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Power Systems Electromagnetic Transients Simulation.pdf

Power Systems Electromagnetic T…

上传者: xieguo 2013-03-29 评分 5 1 204 28 928 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Power Systems Electromagnetic Transients Simulationpdf》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含IETPowerandEnergySeriesPowerSystemsElectromagneticTransientsSimulationNevi符等。

IETPowerandEnergySeriesPowerSystemsElectromagneticTransientsSimulationNevilleWatsonandJosArrillaga)!$')ERIESDITORSROFESSOR!*OHNS$ARNEOWERYSTEMSLECTROMAGNETICRANSIENTSIMULATIONTHERVOLUMESINTHISSERIESOLUMEOWERCIRCUITBREAKERTHEORYANDDESIGN#(LURSCHEIMDITOROLUME)NDUSTRIALMICROWAVEHEATING!#ETAXASAND*EREDITHOLUME)NSULATORSFORHIGHVOLTAGES*,OOMSOLUMEARIABLEFREQUENCY!#MOTORDRIVESYSTEMS$INNEYOLUMESWITCHGEAR(YANAND'*ONESOLUME#ONDUCTIONANDINDUCTIONHEATING*$AVIESOLUMETATISTICALTECHNIQUESFORHIGHVOLTAGEENGINEERING(AUSCHILDANDOSCHOLUMENINTERRUPTABLEPOWERSUPPLIES*LATTSAND*$T!UBYNDITORSOLUME$IGITALPROTECTIONFORPOWERSYSTEMS!*OHNSANDALMANOLUMELECTRICITYECONOMICSANDPLANNING"ERRIEOLUMEACUUMSWITCHGEAR!'REENWOODOLUMELECTRICALSAFETYAGUIDETOCAUSESANDPREVENTIONOFHAZARDS*AXWELL!DAMSOLUMELECTRICITYDISTRIBUTIONNETWORKDESIGNNDEDITION,AKERVIAND*(OLMESOLUME!RTIÙCIALINTELLIGENCETECHNIQUESINPOWERSYSTEMSARWICK!KWUEAND!GGARWALDITORSOLUMEOWERSYSTEMCOMMISSIONINGANDMAINTENANCEPRACTICE(ARKEROLUMENGINEERSlHANDBOOKOFINDUSTRIALMICROWAVEHEATING*EREDITHOLUMEMALLELECTRICMOTORS(OCZALAETALOLUME!#$#POWERSYSTEMANALYSIS*!RRILLAND"#MITHOLUME(IGHVOLTAGEDIRECTCURRENTTRANSMISSIONNDEDITION*!RRILLAGAOLUMELEXIBLE!#RANSMISSIONYSTEMS!#(ONGDITOROLUMEMBEDDEDGENERATION*ENKINSETALOLUME(IGHVOLTAGEENGINEERINGANDTESTINGNDEDITION(YANDITOROLUMEVERVOLTAGEPROTECTIONOFLOWVOLTAGESYSTEMSREVISEDEDITION(ASSEOLUMEHELIGHTNINGÚASH#OORAYOLUME#ONTROLTECHNIQUESDRIVESANDCONTROLSHANDBOOK$RURYDITOROLUMEOLTAGEQUALITYINELECTRICALPOWERSYSTEMS*CHLABBACHETALOLUMELECTRICALSTEELSFORROTATINGMACHINES"ECKLEYOLUMEHEELECTRICCARDEVELOPMENTANDFUTUREOFBATTERYHYBRIDANDFUELCELLCARSESTBROOKOLUMEOWERSYSTEMSELECTROMAGNETICTRANSIENTSSIMULATION*!RRILLAGAANDATSONOLUME!DVANCESINHIGHVOLTAGEENGINEERING(ADDADAND$ARNEOLUMELECTRICALOPERATIONOFELECTROSTATICPRECIPITATORSARKEROLUMEHERMALPOWERPLANTSIMULATIONANDCONTROL$LYNNOLUMECONOMICEVALUATIONOFPROJECTSINTHEELECTRICITYSUPPLYINDUSTRY(HATIBOLUMEROPULSIONSYSTEMSFORHYBRIDVEHICLES*ILLEROLUME$ISTRIBUTIONSWITCHGEARTEWARTOLUMEROTECTIONOFELECTRICITYDISTRIBUTIONNETWORKSNDEDITION*'ERSAND(OLMESOLUMEOODPOLEOVERHEADLINES"AREINGOLUMELECTRICFUSESRDEDITION!RIGHTAND'EWBERYOLUMEHORTCIRCUITCURRENTS*CHLABBACHOLUMEUCLEARPOWER*OODOLUMEOWERSYSTEMPROTECTIONVOLUMESOWERYSTEMSLECTROMAGNETICRANSIENTSIMULATIONEVILLEATSONAND*OS!RRILLAGAHE)NSTITUTIONOFNGINEERINGANDECHNOLOGYUBLISHEDBYHE)NSTITUTIONOFNGINEERINGANDECHNOLOGY,ONDONNITEDINGDOMIRSTEDITIONHE)NSTITUTIONOFLECTRICALNGINEERSEPRINTWITHNEWCOVERHE)NSTITUTIONOFNGINEERINGANDECHNOLOGYIRSTPUBLISHEDEPRINTEDHISPUBLICATIONISCOPYRIGHTUNDERTHE"ERNE#ONVENTIONANDTHENIVERSAL#OPYRIGHT#ONVENTION!LLRIGHTSRESERVED!PARTFROMANYFAIRDEALINGFORTHEPURPOSESOFRESEARCHORPRIVATESTUDYORCRITICISMORREVIEWASPERMITTEDUNDERTHE#OPYRIGHT$ESIGNSANDATENTS!CTTHISPUBLICATIONMAYBEREPRODUCEDSTOREDORTRANSMITTEDINANYFORMORBYANYMEANSONLYWITHTHEPRIORPERMISSIONINWRITINGOFTHEPUBLISHERSORINTHECASEOFREPROGRAPHICREPRODUCTIONINACCORDANCEWITHTHETERMSOFLICENCESISSUEDBYTHE#OPYRIGHT,ICENSING!GENCY)NQUIRIESCONCERNINGREPRODUCTIONOUTSIDETHOSETERMSSHOULDBESENTTOTHEPUBLISHERSATTHEUNDERMENTIONEDADDRESSHE)NSTITUTIONOFNGINEERINGANDECHNOLOGYICHAELARADAY(OUSEIX(ILLSAYTEVENAGE(ERTS'!NITEDINGDOMWWWTHEIETORGHILETHEAUTHORANDTHEPUBLISHERSBELIEVETHATTHEINFORMATIONANDGUIDANCEGIVENINTHISWORKARECORRECTALLPARTIESMUSTRELYUPONTHEIROWNSKILLANDJUDGEMENTWHENMAKINGUSEOFTHEMEITHERTHEAUTHORNORTHEPUBLISHERSASSUMEANYLIABILITYTOANYONEFORANYLOSSORDAMAGECAUSEDBYANYERROROROMISSIONINTHEWORKWHETHERSUCHERROROROMISSIONISTHERESULTOFNEGLIGENCEORANYOTHERCAUSE!NYANDALLSUCHLIABILITYISDISCLAIMEDHEMORALRIGHTSOFTHEAUTHORTOBEIDENTIÙEDASAUTHOROFTHISWORKHAVEBEENASSERTEDBYHIMINACCORDANCEWITHTHE#OPYRIGHT$ESIGNSANDATENTS!CT"RITISH,IBRARY#ATALOGUINGINUBLICATION$ATA!RRILLAGA*OWERSYSTEMSELECTROMAGNETICTRANSIENTSSIMULATIONp)POWERANDENERGYSERIESNOLECTRICALPOWERSYSTEMSRANSIENTSLECTRICITY)ITLE))ATSON))))NSTITUTIONOFLECTRICALNGINEERSl)"DIGIT)"DIGITYPESETIN)NDIABYEWGEN)MAGINGYSTEMS,TDRINTEDINTHEBY'"OOKS,TD"ODMIN#ORNWALLEPRINTEDINTHEBY,IGHTNINGOURCE,TDILTONEYNESContentsListoffiguresxiiiListoftablesxxiPrefacexxiiiAcronymsandconstantsxxvDefinitions,objectivesandbackgroundIntroductionClassificationofelectromagnetictransientsTransientsimulatorsDigitalsimulationStatevariableanalysisMethodofdifferenceequationsHistoricalperspectiveRangeofapplicationsReferencesAnalysisofcontinuousanddiscretesystemsIntroductionContinuoussystemsStatevariableformulationsSuccessivedifferentiationControllercanonicalformObservercanonicalformDiagonalcanonicalformUniquenessofformulationExampleTimedomainsolutionofstateequationsDigitalsimulationofcontinuoussystemsExampleDiscretesystemsviContentsRelationshipofcontinuousanddiscretedomainsSummaryReferencesStatevariableanalysisIntroductionChoiceofstatevariablesFormationofthestateequationsThetransformmethodThegraphmethodSolutionprocedureTransientconvertersimulation(TCS)PerunitsystemNetworkequationsStructureofTCSValveswitchingsEffectofautomatictimestepadjustmentsTCSconvertercontrolExampleSummaryReferencesNumericalintegratorsubstitutionIntroductionDiscretisationofR,L,CelementsResistanceInductanceCapacitanceComponentsreductionDualNortonmodelofthetransmissionlineNetworksolutionNetworksolutionwithswitchesExample:voltagestepappliedtoRLloadNonlinearortimevaryingparametersCurrentsourcerepresentationCompensationmethodPiecewiselinearmethodSubsystemsSparsityandoptimalorderingNumericalerrorsandinstabilitiesSummaryReferencesTherootmatchingmethodIntroductionExponentialformofthedifferenceequationContentsviizdomainrepresentationofdifferenceequationsImplementationinEMTPalgorithmFamilyofexponentialformsofthedifferenceequationStepresponseSteadystateresponseFrequencyresponseExampleSummaryReferencesTransmissionlinesandcablesIntroductionBergeron’smodelMulticonductortransmissionlinesFrequencydependenttransmissionlinesFrequencytotimedomaintransformationPhasedomainmodelOverheadtransmissionlineparametersBundledsubconductorsEarthwiresUndergroundcableparametersExampleSummaryReferencesTransformersandrotatingplantIntroductionBasictransformermodelNumericalimplementationParametersderivationModellingofnonlinearitiesAdvancedtransformermodelsSinglephaseUMECmodelUMECNortonequivalentUMECimplementationinPSCADEMTDCThreelimbthreephaseUMECFasttransientmodelsThesynchronousmachineElectromagneticmodelElectromechanicalmodelPerunitsystemMultimassrepresentationInterfacingmachinetonetworkTypesofrotatingmachineavailableSummaryReferencesviiiContentsControlandprotectionIntroductionTransientanalysisofcontrolsystems(TACS)ControlmodellinginPSCADEMTDCExampleModellingofprotectivesystemsTransducersElectromechanicalrelaysElectronicrelaysMicroprocessorbasedrelaysCircuitbreakersSurgearrestersSummaryReferencesPowerelectronicsystemsIntroductionValverepresentationinEMTDCPlacementandlocationofswitchinginstantsSpikesandnumericaloscillations(chatter)InterpolationandchatterremovalHVDCconvertersExampleofHVDCsimulationFACTSdevicesThestaticVArcompensatorThestaticcompensator(STATCOM)StatevariablemodelsEMTDCTCSinterfaceimplementationControlsystemrepresentationSummaryReferencesFrequencydependentnetworkequivalentsIntroductionPositionofFDNEExtentofsystemtobereducedFrequencyrangeSystemfrequencyresponseFrequencydomainidentificationTimedomainanalysisFrequencydomainanalysisTimedomainidentificationFittingofmodelparametersRLCnetworksRationalfunctionErrorandfigureofmeritContentsixModelimplementationExamplesSummaryReferencesSteadystateapplicationsIntroductionInitialisationHarmonicassessmentPhasedependentimpedanceofnonlineardeviceThetimedomaininanancillarycapacityIterativesolutionfortimeinvariantnonlinearcomponentsIterativesolutionforgeneralnonlinearcomponentsAccelerationtechniquesThetimedomainintheprimaryroleBasictimedomainalgorithmTimestepDCsystemrepresentationACsystemrepresentationVoltagesagsExamplesVoltagefluctuationsModellingofflickerpenetrationVoltagenotchingExampleDiscussionReferencesMixedtimeframesimulationIntroductionDescriptionofthehybridalgorithmIndividualprogrammodificationsDataflowTSEMTDCinterfaceEquivalentimpedancesEquivalentsourcesPhaseandsequencedataconversionsInterfacevariablesderivationEMTDCtoTSdatatransferDataextractionfromconverterwaveformsInteractionprotocolInterfacelocationTestsystemandresultsDiscussionReferencesxContentsTransientsimulationinrealtimeIntroductionSimulationwithdedicatedarchitecturesHardwareRTDSapplicationsRealtimeimplementationonstandardcomputersExampleofrealtimetestSummaryReferencesAStructureofthePSCADEMTDCprogramAReferencesBSystemidentificationtechniquesBsdomainidentification(frequencydomain)Bzdomainidentification(frequencydomain)Bzdomainidentification(timedomain)BPronyanalysisBRecursiveleastsquarescurvefittingalgorithmBReferencesCNumericalintegrationCReviewofclassicalmethodsCTruncationerrorofintegrationformulaeCStabilityofintegrationmethodsCReferencesDTestsystemsdataDCIGREHVDCbenchmarkmodelDLowerSouthIsland(NewZealand)systemDReferenceEDevelopingdifferenceequationsERootmatchingtechniqueappliedtoafirstorderlagfunctionERootmatchingtechniqueappliedtoafirstorderdifferentialpolefunctionEDifferenceequationbybilineartransformationforRLseriesbranchEDifferenceequationbynumericalintegratorsubstitutionforRLseriesbranchContentsxiFMATLABcodeexamplesFVoltagesteponRLbranchFDiodefedRLbranchFGeneralversionofexampleFFFrequencyresponseofdifferenceequationsGFORTRANcodeforstatevariableanalysisGStatevariableanalysisprogramHFORTRANcodeforEMTsimulationHDCsource,switchandRLloadHGeneralEMTprogramfordcsource,switchandRLloadHACsourcediodeandRLloadHSimplelosslesstransmissionlineHBergerontransmissionlineHFrequencydependenttransmissionlineHUtilitysubroutinesfortransmissionlineprogramsIndexListoffiguresTimeframeofvarioustransientphenomenaTransientnetworkanalyserImpulseresponseassociatedwithsplanepolelocationsStepresponseoflead–lagfunctionNortonofarationalfunctioninzdomainDatasequenceassociatedwithzplanepolelocationsRelationshipbetweenthedomainsNontrivialdependentstatevariablesCapacitiveloop(a)Capacitorwithnoconnectiontoground,(b)smallcapacitoraddedtogiveaconnectiontogroundKmatrixpartitionRowechelonformModifiedstatevariableequationsFlowchartforstatevariableanalysisTeeequivalentcircuitTCSbranchtypesTCSflowchartSwitchinginstatevariableprogramInterpolationoftimeuponvalvecurrentreversalNETOMACsimulationresponsesTCSsimulationwithmstimestepSteadystateresponsesfromTCSTransientsimulationwithTCSforadcshortcircuitatsFiringcontrolmechanismbasedonthephaselockedoscillatorSynchronisingerrorinfiringpulseConstantαorder()operationwithastepchangeinthedccurrentRLCtestcircuitStatevariableanalysiswithμssteplengthStatevariableanalysiswithμssteplengthStatevariableanalysiswithμssteplengthandxcheckxivListoffiguresStatevariablewithμssteplengthandsteplengthoptimisationBothxcheckandsteplengthoptimisationErrorcomparisonResistorInductorNortonequivalentoftheinductorCapacitorNortonequivalentofthecapacitorReductionofRLbranchReductionofRLCbranchPropagationofawaveonatransmissionlineEquivalenttwoportnetworkforalosslesslineNodeofaninterconnectedcircuitExampleusingconversionofvoltagesourcetocurrentsourceNetworksolutionwithvoltagesourcesNetworksolutionwithswitchesBlockdiagonalstructureFlowchartofEMTalgorithmSimpleswitchedRLloadEquivalentcircuitforsimpleswitchedRLloadStepresponseofanRLbranchforsteplengthsoft=τandt=τStepresponseofanRLbranchforsteplengthsoft=τandt=τPiecewiselinearinductorrepresentedbycurrentsourcePictorialviewofsimultaneoussolutionoftwoequationsArtificialnegativedampingPiecewiselinearinductorSeparationoftwocoupledsubsystemsbymeansoflinearisedequivalentsourcesInterfacingforHVDClinkExampleofsparsenetworkNortonequivalentforRLbranchSwitchingtestsystemStepresponseofswitchingtestsystemfort=τStepresponseofswitchingtestsystemfort=τStepresponseofswitchingtestsystemfort=τResonancetestsystemComparisonbetweenexponentialformandDommel’smethodtoakHzexcitationforresonancetestsystemt=μsComparisonbetweenexponentialformandDommel’smethodtoakHzexcitationforresonancetestsystemt=μsComparisonbetweenexponentialformandDommel’smethodtokHzexcitationforresonancetestsystemListoffiguresxvResponseofresonancetestsystemtokHzexcitation,blowupofexponentialform’sresponseDiodetestsystemResponsetodiodetestsystem(a)Voltage(b)CurrentInputasfunctionoftimeControlorelectricalsystemasfirstorderlagComparisonstepresponseofswitchingtestsystemfort=τComparisonstepresponseofswitchingtestsystemfort=τComparisonofstepresponseofswitchingtestsystemfort=τRootmatchingtype(d)approximationtoastepComparisonwithacexcitation(kHz)(t=τ)Comparisonwithacexcitation(kHz)(t=τ)FrequencyresponseforvarioussimulationmethodsDecisiontreefortransmissionlinemodelselectionNominalPIsectionEquivalenttwoportnetworkforlinewithlumpedlossesEquivalenttwoportnetworkforhalflinesectionBergerontransmissionlinemodelSchematicoffrequencydependentlineTheveninequivalentforfrequencydependenttransmissionlineNortonequivalentforfrequencydependenttransmissionlineMagnitudeandphaseangleofpropagationfunctionFittedpropagationfunctionMagnitudeandphaseangleofcharacteristicimpedanceTransmissionlinegeometryMatrixeliminationofsubconductorsCablecrosssectionStepresponseofalosslesslineterminatedbyitscharacteristicimpedanceStepresponseofalosslesslinewithaloadingofdoublecharacteristicimpedanceStepresponseofalosslesslinewithaloadingofhalfitscharacteristicimpedanceStepresponseofBergeronlinemodelforcharacteristicimpedanceterminationStepresponseofBergeronlinemodelforaloadingofhalfitscharacteristicimpedanceStepresponseofBergeronlinemodelforaloadingofdoublecharacteristicimpedanceComparisonofattenuation(orpropagation)constantErrorinfittedattenuationconstantComparisonofsurgeimpedanceErrorinfittedsurgeimpedancexviListoffiguresStepresponseoffrequencydependenttransmissionlinemodel(load=)Stepresponseoffrequencydependenttransmissionlinemodel(load=)Stepresponseoffrequencydependenttransmissionlinemodel(load=)Equivalentcircuitofthetwowindingtrans

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