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Electronics A First Course 3rd Edition.pdf

Electronics A First Course 3rd …

上传者: flashnet 2013-04-05 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Electronics A First Course 3rd Editionpdf》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含ElectronicsAFirstCourseThispageintentionallyleftblankElectronicsAFirstCour符等。

ElectronicsAFirstCourseThispageintentionallyleftblankElectronicsAFirstCourseThirdEditionOwenBishopAMSTERDAMBOSTONHEIDELBERGLONDONNEWYORKOXFORDPARISSANDIEGOSANFRANCISCOSINGAPORESYDNEYTOKYONewnesisanimprintofElsevierNewnesisanimprintofElsevierTheBoulevard,LangfordLane,OxfordOXGB,UKCorporateDrive,Suite,Burlington,MA,USAFirsteditionSecondeditionReprintedThirdeditionCopyrightr,OwenBishopPublishedbyElsevierLtdAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronicormechanical,includingphotocopying,recording,oranyinformationstorageandretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublisherDetailsonhowtoseekpermission,furtherinformationaboutthePublisher’spermissionspoliciesandourarrangementswithorganizationssuchastheCopyrightClearanceCenterandtheCopyrightLicensingAgency,canbefoundatourwebsite:wwwelseviercompermissionsThisbookandtheindividualcontributionscontainedinitareprotectedundercopyrightbythePublisher(otherthanasmaybenotedherein)NoticesKnowledgeandbestpracticeinthisfieldareconstantlychangingAsnewresearchandexperiencebroadenourunderstanding,changesinresearchmethods,professionalpractices,ormedicaltreatmentmaybecomenecessaryPractitionersandresearchersmustalwaysrelyontheirownexperienceandknowledgeinevaluatingandusinganyinformation,methods,compounds,orexperimentsdescribedhereinInusingsuchinformationormethodstheyshouldbemindfuloftheirownsafetyandthesafetyofothers,includingpartiesforwhomtheyhaveaprofessionalresponsibilityTothefullestextentofthelaw,neitherthePublishernortheauthors,contributors,oreditors,assumeanyliabilityforanyinjuryandordamagetopersonsorpropertyasamatterofproductsliability,negligenceorotherwise,orfromanyuseoroperationofanymethods,products,instructions,orideascontainedinthematerialhereinBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataAcatalogrecordofthisbookisavailablefromtheLibraryofCongressISBN:ForinformationonallNewnespublicationsvisitourwebsiteatwwwnewnespresscomPrintedandboundinItalyContentsIntroductionviiWhatisElectronicsviiiHowtoUsethisBookviiiPartElectricityElectronsElectricCurrentCellsandBatteriesCurrent,VoltageandPowerSourcesofPowerIntheLab:UsingaMultimeterPowerEquationsAlternatingCurrentsMainsElectricityPlugsandFusesElectricityandMagnetismSIUnitsPartElectronicComponentsResistanceResistorsMoreaboutResistorsResistorNetworksCapacitorsChargingCapacitorsInductorsDiodesRectifierDiodesLightEmittingDiodesDesignTimeTransistorsDesignTimeIntheLab:BuildingonStripboardTransistorActionTransistorSwitchesThyristorsFieldEffectTransistorsPartElectronicSystemsTheStructureofaSystemDesigningandBuildingSystemsSwitchesIntheLab:TestingProjectsLightSensorsDesignTimeTemperatureSensorsDesignTimevSoundSensorsForceSensorsDesignTimeMagneticFieldSensorsPositionandVibrationSensorsMoistureSensorsInterfacingSensorsDesignTimeAmplifyingSignalsTimingDesignTimeLogicLogicalSystemsDesignTimeLogicalSequencesDesignTimeStoringDataMicrocontrollersProgramsDesignTimeVisualOutputAudibleOutputMechanicalOutputDesignTimePartElectronicSystemsinActionAudioSystemsRadioTransmissionRadioReceptionDigitalCommunicationsComputersControlSystemsDesignTimeRoboticSystemsSupplementsASymbolsusedforCircuitsBSymbolsusedinFlowchartsCAnswerstoQuestionsAcknowledgementsIndexviContentsIntroductionThisisacompleteintroductorytextbookintendedforcoursesleadingtoGCSEElectronicsItalsocatersfortheElectronicssectionsofGCSEDesignandTechnology(ElectronicProducts)ItassumesnopreviousknowledgeofelectronicsoroftheelectronicaspectsofphysicsMostofthetextisdividedintonumerousshortTopicsThetopicsaredealtwiththoroughly,withsimpleexplanationsandplentyofexamplesandillustrationsThispresentationhastwoadvantagesItallowsstudentstoconfinetheirattentiontotheparticulartopicsfoundinagivenspecificationItalsopresentsthestudentwithselfcontained,easilyassimilableandreadilytestablesegmentsofknowledgeThebookisstudentcentredanditfeatures:Frequent‘SelfTest’questionstoallowstudentstoassesstheirprogressSetsofquestionsatnumerouskeystagesinthebook,linkingtogetherthematerialofconsecutiveTopicsAnswerstotheseandtheSelfTestquestionsaregivenattheendofthebook,iftheyarenumericaloroffewwordsAnabundanceofpracticalexamples,withnumerouscircuitdiagramsDetailedinstructionsforsimpleconstructionaltechniques,andfortestproceduresappearinthe‘IntheLab’sectionsAnunderlyingemphasisonelectronicsystems‘Designtime’pagesprovideawealthofpracticablesuggestionsforcircuitsandprojectsthatstudentscandesignforthemselvesTheseareintendedtohelpstudentstopreparecourseworkprojectsfortheexamination,aswellastopromoteunderstandingofelectronicstheoryThebookiscopiouslyillustratedwithhalftoneandlinedrawings,thecircuitsymbolsfollowingtheguidesetoutintheAQAGCSEElectronicsspecificationTherearenumerousphotographs,includingcloseupsofelectronicscomponents,andillustrationsofconstructionaltechniquesWhileupdatingthematerialforthiseditionwehavetakenintoaccounttheincreasedemphasisonelectronicsystemsinthelatestGCSEspecificationsWehavealsotriedtomatchthecontentofthebooktothebasicrequirementsforanumberofunitsoftheEDEXCELlevelBTECFirstexaminationsinElectronicsviiWHATISELECTRONICSElectronicsmakesabigdifferencetoallourlivesWithoutelectronics,ourliveswouldbelesscomfortable,lesssafe,lessinterestingandlessfunOrdoyoudisagreeTalkaboutitwithotherstudentsElectronicsisaboutelectronsItisaboutthewaysweuseelectronstodousefulandinterestingthingsThephotosonthispageshowsomeofthethingsthatwecandowithelectronsCanyouworkoutwhatthesethingsareHOWTOUSETHISBOOKMostofthebookissetoutasbriefTopicsWhenyouopenthebookatoneoftheseTopics,thepagestellyouallyouneedtoknowaboutoneelectronicstopicAswellasthetextandpictures,theremaybe:ThingstodothathelpyoutolearnmoreDesigntipstohelpyoudesignandbuildyourelectronicsprojectSelfteststofindouthowyouaregettingonAnswersareatthebackofthebookMoststudentswillneedtoworkonmostofthespreadsThesecoveralltheessentialtopicsforElectronicsexamsatLevelYourteacherwilltellyouwhichspreads,ifany,youcanleaveoutIntheLabandDesignTimepagesprovideyouwithadviceandideasforyourprojectAftereveryfewspreadsthereisabatchofquestionsTheanswerstotheseareonourwebsite:http:wwwelsevierdirectcomcompanionsviiiIntroductionInaddition,thereareseveralfeaturesonthewebsitetohelpyoustudyelectronicsmoreeffectivelyTheseincludeanimateddiagramsofelectroniccircuitsinactionTheinteractivemultiplechoicequestionsonthewebsiteareanovelandeffectivewayforyoutotestyourunderstandingofthesubjectAlsoaftereachgroupofspreadsaresomepagesthatgiveyoumoredetailsorcoverextratopicsThesearemostlyforstudentstakingtheHigherTierpapersintheexamTheyalsocovertopicsthatarerequiredbyonlyoneortwooftheexamboardsAskyourteacherwhichtopicstostudyixIntroductionThispageintentionallyleftblankPartElectricityThispageintentionallyleftblankTopicElectronsPutsomesmallpiecesofkitchenfoilontheworkbenchYoucanusesmallpiecesofcork,insteadRubaplasticpenwithadrywoollenclothRubhardfortenortwentysecondsHoldthepenafewmillimetresabovethepiecesoffoilTheyjumpupandsticktothepenSomeofthemmayjumpupanddownagainseveraltimesThereasonthatthepiecesjumpisthattheyareattractedbyelectronsonthepenRubbingtheclothonthepenhasmadeelectronsfromtheclothtransfertothepenWesaythatthepenischargedwithelectronsIthasanelectricchargeSomeotherthingscanbechargedbyrubbingRubaballoonwithacloth(oragainstyourclothes)ThenplaceitincontactwiththewalloftheroomItdoesnotfalldowntothefloorbutstayswhereyouputit,onthewallTheelectricchargehasproducedanelectricforcethatholdstheballoonagainstthewallThingstodoYouneedtwostripsofpolythene,aboutcmbycm,andasoftdryclothPutthestripsontheworkbenchandrubthembrisklywiththeclothPickupthestripsbyoneend,oneineachhandHoldthemaboutcmapartThenslowlymovethemtogetherRepeatthis,usingonestripofpolytheneandonestripofacetatesheetWhatdothestripsdonowFIGUREPolytheneoracetatestripwoollenclothFIGUREFIGUREstartcmapartFIGUREElectronics:AFirstCourserOwenBishopPublishedbyElsevierLtdAllrightsreservedSelfTestWhatdoyouexpectwillhappenifyoutrytobringtwochargedacetatestripstogetherKINDSOFCHARGEYouhavefoundthat:TwochargedpolythenestripsrepeleachotherTheytrytostayapartApolythenestripandanacetatestripattracteachotherTheytrytocometogetherItseemsthatthechargeonacetateisdifferentfromthatonpolythene,so:TherearetwokindsofchargeTwochargedpolythenestripsrepeleachother,so:LikechargesrepelTwodifferentlychargedstripsattracteachother,so:UnlikechargesattractSelfTestPiecesoffoiljumpuptoachargedplasticpenThensomeofthemjumpdownagainWhydoesthishappenPOSITIVEANDNEGATIVECHARGEThetwokindsofchargearecalledpositivechargeandnegativechargeThesenamesdonotmeanthatpositivechargehassomethingthatnegativechargedoesnothaveTheyjustmeanthatthechargesareofoppositekindsRubbingapolythenestripwithaclothtransferssomeoftheelectronsfromtheatomsintheclothontothestripElectronshavenegativecharge,sothestripbecomesnegativelychargedAlso,theatomsoftheclothhavenowlostsomeelectronsThismakestheclothpositivelychargedRubbinganacetatestripwithaclothdoestheoppositeItremoveselectronsfromthestrip,leavingitpositivelychargedTheclothgainselectronsandbecomesnegativelychargedUSINGENERGYPositiveandnegativechargesalwaysattracteachotherTheytrytocometogetherWhenyourubtheclothontheplastic,youseparatethenegativechargefromthepositiveIttakesenergytopullthemapartwhentheyaretryingtocometogetherThisenergycomesfromthemusclesofyourarmELECTRONSElectronsaretoosmalltosee,evenwithapowerfulmicroscopeElectronsaretoolighttoweighYouneedelectronstoweighkg(anamazingfactthatyoudonotneedtoremember)ThemostimportantfactaboutelectronsisthattheycarrynegativeelectricchargeThechargeonasingleelectronisextremelysmallBut,ifyouhaveenoughofthem(asonthepenorthechargedpolythene),youcanshowtheforcethattheirchargecausesTherearelotsmorethingsthatwecandowithelectrons,asyouwillfindoutasyouworkthroughthebookSelfTestWhyisitimpossibletohaveapileofelectrons,likethatshowninthedrawingELECTRONSANDATOMSMatterismadeupofmoleculesofmanydifferentkindsMoleculesaremadeupofoneormoreatomsAtomsaremadeupofelectrons(negativelycharged),protons(positivelycharged)andneutrons(uncharged)ThesimplestpossibleatomconsistsofoneelectronandoneprotonTheprotonisatthecentreoftheatomandtheelectroniscirclingaroundit,inorbitFIGUREPART|ElectricityWithoneunitofnegativechargeontheelectronandoneunitofoppositebutequalchargeontheproton,theatomasawholeisunchargedTheelectroniscirclingathighspeedaroundtheproton,likeaplanetorbitingtheSunTheremustbeaforcetokeepitinorbitInthecaseofaplanettheforceisgravity,theattractionbetweenthemassesoftheSunandtheplanetInthecaseoftheelectrontheforceistheelectricalattractionbetweenoppositelychargedbodiesTheexperimentsonpagesdemonstratedthisOTHERKINDSOFATOMTherearemorethanahundreddifferentelementsinnature,includinghydrogen,helium,copper,zinc,iron,mercuryandoxygen,tonameonlyafewEachelementhasitsowndistinctivestructure,theatomsbeingmadeupoffixednumbersofelectronsandprotonsInspiteofthesedifferences,allelementshavethesamebasicplanThereisacentralpart,calledthenucleus,wheremostofthemassoftheatomisconcentratedThenucleusissurroundedbyacloudofcirclingelectronsAtomsotherthanhydrogenhavemorethanoneprotonandalsosomeneutronsinthenucleusTheprotonsinthenucleusgivethenucleusapositivechargeoneunitofchargeforeachprotonThenumberofelectronsinthecloudequalsthenumberofprotons,sothecloudasawholehasanequalbutnegativechargewhichbalancesthechargeonthenucleusTheelectronsofanatomareontheoutsideTheycanberemovedbyfriction,heatingandelectricfieldsThisishowweobtainthesupplyofelectronstouseintheelectroniccircuitsanddevicesdescribedinthisbookOTHERPARTICLESSomereadersmayhaveheardofquarksandothersubatomicparticlesDetailedstudiesbyatomicscientistshavediscoveredthatatomsareactuallymadeupofseveralmoresortsofparticleInelectronics,however,theonlyparticleweneedtoknowaboutistheelectronOrbitofelectronProton(electricallypositive)ElectronForceofattraction(electricallynegative)FIGURETopic|ElectronsThispageintentionallyleftblankTopicElectricCurrentSomesubstancesletelectricchargeflowthroughthemThesesubstancesarecalledconductorsOneofthebestknownconductorsiscopperItconductssowellbecausetheelectronsofcopperatomsareabletoescapeeasilyfromtheatomsInapieceofcopper,theatoms(largespheresinthedrawingabove)arearrangedinregularrowsandcolumns,calledalatticeTheelectronsthathaveescapedfromtheatoms(smallcircles)areabletowanderaboutfreelyinthespacebetweenthecopperatomsIfweconnectabatterytoeachendofastripofcopper,itsnegativeterminalsupplieselectronstothecopperItspositiveterminalremoveselectronsfromtheotherendTheyareattractedbythepositive(opposite)chargeThingstodoTestdifferentsubstancestofindoutiftheyareconductorsorinsulators(nonconductors)Trythiswithdifferentmaterials,suchas:anironnailorscrew(asshown),apieceofbrick,acopperstriporwire,aplasticrod,astripofaluminiumkitchenfoil,apieceofwood,a‘silver’coin,the‘lead’ofapencil(notreallylead,butcarbon),apieceofstone,andothermaterialsThelampshineswhenthematerialisaconductorMakelistsofconductorsandnonconductorsCopperatomsFreeelectronsFIGUREFIGUREElectronics:AFirstCourserOwenBishopPublishedbyElsevierLtdAllrightsreservedTheflowofelectronsalongthecopperstripiscalledanelectriccurrentTheflowisfromnegativetopositiveDIRECTIONOFFLOWAsexplainedabove,anelectriccurrentisaflowofnegativecharge(electrons)fromnegativetopositiveInelectronics,weusuallythinkofthecurrentasflowingfrompositivetonegativeAlthoughthisisnotwhatactuallyhappens,mostpeopleliketothinkofitinthatwayThisideaofacurrentflowingfrompositivetonegativeisknownasconventionalcurrentIntherestofthisbook,whenwesay‘current’wemeanconventionalcurrent,flowingfrompositivetonegativeCONDUCTORSThebestconductorsaremetalsCopperisthemostcommonlyusedconductorbecauseitconductselectricchargebetterthananymetal,exceptsilverButsilveristooexpensivetobeusedCopperwiresareusedinalmostallelectronicequipmentThetracksonacircuitboardarealsomadeofcopperThenextbestconductorisaluminiumThisisoftenusedinpowerlines,becauseofitslightnessandcheapnessItisnotasstrongascopper,soafewstrandsofsteelwireareincludedwhenmakingthecableCarbonisanonmetalbutithasimportantusesasaconductorItdoesnotconductchargeaswellasthemetalsdoRodsofcarbonareusedformakingcertainkindsofelectriccellCarbonisalsousedinmakingresistors(p)SolutionsofsaltsinwaterarereasonablygoodconductorsMuchofthehumanbodyconsistsofsuchsolutions,sothebodyisareasonableconductorofelectricityThisiswhywemustbeverycarefulwhenhandlingelectricalequipmentandworkingwithelectricityinthelaboratoryEvenquiteasmallcurrentthroughapartofthebodycanparalysethenervesandmaykillyouElectricitycanalsocauseunpleasantburnsINSULATORSThesesubstancescontainfewornofreeelectrons,sotheyarenotabletoconductelectricchargeWesometimescallthemnonconductorsInsulatorsincludedsubstancessuchas:Manytypesofplastic,includingpolyvinylchloride(PVC),whichisusedforinsulatingelectricalcablesandwiresGlassandmanyceramicsDryairPaperSelftestListthesesubstancesinorder,fromthebestconductortotheworst:aluminium,rubber,copper,carbon,gold,silvercopperstripmovingelectronelectronsfromnegativeterminalelectronstopositiveterminalFIGUREFIGUREPART|ElectricityTopicCellsandBatteriesCELLSCellsarethemostcompactsourcesofelectricpowerTheyproduceelectricityasaresultofchemicalactionsinsidethecellWhenthecellismade,itispackedwithchemicalcompoundsthatarereadytoreacttogetherAscurrentisdrawnfromthecellthechemicalreactionoccursCurrentcanbeobtainedfromthecelluntilthechemicalshavecompletedtheirreactionandnomoreoftheoriginalcompoundsareleftThereareseveraldifferenttypes,basedonthechemicalreactionsthatdrivethem:TypeofCellFeaturesExamplesofUsesZinccarbonCheapesttypeProduc

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