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首页 Stephen Owen_The making of classical Chinese poe…

Stephen Owen_The making of classical Chinese poetry.PDF

Stephen Owen_The making of clas…

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2013-04-02 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Stephen Owen_The making of classical Chinese poetrypdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

~TheMakingofEarlyChineseClassicalPoetryStephenOwen',,IlldIIVII)!"IIIVilldUniv('rityAsiaCenterIIIIIIIIllldIIVIIIvIlidlJlliv('rityPressIlI,tllllol,,,(Mil'lit',·It·)I!,Olldon©bythePresidentandFellowsofHarvardCollegePrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaTheHarvardUniversityAsiaCenterpublishesamonographseriesand,incoordinationwiththeFairbankCenterforEastAsianResearch,theKoreaInstitute,theReischauerInstituteofJapaneseStudies,andotherfacultiesandinstitutes,administersresearchprojectsdesignedtofurtherscholarlyunderstandingofChina,Japan,Vietnam,Korea,andotherAsiancountriesTheCenteralsosponsorsprojectsaddressingmultidisciplinaryandregionalissuesinAsiaLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataOwen,Stephen,ThemakingofearlyChineseclassicalpoetryStephenOwenpem(HarvardEastAsianmonographs)IncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN:(hbk:alkpaper)ISBNI:(hbk:alkpaper)ChinesepoetryBCADHistoryandcriticismITitleIISeriesPL'dcIndexbyChristopherJDakinPrintedonacidfreepaperLastfigurebelowindicatesyearofthisprintingInmemoryofmyteacherHansFrankelQContentsIntroduction"Han"PoetryandtheSouthernDynastiesA"Grammar"ofEarlyPoetryImmortalsDeathandtheFeast"AuthorandSpeakerI,ImitationAppendixesYuefuasaGenericTermIITheMusicalTraditionsAnthologiesandPoetryintheFiveSyllableLineI'"APerformedbytheJinMusicians"I"xmplsoftheTopic"HumanLifeisBrief'I'ShijingEinthe"OldPoems":ACase«IIlIlitntiIl~,RlIlings,andRenditionsRjrneeMatter,"dl'I'II'r!UihioWahyl"tll'IIIIIntroductionIIIIimonumentalPoetryofthePreQin,Han,Wei,Jin,andNorthrnandSouthernDynasties,LuQinli,oneofthepreIInntscholarsofthisperiod,followsestablishedcustominIIliningpoemsbyauthorinchronologicalorderTheearliestIpranceofthematurefivesyllableline,theformthatwastoto:lintetherestofLu'scompendium,wasapoemonafan,tIrlbutedtoLadyBan,wholivedinthereignofEmperorhnoftheHan(rBC)Aftergivingthetextofthepoemthxtensivenotesonitssourcesandvariants,LuQinliconI<:"ThispoemwasprobablywrittenbyaprofessionalIIIIianoftheWeiDynasty(AD)"'I'hrisnothingsurprisinghereforthoselongaccustomed,wrkingwithChinesesources,somuchsothatthescholarlItwonderwhywementionitatallIndeed,allanthologiesII(thpoemunderLadyBan'snameinthelastpartoftheWtrnHan,thoughveryfewmodernscholarsandantholoItuallybelievethatthepoemwaswrittenbyLadyBanorItI,inthatperiodThechronologicalplacementofthepoemII)thttchdnoteswhichdiscredittheattributionandIvthpmamuchlaterdatedo,however,begaverysimIItinonwhichsomeimportantissueshangIftheauIh'thbokndtheprobableconsensusofscholarsofIIIItfthiPriodgreethatthepoemwascomposedabouttwoon'IhalfnturiafterLadyBan,whyisthepoemplacedIIIIIthf,tmprorChengintheWesternHan,rather'hlillpmfunknownauthorshipfromtheWei,III'It",•IntroductionTheanswertothisquestioncomesinseverallayersTheeasy,pragmaticanswerisnottobelightlydismissed:thisiswhereareaderofLuQinli'scompendiumorofanyanthologyofearlypoetrywouldlookforthepoemWemaynowdisbelieve,forgoodreason,thatthepoemwaswrittenbyLadyBan,butthepoemhasbeenassociatedwithhernameforthepastfifteenhundredyearsEvenareaderwhodidnotbelieveinherauthorshipofthepoemwouldstillexpecttofmdhernameintheusualchronologicalpositioninthetableofcontentsofthecompilationandtofindthepoemunderhernameAmoreinterestingreasonistheinabilitytosecurelyplacethepoemifweweretodetachitfromLadyBan'snameItcouldbeplacedamongtheanonymouspoemsoftheWeiDynasty,butevenLuQinliwouldprobablyadmitthatitcouldperhapscomefromtheJian'anReignoftheHan()orfromtheWesternJininthelastpartofthethirdcenturyThatis,ifoneactedontheconvictionthatthisfamouspoemwaswrittenlaterthanLadyBan,itwouldhavenosecureplaceinacompilationthatischronologicallyorganizedThesetwopointsmaybegeneralized:whatwewillcallearlyChinese"classicalpoetry"hasoverthecenturiesbecomeembeddedinachronologicalaccount,anaccountwithgreatculturalhistoricalresonanceModernscholarshiphasseriouslyquestionedsomeofthecomponentsofthataccount,suchasLadyBan'spoemNoone,however,knowsquitewhattodowithapoemthathasbeendetachedfromtheaccountitnolongerhasa"place"itisnolongerfullymeaningfulbecauseitcannotfitintothehistoricalnetworkthatconfersmeaningThepoemthereforeiswiselykeptclosetoLadyBan'sname,eventhoughweknowthatitdoesn'ttrulybelongthereAfamouspoemthathadhadahomeforatleastamillenniumandahalfwouldotherwisebecomeavagrantLuQinli'scompilationbyandlargefollowstraditioninattachingearlyclassicalpoemstoauthorsandarrangingthoseauthorsinchronologicalsequenceAtthesametime,thehighqualityofhisscholarshiponthesources,alternativeattributions,andtextualvariantsoftendestabilizestheveryhistoryimpliedintheorganizationThisisparticularlytruofpotrybeforethesecondhalfofthethirdntryIntroduction••IIIthepresentstudyIwilladoptadualapproach,twolinesofnquirythatcanneverbeperfectlydisentangledFirst,IwillIc>okatthesurvivingmaterialfromthisearlyperiodsynIIonically,asifitwerenothistoricallyarranged,withsomepomsattachedtoauthorsandsomenotSecond,IwillconlurhowthecurrentaccountoftheoriginsofclassicalpoetryWilconstructedoutofthismaterialinthelatefifthandearlyhcenturies(whichIwillcallthe"QiandLiang,"thetwoIynstiesintheSouthduringwhichthegreaterpartofextantIIIraryscholarshiponearlypoetrytookplace)TheadvantageI,f'tfirstapproachisthatbysettingasideaputativehistoryofIrerencesofgenreandauthor,wecanseethatinmanywaystilwas"onepoetry,"createdfromasharedpoeticrepertoireJdharedcompositionalproceduresThesecondlineofinIIIisalsonecessarybecausethetextualmediumthroughwhl'hwehavereceivedthismaterialhasbeenselectedandmtimesradicallyreshapedtoproduceourstandardaccountroriginsofclassicalpoetry()xaminetheformationofthestandardaccountoftheiofclassicalpoetryisnottodisbelievethepossibilitythatIImightbehistoricallytrueWhatweofferisacritiqueoftheIImptionsandtheevidenceusedtoprovethatitishistoriIItrueWhatwemustconcludeisthatwedonotknowwhenIIJ'numberofpoemswerecomposedand,perhapsmore(tnt,howtheychangedoverthecenturiesbeforeenteringtiltxtualrecordthatwenowhaveItispossible,asiscomIIlemlblieved,thattheanonymous"Han"yuefupredateorareI~poraneouswiththeanonymous"oldpoems,"whichinhUllrdatetheJian'anReignItis,however,nolesspossibleIIIt(rurrent"oldpoems"postdatetheJian'anandthatourIJfJntvrionsofanonymousyuefupostdatethe"oldpoems"I'llarpombyknownauthorsinthiscorpusthatwecantIrhlyorprcisely,butwewilldiscussthefallaciesbyII(IItbosdtbltxtsaredeployedtohistoricallypositionIIIIhJorrbdyoftextswhosedatingisuncertain•Introduction•ThisstudyhastwohistoricalcentersThefirstis,ofcourse,theperiodofthepoetryunderdiscussion,stretchingfromuncertainbeginnings(noearlierthantheendofthefirstcenturyBC)tothelastpartofthethirdcenturyThesecondhistoricalcenteristheliteraryworldofJiankang,thecapitaloftheSouthernDynasties,fromthelatefifthtothemiddleofthesixthcentury,the"QiandLiang"Thescholarsofthislatterperiodedited,anthologized,andofferedcriticaljudgmentsonthepoetryofthefirstperiodTheyweretheprimarymediatorsthroughwhomlateragesreceivedthispoetry,anditisnoexaggerationtosaythatthebeginningofChineseclassicalpoetryisasmuchtheircreationasitisthecreationofpoetsworkingtwoandahalftothreecenturiesearlierInsomecasesitisclearthatliterarymenoftheQiandLiangattributed,knowinglyornot,morerecentpoemstotheearlyperiodinordertofleshoutthecorpusofearlypoetryTounderstandbothourearly"historicalcenters"andhowthispoetryreachedtheQiandLiang,itisessentialtokeepinmindthatwearetalkingnotsomuchaboutpoemsandpoetsasaboutmanuscriptsItiseasytooverlookthisbecausethosemanuscriptsnolongerexistThemodernnotionofthe"text"asadisembodiedthingthattranscendsanyparticularpaperversionisverymuchtheconsequenceofprintcultureandmassreproductionThesetexts,however,existedinphysicalmanuscripts,somenodoubtinuniquecopiesatsomestageoftheirtransmissionJudgingfromourknowledgeofTangpractice,poemswereoftenwrittendownfrommemory,wheretheproductionofvariantsandvariationwasthenormManuscriptswerecopiedandrecopiedwithdifferentdegreesofcare,alsointroducingvariantsThe"text"washighlyflammableWeknowthatcentrallibrarieswereplunderedandburnedWeknowthatthestatusofpoetryinthefivesyllablelineattainedunprecedentedheightsintheQiandLiang,andthescholarsoftheperiodshowedaninterestinthebeginningsofclassicalpoetry,aninterestforwhichwehavelittleearlierevidenceWecanassumewithsomeconfidencethatthecourtliterarycirclesoftheQiandLiangproducedbeautifulandcarefulmanuscriptsofearlypoetryWehave,however,farlessconfidenceinthequalityofthemanuscriptstheywropying,andwhayIIntroduction•goodevidencethatthey"fixed"textsaccordingtotheirownstandardsoftasteTheonlyextensiveChinesemanuscriptlibrarythatsurvivesisthatofDunhuang,manycenturieslaterItissuchapeculiarcaseaprovincialBuddhistlibraryonthemarginsofChinesecivilizationthatitcannotserveasaperfectmodel,butitistheonlymodelwehaveWhatwefindthereiswhatmightbeexpected:thereisgreatvarietyinthequalityofmanuscripts,rangingfromthosepreparedwithmeticulouscaretobarelyliteratemanuscriptsriddledwithmistakesToalargedegreethelevelofcaretakenisproportionaltothe"importance"accordedtheworkbeingcopiedItisanunfortunatefactofculturalhistorythatwhatwasunimportantinoneagemaybecomeveryimportantinanotherHistoriansofsonglyrics(ci"t~)surelywouldwishthatthosecopyistshadtakenthesamecareincopyingearlysongsthatotherstookinpreparingafinecopyoftheeighthcenturypoetGaoShi'sworksIfwecarrythislessonbacktotheearlierperiodunderdiscussion,weknowthatQiandLiangscholarsdidfeelthatearlypoetrywasimportantThemanuscriptswithwhichtheyworked,however,hadtopassthroughgenerationsofcopying,and,aswesaid,weareignorantofthescholarlycarewithwhichthoseearliermanuscriptswerepreparedTheLiangmonkSengyouatonepointgivesuseloquenttestimonytotheterribletextualstateoftheBuddhistmanuscriptshewasworkingonWedohavesomeevidencethough,likemuchofthematerialfromthisperiod,itisopentovaryinginterpretationsAroupoftheearlyanonymoussonglyricsandlyricsbyCaoprincesappearsinthe"TreatiseonMusic"("Yuezhi"~t)oftheongshu*~,compiledbyShenYue~:tt:!J()WhilethereaterpartoftheSongshuwascompletedin,the"TreatisenMusic"wasnotfinisheduntiltheearlysixthcentury,perhpsatthebeginningoftheLianglThisworkgrowsoutofatrditionofcommentingonmusic(andperhapspreservinglyri)forcourtperformance,anditisvaluablepreciselybeuitmotiveisconservationratherthanpleasingreaderslotrtdinpotryAnyonewhohasworkedwiththismaterialI,InhIIntrduliontasholarlyeditionofthe"Yuezhi,"SuJinren"HW'tlhutlilt'IfrormWnotomp)teduntiltheLiangII•Introduction(withoutthevariouslateremendations)knowsthatitisfilledwitherrors,transpositions,loancharacters,andmissingwords,alongwithpassagesandsometimeswholepoemsthatareutterlyincomprehensibleOnewaytoaccountforthisisoraltransmissionbyperformers,butShenYue'sversioneitherisamanuscripttranscriptionorfaithfullycopiesmanuscripttranscriptions(Indeed,theonlywaytoaccountforoneofthemostlearnedmenofhisagewritingdowntextsinthiswayisacommitmenttotheexactreproductionofhissources)Someotherearlypoetryprobablyalsocirculatedorallybeforeitwastranscribedwecanneverperfectlydistinguishthechanges'toatextthatoccurinoraltransmission,intranscriptionoforaltexts,andinmanuscripttransmissionShenYue'sveryfidelitytotranscribingtextsashehadthem(includingonepoemsounreadablethatmodernscholarsdonotevenventurepunctuation)givesusanimageofonestageandlevelofreceivedmanuscriptsinthelatefifthcenturyThefactthatthesemusthavebeencourtmanuscriptswithalonghistoryofscholarshipbehindthemdoesnotinspireconfidenceinthequalityofmanuscriptsforless"significant"textsTheYutaixinyongL**f~,compiledtowardthemiddleofthesixthcentury,wasintendedforreadersofpoetrywhoalreadyhadaninterestinearlypoetryAnumberofpoemsfromthe"TreatiseonMusic"reappearthere,albeitofteninaverydifferentguise:incongruouspassagesaredroppedrhyminglinesthatdonotrhymearemadetorhymeincomprehensiblepassagesaremadecomprehensibleInYutaixinyongearlypoetryisstylisticallydistinctfrommorerecentpoetry,butitispoeticallycomprehensiblebyearlysixthcenturyandlaterstandardsSomeChinesescholarshavearguedthattheYutaixinyongversionsaretheoriginalpoemsandthattheversionsinthe"TreatiseonMusic"weremodifiedbysingers(thoughwhysingerswoulddroprhymesisincomprehensible)Thealternative,championedbyJeanPierreDieny,seemsmoreplausible:inthesecasesXuLing{tilt,theeditorofYutaixinyong,tooktextsfromthe"TreatiseonMusic"andeditedthemforcontemporarypoetictasteIfwebelievethatXuLingdidthiswiththehandfuloftextswithalternativeversionsinthe"TreatiseonMusic,"whatarewetothinkofthelargenumberofotherearlytextsforwhichYutaixinyongistheonlyprimaryIntroduction•sourceAswewillsee,wehavesomeothertracesofsixthcenturyeditorialpractices,tracesthatremindusthattheproductionofanthologiesandmanuscripttextswasanactiveprocedureratherthanapassivecopyingofreceivedmanuscriptsWeknowXuLing'sname,andwecanguesshisroleinshapingmanyofthetextsthathavecometorepresentearlyclassicalpoetryInthatera,however,therearealsomanyforgottennamesofeditorsandscribesalldoinglittlethingstotextsWeknowthatscholarsthenbelievedinfixingerrorsinmanuscripts,butasixthcenturyscholar's"error"mightbepreciousevidencetothescholarofthetwentyfirstcenturyWecanimaginehowtheytinkeredastheycopied,changingthis,reshapingthat,writingdownaplausibleauthorAndifthisisso,thetextswehavedonotcomefromsomeearlymomentof"authorship"butfromacomplexhistoryofchangesThus,thestoryofthebeginningofChineseclassicalpoetryisnotjustastoryofthe"HanandWei"butastoryofhowtheQiandLiang,thelatefifthandearlysixthcenturies,shapedtheevidenceforastoryof"HanandWei"AsIsaidabove,thisstudyhas"twohistoricalcenters,"butwecanneverentirelydisentanglethefirstcenterelassicalpoetryuptothelastpartofthethirdcenturyfromthesecondcentertheQiandLiangThetwocenturiesinbetweenourtwohistoricalcentersalsoobviouslyplayedaverylargerole,bothintransformingreceivedmaterialsand"supplementing"them•Thebasisofourinquirybeginswiththematerialsourcesandtheirnatureratherthantheusualquestionsof"genre,""author,"or"poem"Therearemanyrelativelystabletexts:stableinthedegreeofvariation,intheascriptionofauthorship,andinthetitlethateventuallydeterminedagenreorsubgenreThereare,however,justasmanyormoretextsthatarefluidinalltheseessentialqualitiesAlthoughtherewascertainlyaveryloosesenseofpoeticgenreinthethirdcentury,thegenresystemthatwenowknowwasaproductoftheQiandLiangandremainedrelativelyfluideventhroughtheTangIfwethinkof"authorhip"asapropertyofatext,likeatitle,thenwecanthatinmyitwassomethingaddedbyinference,juttitlsfnwrWecanalsoseethepointatwhich•IntroductionpoemsbecomeclearwithinsetsofotherpoemsofthesamekindAttheendofthischapter,weshowhowmaterialfromoutside"classicalpoetry"isintegratedintoitInthethirdandfourthchapterswetakeuptworelatedthemes:immortalsandthefeastTheproceduresforattainingimmortalityhadfIxedsequences,andweshowhowthosesequencesbecamemappedontothesequencesoftopicswithinathemeHerewealsowillbegintoprobethemarginsofthispoetry,howitwentbeyondconventioninsomepiecesbyCaoCaoandCaoZhiThethemesofthefeastandimmortalitywereveryclose,alongwithmeditationonmortalityinthefollowingchapterwewillseethethematiccrossoversFinally,welookatahighregistercompositionbyWangCanandseehowasharedpoeticlanguageoflowregisterpoetrywasthemodelforthecreationofhighregisterpoetryQuestionsofauthorshipandpersonaaretheconcernofthefIfthchapterWebeginwithsometextsofquestionableattributionasawayofthinkingofauthorshiplessasaverifIablehistoricaltruththanasapropertyofatext,partofthewayinwhichitcomestoberead,eventotheextentthatitbecomespartofthework'stextualevolutionWeclosewithashortreceptionhistoryofwhatisnowoneofCaoZhi'sbestknownyuefu,tracingitfromitsfirstappearanceinYuefushijiaroundtheturnofthetwelfthcenturythroughaseriesofcriticswhogaveitasecureplaceinthe"CaoZhistory"Finally,wecometothe"imitations"ofthe"NineteenOldPoems,"primarilythoseofLuJiattheendofthethirdcenturyAfterdiscussingthespecificmeaningofni,"imitation,"weusethosetextstoreflectonthe"oldpoems"asLuJiknewthem,overtwocenturiesbeforethetextsthatwehave,datingfromthefirstpartofthesixthcentury•TowriteonthisperiodistoengageamassofscholarshipthatisformidableinChinese,inJapanese,andinEuropeanlanguagesIrecallalegendaryHarvardChinesedictionaryprojectofmanydecadespastinitsdesiretobetrulycomprehensive,itnevergotpastthefirstword:yi,"one"Thepresentworkcouldhavebeenmuchlonger,butIyieldedtomoremoderateambition

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