLiteratureintheSchoolofEnglish,CommunicationsandPhilosophyattheUniversityofWales,CardiffHehaswrittenoreditedelevenbooksonchildren’sliterature,includingAnIntroductiontoChildren’sLiterature(),theInternationalCompanionEncyclopediaofChildren’sLiterature(),andsixbooksforchildrenandadolescentsKarínLesnikObersteinisalecturerinEnglish,AmericanandChildren’sLiteratureattheUniversityofReadingSheteachesextensivelyontheMAinChildren’sLiteratureandisanassociatedirectoroftheCentreforInternationalResearchinChildhood:Literature,Culture,Media(CIRCL)attheUniversityPrincipalpublicationsincludeherbooksChildren’sLiterature:CriticismandtheFictionalChild()and(aseditor)ChildreninCulture:ApproachestoChildhood(),aswellasarticlesandchaptersonchildren’sliteratureandtheoryAllherworkonchildrenexploreschildhoodasaculturallyandhistoricallyconstructedcategory,ratherthanasabiologicalorpsychologicalgiven,andusesanthropology,sociology,psychoanalysis,andliteraryandcriticaltheorytosupportthisargumentOngoingresearchincludesworkonpsychoanalysis,feministtheory,andtheoryingeneralbutheroverallinterestcontinuestoliewithworkingfrominterdisciplinaryandmultidisciplinaryperspectivesinthesocialsciencesandhumanitiesRobynMcCallumhasabackgroundinliteratureandvisualartsandisinvolvedinteachingandresearchinchildren’sliteratureatMacquarieUniversityShehaspublishedarticlesonchildren’sandadolescentliterature,filmandtelevisionandisauthorofIdeologiesofIdentityinAdolescentFictions()andcoauthorwithJohnStephensofRetellingStories,FramingCulture:TraditionalStoriesandMetanarrativesinChildren’sLiterature()Researchinterestsinclude:criticaltheoryrelatingtochildren’stextsandcultureliterature,filmandtelevisionforchildrenandadolescentsandpicturebooksPerryNodelmanspentfiveyearsaseditorofTheChildren’sLiteratureAssociationQuarterly,andhaspublishedahundredorsoarticlesonvariousaspectsofchildren’sliteratureinscholarlyjournals,manyofthemfocusingonliterarytheoryasacontextforunderstandingbooksforchildrenHehasalsowrittentwobooksonthesubject:WordsAboutPictures:TheNarrativeArtofChildren’sPictureBooks(),andThePleasuresofChildren’sLiterature(),currentlyinitssecondeditionInrecentyears,Nodelmanhasbegunanewcareerasawriteroffictionforchildren,producingtwochildren’sfantasies,TheSamePlaceButDifferent()anditssequelACompletelyDifferentPlace(),andapicturebook,AliceFallsApart()BehavingBradley(),acomicnovelaboutlifeinahighschool,appearedinthespringofHehasalsocollaboratedontwoyoungadultfantasieswithCarolMatas:OfTwoMinds()anditssequelsMoreMinds()andOutofTheirMinds,()ContributorsixLissaPaulisaProfessorintheFacultyofEducationattheUniversityofNewBrunswickwheresheteachesfivecoursesonchildren’sliteratureandliterarytheoryHernewbook,ReadingOtherways(),providesapracticaldemonstrationofthewaysinwhichcontemporaryliterarytheories,especiallyfeministtheories,enablenewreadingsofbooksforchildrenreadingsintouchwithcontemporarysensibilitiesLissawritesandreviewsregularlyforCanadian,AmericanandBritishchildren’sliteraturejournals,mostfrequentlyasacontributortoSignalShehasalsoservedasoneoftwononBritishjudgesfortheSignalpoetryawardSheholdsworkshopsinschools,andlectureswidelyinternationallyhercurrentresearchinterestsincludematernalliteracies,chaostheoryandnewpoetics,contemporarypoetryandpostcolonialstudiesCharlesSarlandisaSeniorLecturerinEducationatLiverpoolJohnMooresUniversityHeisinterestedinculturethemeaningsthat,inparticular,theyoungmakeoftheworldandisthusinterestedinthetexts,writtenorvisualthatbecomecanonicalinthatprocessHeisconcernedaboutthepotentialforeducationalresearchtomakeadifference,tomountacritiqueratherthanjusttoprocessdata,andisinterestedinwaysofbothreintroducing,andinsomewayaccountingfor,commitmentintheresearchprocessJohnStephensisAssociateProfessorinEnglishatMacquarieUniversity,wherehismainteachingcommitmentischildren’sliterature,buthealsoteachesandsupervisespostgraduateresearchinmedievalstudies,postcolonialliterature,anddiscourseanalysisHeistheauthorofLanguageandIdeologyinChildren’sFiction(),twobooksaboutdiscourseanalysis,andaroundsixtyarticlesaboutchildren’s(andother)literatureMorerecently,hehascoauthored,withRobynMcCallum,RetellingStories,FramingCulture:TraditionalStoryandMetanarrativesinChildren’sLiterature()Hisprimaryresearchfocusisontherelationshipsbetweentextsproducedforchildren(especiallyliteratureandfilm)andculturalformationsandpracticesTonyWatkinsislecturerinEnglish,DirectoroftheMAinChildren’sLiteratureandDirectoroftheCentreforInternationalResearchinChildhood:Literature,Culture,Media(CIRCL)attheUniversityofReadingUnderhisdirection,CIRCLiscoordinatinganinternationalcollaborativeresearchprojecton‘NationalandCulturalIdentityinChildren’sLiteratureandMedia’TonyWatkinshaslecturedonChildren’sLiteratureatuniversitiesandconferencesinEurope,theUSAandAustraliaandhasbeenawardedaFellowshipattheInternationalCentreforResearchinChildren’sLiteratureinOsaka,JapanHehasjustfinishedcoeditingacollectionofessaysonTheHeroicFigureinChildren’sPopularCultureandiscurrentlyeditinganothercollectiononChildren’sLiteratureandTheoryHehasaparticularinterestinrepresentationsofspace,placeandhistoryandtheirrelationshiptonationalandculturalidentityinchildren’sliteratureandmediaChristineWilkielecturesinEnglishandistheDirectoroftheMAprogrammeinChildren’sLiteratureStudiesattheUniversityofWarwick,teachingcoursesonLiteraryTheory,TwentiethCenturyChildren’sLiteratureandWomen’sWritingShehaspublishedabookontheworksofRussellHoban,ThroughtheNarrowxContributorsGate(),andseveralarticlesininternationaljournalsonvariousaspectsofchildren’sliteratureSheiscurrentlyresearchingliterarysubjectivityinthecontemporarychildren’snovelGeoffreyWilliamsisinterestedinwaysthatchildrenreflectonexperiencethroughreading,play,andconversationHeisalinguist,workingintheDepartmentofEnglishatSydneyUniversity,whereheteachescoursesinchildren’sliterature,functionallinguisticsandlanguagevariationHisrecentresearchhasexploredchildren’susesoffunctional‘grammar’inlearningabouthowwrittentextsmeanInthisprojectheworkedcloselywithgroupsofyoungchildren,includingayearinconversationswithelevenyearoldsinanafterschoolliteracyclubDrWilliamsisalsoinvestigatingchildren’splaywithlanguagepriortoformalschoolingHeisthecoeditor,withRuqaiyaHasan,ofLiteracyinSociety,avolumewhichpresentsdebatesaboutgenrebasedliteracyeducationinEnglishspeakingcountriesHehasalsocontributedtothevolumeLiteracyandSchooling,()Introduction:TheWorldofChildren’sLiteratureStudiesPeterHuntSowhatgoodisliterarytheoryWillitkeepourchildrensingingWellperhapsnotButunderstandingsomethingofliterarytheorywillgiveussomeunderstandingofhowtheliteraturewegivetoourchildrenworksItmightalsokeepusengagedwiththetextsthatsurroundus,keepussingingevenifitisamorematuresongthanwesangasyouthfulreadersoftextsAslongaswekeepsinging,wehaveachanceofpassingalongoursingingspirittothoseweteachMcGillis:Children’sLiterature‘Children’sLiterature’soundslikeanenticingstudybecausechildren’sbookshavebeenlargelybeneaththenoticeofintellectualandculturalgurus,theyare(apparently)blissfullyfreeofthe‘oughts’whatweoughttothinkandsayaboutthemMorethanthat,tomanyreaders,children’sbooksareamatterofprivatedelight,whichmeans,perhaps,thattheyarerealliteratureif‘literature’consistsoftextswhichengage,change,andprovokeintenseresponsesinreadersButifprivatedelightseemsasomewhatindefensiblejustificationforastudy,thenwecanreflectonthedirectorindirectinfluencethatchildren’sbookshave,andhavehad,socially,culturally,andhistoricallyTheyareovertlyimportanteducationallyandcommerciallywithconsequencesacrosstheculture,fromlanguagetopolitics:mostadults,andalmostcertainlythevastmajorityinpositionsofpowerandinfluence,readchildren’sbooksaschildren,anditisinconceivablethattheideologiespermeatingthosebookshadnoinfluenceontheirdevelopmentThebookshave,nonetheless,beenmarginalisedChildhoodis,afterall,astatewegrowawayfromchildren’sbooksfromwritingtopublicationtointeractionwithchildrenaretheprovinceofthatculturallymarginalisedspecies,thefemaleButthismarginalisationhashadcertainadvantagesbecauseithasbeenculturallylowprofile,‘children’sliterature’hasnotbecomethe‘property’ofanygroupordiscipline:itdoesnot‘belong’totheDepartmentofLiteratureortheLibrarySchool,orthelocalparents’organisationItisattractiveandinterestingtostudents(officialorunofficial)ofliterature,education,librarystudies,history,psychology,art,popularculture,media,thecaringprofessions,andsoon,anditcanbeapproachedfromanyspecialistviewpointItsnature,bothasagroupoftextsandasasubjectforstudy,hasbeentobreakdownbarriersbetweendisciplines,andbetweentypesofreadersItis,UnderstandingChildren’sLiteratureatonce,oneoftheliveliestandmostoriginalofthearts,andthesiteofthecrudestcommercialexploitationThismeansthatjustaschildren’sbooksdonotexistinavacuumtheyhavereal,argumentativereadersandvisible,practical,consequentialusessothetheoryofchildren’sliteratureconstantlyblendsintothepracticeofbringingbooksandreaderstogetherTheslightlyuncomfortable(orveryinspiring)corollaryofthisisthatwehavetoacceptthatchildren’sbooksarecomplex,andthestudyoftheminfinitelyvariedManystudentsaroundtheworldwhohavebeenenticedontochildren’sliteratureatcoursesatall‘levels’rapidlyfindthatthingsaremorecomplicatedthantheyhadassumedTherecannotbemanyteachersofchildren’sliteraturewhohavenotbeengreetedwithaquerulous‘Butit’sonlyachildren’sbook’,‘Childrenwon’tseethatinit’,or‘You’remakingitmoredifficultthanitshouldbe’Butthecomplexitiesarenotmereproblematisingbyacademicseagertoensuretheirmealticketsthemostapparentlystraightforwardactofcommunicationisamazinglyintricateandwearedealingherewithfundamentalquestionsofcommunicationandunderstandingbetweenadultsandchildren,or,moreexactly,betweenindividualsandindividualsIfchildren’sliteratureismorecomplexthanitseems,evenmorecomplex,perhaps,isthepositionitfindsitselfinbetweenadultwriters,readers,criticsandpractitioners,andthechildreadersChildren’sliteratureisanobviouspointatwhichtheoryencountersreallife,whereweareforcedtoask:whatcanwesayaboutabook,whyshouldwesayit,howcanwesayit,andwhateffectwillwhatwesayhaveWearealsoforcedtoconfrontourpreconceptionsManypeoplewilldenythattheywereinfluencedbytheirchildhoodreading(‘IreadxyzwhenIwasachild,anditdidn’tdomeanyharm’),andyetthesearethesamepeoplewhoacceptthatchildhoodisanimportantphaseinourlives(asisalmostuniversallyacknowledged),andthatchildrenarevulnerable,susceptible,andmustbeprotectedfrommanipulationChildren’sliteratureisimportantandyetitisnotConsequently,beforesettingoffintothesomewhattangledjunglethatis‘children’sliterature’weneedtoestablishsomebasicconcepts,ideas,andmethods:toworkthroughfundamentalarguments,tolookatwhichtechniquesofcriticism,whichdiscourses,andwhichstrategiesareappropriatetoorevenuniquetooursubjectItcanbearguedthatwecan(andshould)harnesstheconsiderabletheoreticalandanalyticalapparatusofeverydisciplinefromphilosophytopsychotherapyorthatweshouldevolveacriticaltheoryandpracticetailoredtothepreciseneedsof‘children’sliterature’Thisbook,whichselectsthekeyessaysfromtheInternationalCompanionEncyclopediaofChildren’sLiterature,providestheessentialtheoryforanyadventureinto‘children’sliterature’,outlinespracticalapproaches,suggestsareasofresearch,andprovidesuptodatebibliographiestohelpreaderstofindtheirown,individual,appropriatepathsTheWorldofChildren’sLiteratureStudiesLiteratureandChildrenAllthewritersinthisbookshareanunspokenconvictionthatchildren’sliteratureisworthreading,worthdiscussing,andworththinkingaboutforadultsAidanChambershassummedupthemotivationofmany‘liberalhumanist’teachersandwriters:IbelongtothedemotictraditionIbelieveliteraturebelongstoallthepeopleallthetime,thatitoughttobecheaplyandeasilyavailable,thatitoughttobefuntoreadaswellaschallenging,subversive,refreshing,comforting,andalltheotherqualitiesweclaimforitFinally,Iholdthatinliteraturewefindthebestexpressionofthehumanimagination,andthemostusefulmeansbywhichwecometogripswithourideasaboutourselvesandwhatweareChambers:Suchafaithinliteratureunderliesagreatdealofdaytodayteachingandthinkingaboutchildrenandbooksitliesbehindtheconnectionbetweenliteratureandliteracywhetherornotchildren’sbooksareseenasvaluableinthemselves,orassteppingstonestohigherthings(‘adult’or‘great’literature)Itis,however,clearlynotaneutralstatement:itembod

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