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首页 Chapter1 Software Testing Introduction

Chapter1 Software Testing Introduction.ppt

Chapter1 Software Testing Intro…

DarrenGuo_NLP_USTC
2013-04-03 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Chapter1 Software Testing Introductionppt》,可适用于高等教育领域

SoftwareCollegeNortheasternUniversitySoftwareCollegeNortheasternUniversityTheCourseOverviewneuzhaojzcomTheCourseOverviewContentsTheCourseOverviewContentsChapter:SoftwareTestingIntroductionChapter:BlackBoxTestingChapter:WhiteBoxTestingChapter:UnitTestingChapter:IntegrationTestingChapter:PerformanceTestingChapter:SystemTestingChapter:TestingOOSoftware,WebApplicationsandWebServicesChapter:SoftwareTestingAutomationandSoftwareTestingManagementTheCourseOverviewTextbookTheCourseOverviewTextbook软件测试基础教程(英文版)【美】AditypPMathur著出版社:机械工业出版社-TheCourseOverviewMaterialsTheCourseOverviewMaterials软件测试机械工业出版社出版【美】PaulCJorgensen著韩柯杜旭涛译软件测试方法和技术清华大学出版社出版朱少民著TheCourseOverviewMaterialsTheCourseOverviewMaterialsTheCourseOverviewAssessmentTheCourseOverviewAssessmentInclassquiz:(次分次)Discussion:(次分次)Labs:(次人组分次)FinalExam:(闭卷考试)ContactmeContactmeInstructor:zhaoJianzhe(赵建喆)From:SoftwareCollege,NEUEmail:neuzhaojzcomOffice:综合大楼室Phone:Lectures:hoursResource:http:bbneueducnTheCourseOverviewTheCourseOverviewHopeyoutoenjoyyourselfandhaveagoodtime!SoftwareCollegeNortheasternUniversitySoftwareCollegeNortheasternUniversityChapterSoftwareTestingIntroductionneuzhaojzcomContentsContentsWhySoftwareTestingisNeededSomethingtoknowaboutSoftwareTestingBasicConceptsofSoftwareTestingTheactorofSoftwareTestinginSoftwareDevelopmentSoftwareTestingRulesSoftwareTestingIntroductionChapterWhySoftwareTestingisNeededWhySoftwareTestingisNeededSoftwareiseverywhereWhySoftwareTestingisNeededWhySoftwareTestingisNeeded编程大师说:“任何一个程序无论它多么小总存在着错误。”初学者不相信大师的话他问:“如果一个程序小得只执行一个简单的功能那会怎样?”“这样的一个程序没有意义”大师说“但如果这样的程序存在的话操作系统最后将失效产生一个错误。”但初学者不满足他问:“如果操作系统不失效那么会怎样?”“没有不失效的操作系统”大师说“但如果这样的操作系统存在的话硬件最后将失效产生一个错误。”初学者仍不满足再问:“如果硬件不失效那么会怎样?”大师长叹一声道:“没有不失效的硬件。但如果这样的硬件存在的话用户就会想让那个程序做一件不同的事这件事也是一个错误。”没有错误的程序世间难求WhySoftwareTestingisNeededWhySoftwareTestingisNeededQualifiedrateofproductsQualifiedrateofairplanemanufacturingindustry“Aerobus”aremadeupof,partsQualifiedrateofeverypart:Doyouknowthequalifiedrate?()=WhySoftwareTestingisNeededWhySoftwareTestingisNeededQualifiedrateofproductsQualifiedrateofsoftwareCodingline:Write,linescodeDoyouknowthequalifiedrate()=×WhySoftwareTestingisNeededWhySoftwareTestingisNeededWhatisthenextNortheastBlackout()PatriotMissileBug()WorldWarIII…Almost()generatingunitsandpowerplantsshutdownKillingsoldiersandinjuringaroundotherpeoplePickedupsunlightreflectionsoffcloudtopsandmistakenlyinterpretedthemasmissilelaunchesintheUnitedStatesWhySoftwareTestingisNeededWhySoftwareTestingisNeededChinaBeijingTheUnitedStatesChicagoGambiaAustraliaNorwayWhySoftwareTestingisNeededWhySoftwareTestingisNeededWhydowetestMostsecurityvulnerabilitiesareduetofaultysoftwareWorldwidemonetarylossduetopoorsoftwareisstaggeringStrongertestingcouldsolvemostoftheseproblemsWhySoftwareTestingisNeededWhySoftwareTestingisNeededWhydowetestWewantourprogramstobereliableSomethingtoknowaboutSoftwareTestingSomethingtoknowaboutSoftwareTestingWhatisSoftwaredefect(缺陷)TheHistoryofSoftwareTestingTheconceptsofSQ,SQA,QCSomethingtoknowaboutSoftwareTestingSomethingtoknowaboutSoftwareTestingError(错误):occursintheprocessofwritingaprogramFault(故障):isthemanifestation(表现)ofoneormoreerrorsFailure(失效):occurswhenfaultypieceofcodeisexecutedleadingtoanincorrectstatethatpropagates(传播)totheprogram’soutputIncident(事故):nomessageisdisplayedwhenfailureoccursDefectSomethingtoknowaboutSoftwareTestingSomethingtoknowaboutSoftwareTestingSoftwaredefect(缺陷)definitionfromIEEEofIEEEStandard软件产品中所存在的问题最终表现为用户所需要的功能没有完全实现没有满足用户的要求。SomethingtoknowaboutSoftwareTestingSomethingtoknowaboutSoftwareTestingSoftwaredefect(缺陷)definitionOutofaccordwithuserexpectancy(期望)SoftwarefunctioncanbeexecutedincorrectlyAllkindsofsoftwareproblemsEgInconsistency,userinterfacefaultDefectofSoftware=BugSomethingtoknowaboutSoftwareTestingSomethingtoknowaboutSoftwareTestingDefectexample:Shortcoming:runningslowlyInconsistency:CtrlScan’tsaveallapplicationsUserinterfacedesigndefect:anbuttonshouldshowwordsonit,butonlywordscouldbeseenSomethingtoknowaboutSoftwareTestingSomethingtoknowaboutSoftwareTestingThesourceofdefectsRequirementsdefinitionDesignImplementationSupportsystemsInadequatetestingofsoftwareEvolutionSomethingtoknowaboutSoftwareTestingSomethingtoknowaboutSoftwareTestingWhendoesdefectoccurThesoftwaredoesnotdosomethingthatthespecificationsaysitshoulddoThesoftwaredoessomethingthatthespecificationsaysitshouldnotdoThesoftwaredoessomethingthatthespecificationdoesnotmentionThesoftwaredoesnotdosomethingthattheproductspecificationdoesnotmentionbutshouldThesoftwareisdifficulttounderstand,hardtouse,slow…SomethingtoknowaboutSoftwareTestingSomethingtoknowaboutSoftwareTestingCorrectprogramNosyntaxerrorNoobviouserrorsduringrunningNoimproperstatementsValidinputcorrectoutputInvalidinputcorrectoutputAnypossibleinputcorrectoutputSomethingtoknowaboutSoftwareTestingSomethingtoknowaboutSoftwareTestingAtthebeginningoftheSoftwareDevelopmentThethCenturysAfterThethCenturysTheHistoryofSoftwareTestingSomethingtoknowaboutSoftwareTestingSomethingtoknowaboutSoftwareTesting为了达到产品的品质要求所采取的作业技术和活动。SoftwareQualityQualityControlSoftwareQualityAssurance满足用户需求建立合理的进度、成本与功能的关系具备扩展性和灵活性能有效的处理例外情况保持成本和性能的平衡为了确保软件开发过程和结果符合预期的要求而建立的一系列规程以及依照规程和计划采取的一系列活动以及结果评价。SoftwaretestingdefinitionSoftwaretestingdefinitionDefinitionVerification(验证)Validation(确认)TestdebugPurposeofsoftwaretestingTypesoftestingSoftwaretestingdefinitionSoftwaretestingdefinitionDefinitionfromIEEE()使用人工和自动的手段来运行或测试某个系统的过程目的在于检验它是否满足规定的需求或是弄清预期结果与实际结果之间的差别。SoftwaretestingdefinitionSoftwaretestingdefinitionSoftwaretestingdefinitionSoftwaretestingistheessentialstepwhichisplannedandsystematicItisanempiricalinvestigationconductedtoprovidestakeholderswithinformationaboutthequalityoftheproductorserviceundertestWecanknowwhethertheusersexpectationsarerealizedSoftwaretestingisthekeystepofsoftwarequalityassuranceSoftwaretestingdefinitionSoftwaretestingdefinitionAttention:TheessentialfunctionofSoftwaretestingisVerification(验证)andValidation(确认)Verification(验证):Thesoftwareshouldconformtoitsspecification(Arewebuildingtheproductright)Validation(确认):Thesoftwareshoulddowhattheuserreallyrequires(Arewebuildingtherightproduct)SoftwaretestingdefinitionSoftwaretestingdefinitionAttention:TestdebugAutomatedtestvsmanualoperateDon’tknowdetailsareOKvsmustknowdetailsCorrectnessproofandhowtodowithfailurevscorrectnessproofonlyCheckingvsreasoningPlan,undercontrolvsoutofcontrolSoftwaretestingdefinitionSoftwaretestingdefinitionPurposeofsoftwaretesting,accordingtotheviewofGJMyersFinderrorsofsoftwareDecreasetheriskofsoftwaredoesn’tworkSoftwaretestingdefinitionSoftwaretestingdefinitionTypesoftestingC:SourceoftestgenerationC:LifecyclephaseinwhichtestingtakesplaceC:GoalofaspecifictestingactivityC:CharacteristicsoftheartifactundertestC:TestprocessmodelsSoftwaretestingdefinitionSoftwaretestingdefinitionC:SourceoftestgenerationSoftwaretestingdefinitionSoftwaretestingdefinitionC:LifecyclephaseSoftwaretestingdefinitionSoftwaretestingdefinitionC:GoaldirectedtestingSoftwaretestingdefinitionSoftwaretestingdefinitionC:ArtifactundertestSoftwaretestingdefinitionSoftwaretestingdefinitionC:ArtifactundertestTypesofTestingTypesofTestingC:TestprocessmodelsTestinginwaterfallmodelTestinginVmodelSpiraltestingAgiletestingTestdrivendevelopment(TDD)RequirementsspecifiedastestsTypesofTestingTypesofTestingRequirementsspecificationDesignCodingandunittestingIntegrationandsubsystemtestingSystemtestingAcceptancetestingTraininganddeliveryMaintenanceTestinginthewaterfallmodelTypesofTestingTypesofTestingRequirementsanalysisCodingDesignDevelopunittestsunittestingIntegrationtestingSystemtestingAcceptancetestingMaintenanceValidaterequirementsDevelopsystemacceptancetestsValidatedesignDevelopintegrationtestsTestingintheVmodelTypesofTestingTypesofTestingCostTimeFinaltestActivities,applicationreadyforacceptancetest(Costoftestactivitiesincreaseswithiterations)IntermediatetestactivitiesInitialtestActivities,earlystagesofdevelopment(Prototype,evolvesovertime)SpiraltestingTypesofTestingTypesofTestingAgiletestingpromotesthefollowingideasIncludetestingrelatedactivitiesthroughoutadevelopmentprojectstartingfromtherequirementsphaseWorkcollaborativelywiththecustomerwhospecifiesrequirementsintermsoftestsTestersandevelopersmustcollaboratewitheachotherratherthanserveasadversariesTestoftenandinsmallchunksSoftwaretestingdefinitionSoftwaretestingdefinitionExampleConsideraWebserviceWtobetestedWhenexecuted,Wconvertsagivenvalueoftemperaturefromonescaletoanother,forexamplefromFahrenheitscaletotheCelsiusscaleRegardlessofthetechniqueusedfortestgeneration,wecanrefertothetestingofWasWebservicestesting(C)Let’sexaminevarioustypesoftestgenerationtechniquesthatcouldbeusedfortestingWSoftwaretestingdefinitionSoftwaretestingdefinitionSupposingtesterAtestsWbysupplyingsampleinputsandcheckingtheoutputsNospecificmethodisusedtogeneratetheinputsC:blackboxtestingC:unittestingC:GUItesting(IfWhasaGUItointerfacewithauser)SoftwaretestingdefinitionSoftwaretestingdefinitionSupposingtesterBwritesasetofformalspecificationsforWusingtheZnotationThetestergenerates,anduses,testsfromthespecificationC:blackboxtestingSoftwaretestingdefinitionSoftwaretestingdefinitionSupposingtesterCgeneratestestsusingtheformalspecificationsforWCthentestsWandevaluatesthecodecoverageusingoneoftheseveralcodecoveragecriteriaCfindsthatthecodecoverageisnotC:blackboxtestingandwhiteboxtestingSoftwaretestingdefinitionSoftwaretestingdefinitionSupposingtesterDtestsWasacomponentofalargerapplicationTesterDdoesnothaveaccesstothecodeforWandhenceusesonlyitsinterface,andinterfacemutation,togeneratetestsC:blackboxtestingTheactorofSoftwareTestinginSoftwareDevelopmentTheactorofSoftwareTestinginSoftwareDevelopmentDefectscanbeimportedfromanyphraseduringsoftwaredevelopment,andtheywillbeamplifiedTheactorofSoftwareTestinginSoftwareDevelopmentTheactorofSoftwareTestinginSoftwareDevelopmentIBM研究结果表明:缺陷存在放大的趋势需求阶段缺陷概要设计阶段缺陷详细设计阶段缺陷需求阶段缺陷编码阶段缺陷放大n倍放大n倍放大n倍TheactorofSoftwareTestinginSoftwareDevelopmentTheactorofSoftwareTestinginSoftwareDevelopmentRequirementsAnalysisArchitecturalDesignSubsystemDesignDetailedDesignImplementationUnitTestModuleTestIntegrationTestSystemTestAcceptanceTestTheVmodelofSoftwareTestingSoftwareTestingRulesSoftwareTestingRulesInfinitetestisimpossibleSupposeaprogramPhasinputs(XandY)andoutput(Z)ItrunatacomputerwithbitsifXandYareinteger,howmanytimeisneeded(groupdatams)×××××=亿年SoftwareTestingRulesSoftwareTestingRulesCurvedlineTestingandCostSoftwareTestingRulesSoftwareTestingRulesGoodenoughSoftwareTestingRulesSoftwareTestingRulesTestearlyandtestoftenIntegratetheapplicationdevelopmentandtestinglifecyclesFormalizeatestingmethodologyDevelopacomprehensivetestplanUsebothstaticanddynamictestingSoftwareTestingRulesSoftwareTestingRulesStatictestingDynamictestingSoftwareTestingRulesSoftwareTestingRulesDefineyourexpectedresultsUnderstandthebusinessreasonbehindtheapplicationUsemultiplelevelsandtypesoftestingReviewandinspectthework,itwilllowercostsDon'tletyourprogrammerschecktheirownworkSoftwareTestingRulesSoftwareTestingRulesTestpassingrulesWhetheralltestcasesareexecutedWhetherfunctiondesignisfinishedWhetherwegetenoughbugsSoftwareTestingRulesSoftwareTestingRulesWhatistestcase?InputstotestthesystemandthepredictedoutputsfromtheseinputsifthesystemoperatesaccordingtoitsspecificationSoftwareTestingRulesSoftwareTestingRulesTestcasedesignrulesAvoidvaguetestcaseSimilarfunctionsshouldbeabstractedandclassifiedAvoidcomplicatedtestcaseSoftwareTestingRulesSoftwareTestingRulesCapabilityforSoftwareTesterTechniqueabilityCommunicationabilitySuspicionConfidencePatienceAnalysisabilityCooperationKeystoneKeystoneDefinitionofSoftwareDefectSoftwaretestingdefinitionTypesoftestingTheactorofSoftwareTestinginSoftwareDevelopment

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