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首页 藏族起源

藏族起源

藏族起源

Chicago_Jun
2013-04-10 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《藏族起源pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

AbstractThegeneticoriginofTibetanswasinvestigatedusingYchromosomemarkersAtotalofthreepopulationswerestudied,twofromcentralTibetspeakingcentralTibetanandonefromYunnanspeakingKhamTwodominantpaternallineages(>)wereidentifiedinallthreepopulationswithonepossiblyfromcentralAsia(YAP)andtheotherfromeastAsia(MC)WeconcludethatTibetanYchromosomesmayhavebeenderivedfromtwodifferentgenepools,giventhevirtualabsenceofMCincentralAsiaandYAPineastAsia,withdriftanunlikelymechanismaccountingfortheseobservationsTibetansisageneraltermforpeoplewholiveintheHimalayanmountainareaandspeaklanguagesundertheTibetanbranchoftheTibetoBurmansubfamilyoftheSinoTibetanfamily(Matisoff)Thethreemainlanguagegroupsinthisbrancharethecentral,northern,andsouthernPeoplewhospeakcentralandnorthernTibetanaremainlydistributedinChina(Tibet,SichuanandYunnan),whilethesouthernTibetanspeakersliveinthesouthernHimalayanregion,eg,India,BhutanandNepalHistorically,itiswellknownthatTibetansdivergedfromnortherneastAsians,whichhasbeenconfirmedbygeneticstudiesusingclassicalautosomalmarkers(DuandXiao)andmicrosatellitemarkers(Chuetal)However,thestrongpresenceofYAPinTibetans,anAluinsertionpolymorphismwithonlysporadicoccurrenceinothereastAsianpopulationsexceptJapanese(HammeretalSuetal),contradictsthisobservation,suggestingasignificantgeneticinfluencefromcentralAsia(AltheideandHammer)OurrecentstudyofthreeTibetanpopulationsusingYchromosomebiallelicmarkersshowedthatTibetansarederivedfrommultiplegeneticsourcesThreeTibetanpopulationsweresampled,twopopulationsfromcentralTibet(LhasaandShigatse),andonepopulationfromZhongdian(northwesternYunnan)TheformerpopulationsarecalledZang(Tsang)whospeakTibetanthatbelongstothecentralTibetanbranch,whilethelatteriscalledKhambawhospeakKham,anorthernTibetanlanguageAtotalofYchromosomebiallelicmarkersweretypedforthethreepopulationsAdescriptionofthemarkerscanbefoundinSuetal()InthethreeTibetanpopulations,weobservedtenYhaplotypes(seeTable)NosignificantdifferencebetweenthepeoplesfromLhasaandShigatsewasobservedClearly,bothZangandKhambapopulationsarepredominatedbytwohaplotypegroupsdefinedbytheYAP(HandH)andMC(HandH),whichencompassaboutoftheirgenepools,indicatingacommonoriginofthosetwopopulationsTheYAPisanancientpolymorphismthatoriginatedfromcentralAsia(AltheideandHammer)andwasamajorcontributiontotheTibetanpopulations(inZangandinKhamba)OurpreviousstudyonextanteastAsianpopulationsshowedthatMC(definingH,HandH)ispredominantineastAsianpopulations,especiallyinHanChinese(onaverage)(Suetal)butitisnearlyabsentinotherworldpopulations,includingcentralAsians(RSWells,personalcommunication)Therefore,thehighfrequencyofMCintheTibetanpopulation(>)reflectsageneticsourcerootedfromeastAsianpopulationswhereYAPisvirtuallyabsentThepresenceofHintheKhambapopulationmayreflectitsinteractionwithlocalpopulationsinYunnanwhichhaverelativelyabundantH(Suetal)YapingQian·BinzhiQian·BingSu·JiankunYu·YuehaiKe·ZhengtaoChu·LeiShi·DaruLu·JiayouChu·LiJinMultipleoriginsofTibetanYchromosomesHumGenet():–DigitalObjectIdentifier(DOI)sReceived:NovemberAccepted:JanuaryPublishedonline:MarchSHORTREPORTYQian·JYu·ZChu·LShi·JChuInstituteofMedicalBiology,TheChineseAcademyofMedicalSciences,Kunming,Yunnan,ChinaBQian·DLu·LJinInstituteofGeneticsandMorganTanInternationalCenterforLifeSciences,FudanUniversity,Shanghai,ChinaBSu·YKe·LJin(✉)HumanGeneticsCenter,UniversityofTexasHouston,Bertner,Houston,Texas,,USAemail:ljinutsphsphuthtmcedu,Tel:,Fax:©SpringerVerlagAInconclusion,TibetanYchromosomesmayhavebeenderivedfromtwodifferentgenepools,onefromcentralAsiaandtheotherfromeastAsiaOurpreliminaryworkprovidesalogicalfoundationforfurthersystematicgeneticstudyontheoriginandprehistoricmigrationsofSinoTibetanspeakingpopulationsTothisend,morelocishouldbestudiedtoexaminethepossibleinfluenceofgeneticdriftinshapingtheobservedpatternAcknowledgementBSandLJweresupportedbyNIHgrantsYQ,BQ,JY,YK,JCandDLweresupportedbyagrantfromNationalNaturalScienceFoundationofChinaJCwasalsosupportedbyChineseMedicineBoard,USAReferencesAltheideTK,HammerMF()EvidenceforapossibleAsianoriginofYAPYchromosomesAmJHumGenet:–ChuJY,HuangW,KuangSQ,WangJM,XuJJ,ChuZT,YangZQ,etal()GeneticrelationshipofpopulationsinChinaProcNatlAcadSciUSA:–DuRF,XiaoCJ()GeneticdistancesbetweenChinesepopulationscalculatedongenefrequenciesoflociScienceinChina(SeriesC):–HammerMF,SpurdleAB,KarafetT,BonnerMR,WoodET,NovellettoA,MalaspinaP,etal()ThegeographicdistributionofhumanYchromosomevariationGenetics:–MatisoffJA()SinoTibetanlinguistics:presentstateandfutureprospectsAnnRevAnthropol:–SuB,XiaoJH,UnderhillP,DekaR,ZhangWL,AkeyJ,HuangW()YChromosomeevidenceforanorthwardmigrationofmodernhumansinEastAsiaduringtheLastIceAgeAmJHumGenet:–TableYchromosomehaplotypedistributioninTibetanandHanChinesepopulationsRefertoSuetal()forthedetaileddescriptionsofthehaplotypesPopulationHHHHHHHHHHHHHSizeTibetanZangTibetanKhambaSHanChineseNHanChineseA<<ASCIIEncodePagesfalseAllowTransparencyfalseAutoPositionEPSFilestrueAutoRotatePagesAllBindingLeftCalGrayProfile(DotGain)CalRGBProfile(sRGBIEC)CalCMYKProfile(USWebCoatedSWOPv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