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首页 单片机超声波测距仪 外文翻译 外文文献 英文文献道

单片机超声波测距仪 外文翻译 外文文献 英文文献道.doc

单片机超声波测距仪 外文翻译 外文文献 英文文献道

shi强石
2017-11-13 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《单片机超声波测距仪 外文翻译 外文文献 英文文献道doc》,可适用于战略管理领域

单片机超声波测距仪外文翻译外文文献英文文献道外文原文原文出处:传感器文摘布拉福德:年第页UltrasonicrangingsystemdesignPublicationtitle:SensorReviewBradford:VolABSTRACT:Ultrasonicrangingtechnologyhaswideusingworthinmanyfieldssuchastheindustriallocalevehiclenavigationandsonarengineering(NowithasbeenusedinlevelmeasurementselfguidedautonomousvehiclesfieldworkrobotsautomotivenavigationairandunderwatertargetdetectionidentificationSolocationandsoon(thereisanimportantpracticingmeaningtolearntherangingtheoryandwaysdeeplyToimprovetheprecisionoftheultrasonicrangingsysteminhandsatisfytherequestoftheengineeringpersonnelfortherangingprecisiontheboundandtheusageaportableultrasonicrangingsystembasedonthesinglechipprocessorwasdeveloped(Keywords:UltrasoundrRangingSystemSingleChipProcessorIntroductiveWiththedevelopmentofscienceandtechnologytheimprovementofpeoplesstandardoflivingspeedingupthedevelopmentandconstructionofthecityurbandrainagesystemhavegreatlydevelopedtheirsituationisconstantlyimprovingHoweverduetohistoricalreasonsmanyunpredictablefactorsinthesynthesisofhertimethecitydrainagesystemInparticulardrainagesystemoftenlagsbehindurbanconstructionThereforethereareoftengoodbuildingexcavationhasbeenbuildingfacilitiestoupgradethedrainagesystemphenomenonItbroughttothecitysewageanditiscleartothecitysewageanddrainageculvertinthesewagetreatmentsystemcomfortisveryimportanttopeopleslivesMobilerobotsdesignedtoclearthedrainageculvertandtheautomaticcontrolsystemFreesewageculvertclearguaranteerobottherobotisdesignedtocleartheculvertsewagetothecoreControlSystemisthecorecomponentofthedevelopmentofultrasonicrangefinderThereforeitisveryimportanttodesignagoodultrasonicrangefinderAprincipleofultrasonicdistancemeasurementTheprincipleofpiezoelectricultrasonicgeneratorPiezoelectricultrasonicgeneratoristheuseofpiezoelectriccrystalresonatorstoworkUltrasonicgeneratortheinternalstructureasshownithastwopiezoelectricchipandaresonanceplateWhenitstwopluspulsesignalthefrequencyequaltotheintrinsicpiezoelectricoscillationfrequencychipthechipwillhappenpiezoelectricresonanceandpromotethedevelopmentofplatevibrationresonanceultrasoundisgeneratedConverselyifthetwoarenotinterelectrodevoltagewhentheboardreceivedultrasonicresonanceitwillbeforvibrationsuppressionofpiezoelectricchipthemechanicalenergyisconvertedtoelectricalsignalsthenitbecomestheultrasonicreceiverThetraditionalwaytodeterminethemomentoftheechosarrivalisbasedonthresholdingthereceivedsignalwithafixedreferenceThethresholdischosenwellabovethenoiselevelwhereasthemomentofarrivalofanechoisdefinedasthefirstmomenttheechosignalsurpassesthatthresholdTheintensityofanechoreflectingfromanobjectstronglydependsontheobjectsnaturesizeanddistancefromthesensorFurtherthetimeintervalfromtheechosstartingpointtothemomentwhenitsurpassesthethresholdchangeswiththeintensityoftheechoAsaconsequenceaconsiderableerrormayoccurEventwoechoeswithdifferentintensitiesarrivingexactlyatthesametimewillsurpassthethresholdatdifferentmomentsThestrongeronewillsurpassthethresholdearlierthantheweakersoitwillbeconsideredasbelongingtoanearerobjectTheprincipleofultrasonicdistancemeasurementUltrasonictransmitterinadirectiontolaunchultrasoundinthemomenttolaunchthebeginningoftimeatthesametimethespreadofultrasoundintheairobstaclesonhiswaytoreturnimmediatelytheultrasonicreflectedwavereceivedbythereceiverimmediatelystoptheclockUltrasoundintheairasthepropagationvelocityofmsaccordingtothetimerrecordsthetimetwecancalculatethedistancebetweenthelaunchdistancebarriersthatis:stUltrasonicRangingSystemfortheSecondCircuitDesignSystemischaracterizedbysinglechipmicrocomputertocontroltheuseofultrasonictransmitterandultrasonicreceiversincethelaunchfromtimetotimesinglechipselectionofeconomictouseandthechiphasKofROMtofacilitateogrammingCircuitschematicdiagramshowninFigureFigurecircuitprincipleprdiagramkHzultrasonicpulsegeneratedwiththelaunchRangingsystemusingtheultrasonicsensorofpiezoelectricceramicsensorsUCMitsoperatingvoltageofthepulsesignaliskHzwhichbythesinglechipimplementationofthefollowingprocedurestogeneratepuzel:movhhultrasonicfiringcontinuedmshere:cplpoutputkHzsquarewavenopnopnopdjnzhhereretRanginginfrontofsinglechipterminationcircuitPinputportsinglechipimplementationoftheaboveprocedurethePportinakHzpulseoutputsignalafteramplificationtransistorTthedrivetolaunchthefirstultrasonicUCMTissuedkHzultrasonicpulseandthecontinuedlaunchofmsRangingtherightandtheleftsideofthecircuitrespectivelytheninputportPandPtheworkingprincipleandcircuitinfrontofthesamelocationReceptionandprocessingofultrasonicUsedtoreceivethefirstlaunchofthefirstpairUCMRtheultrasonicpulsemodulationsignalintoanalternatingvoltagetheopampamplificationICAandafterpolarizationICBtoICICislockedloopwithaudiodecoderchipLMinternalvoltagecontrolledoscillatorcenterfrequencyoffRCcapacitorCdeterminetheirtargetbandwidthRconditioninginthelaunchofthecarrierfrequencyontheLMinputsignalisgreaterthanmVtheoutputfromthehighjumpfeetintoalowlevelasinterruptrequestsignalstothesinglechipprocessingRanginginfrontofsinglechipterminationcircuitoutputportINTinterruptthehighestpriorityrightorleftlocationoftheoutputcircuitwithoutputgateICAaccessINTportsinglechipwhilesinglechipPandPreceivedinputICAinterruptedbytheprocesstoidentifythesourceofinquirytodealwithinterruptprioritylevelforthefirstleftrightafterPartofthesourcecodeisasfollows:receive:pushpswpushaccclrexrelatedexternalinterruptjnbprightPpintorangingfromrighttointerruptserviceroutinecircuitjnbpleftPpintototheleftrangingcircuitinterruptserviceroutinereturn:SETBEXopenexternalinterruptpopaccpoppswretiright:rightlocationentrancecircuitinterruptserviceroutineAjmpReturnleft:leftRangingentrancecircuitinterruptserviceroutineAjmpReturnThecalculationofultrasonicpropagationtimeWhenyoustartfiringatthesametimestartthesinglechipcircuitrywithinthetimerTtheuseoftimercountingfunctionrecordsthetimeandthelaunchofultrasonicreflectedwavereceivedtimeWhenyoureceivetheultrasonicreflectedwavethereceivercircuitoutputsanegativejumpintheendofINTorINTinterruptrequestgeneratesasignalsinglechipmicrocomputerinresponsetoexternalinterruptrequesttheimplementationoftheexternalinterruptservicesubroutinereadthetimedifferencecalculatingthedistanceSomeofitssourcecodeisasfollows:RECEIVE:PUSHPSWPUSHACCCLREXrelatedexternalinterruptMOVRTHreadthetimevalueMOVRTLCLRCMOVARSUBBABBHcalculatethetimedifferenceMOVHAstorageresultsMOVARSUBBACHMOVHASETBEXopenexternalinterruptPOPACCPOPPSWRETIForaflattargetadistancemeasurementconsistsoftwophases:acoarsemeasurementandafinemeasurement:Step:TransmissionofonepulsetraintoproduceasimpleultrasonicwaveStep:ChangingthegainofbothechoamplifiersaccordingtoequationuntiltheechoisdetectedStep:DetectionoftheamplitudesandzerocrossingtimesofbothechoesStep:SettingthegainsofbothechoamplifierstonormalizetheoutputatsayvoltsSettingtheperiodofthenextpulsesaccordingtothe:periodofechoesSettingthetimewindowaccordingtothedataofstepStep:SendingtwopulsetrainstoproduceaninterferedwaveTestingthezerocrossingtimesandamplitudesoftheechoesIfphaseinversionoccursintheechodeterminetootherwisecalculatetobyinterpolationusingtheamplitudesnearthetroughDerivetsubmandtsubmStep:CalculationofthedistanceyusingequationTheultrasonicrangingsystemsoftwaredesignSoftwareisdividedintotwopartsthemainprogramandinterruptserviceroutineCompletionoftheworkofthemainprogramisinitializedeachsequenceofultrasonictransmittingandreceivingcontrolInterruptserviceroutinesfromtimetotimetocompletethreeoftherotationdirectionofultrasoniclaunchthemainexternalinterruptservicesubroutinetoreadthevalueofcompletiontimedistancecalculationtheresultsoftheoutputandsoonConclusionsRequiredmeasuringrangeofcmcmobjectsinsidetheplanetodoanumberofmeasurementsfoundthatthemaximumerroriscmandgoodreproducibilitySinglechipdesigncanbeseenontheultrasonicrangingsystemhasahardwarestructureissimplereliablesmallfeaturessuchasmeasurementerrorThereforeitcanbeusednotonlyformobilerobotcanbeusedinotherdetectionsystemsThoughts:AsforwhythereceiverdonothavethetransistoramplifiercircuitbecausethemagnificationwellintegratedamplifierbutalsowithautomaticgaincontrollevelmagnificationtodBthecenterfrequencyisktokisexactlyresonantultrasonicsensorsfrequencyREFERENCESFoxJDKhuriYakubBTandKinoGSquotHighFrequencyAcousticWaveMeasurementinAirquotinProceedingsofIEEEUltrasonicSymposiumOctoberNovemberAtlantaGAppMartinAbreuJMCeresRandFreireTquotUltrasonicRanging:EnvelopeAnalysisGivesImprovedAccuracyquotSensorReviewVolNoppParrillaMAnayaJJandFritschCquotDigitalSignalProcessingTechniquesforHighAccuracyUltrasonicRangeMeasurementsquotIEEETransactions:InstrumentationandMeasurementVolNoAugustppCanaliCCiccoGDMortemBPrudenziatiMandTaronAquotATemperatureCompensatedUltrasonicSensorOperatinginAirforDistanceandProximityMeasurementquotIEEETransactiononIndustryElectronicsVolIENoppMartinJMCeresRCalderonLandFreireTquotUltrasonicRangingGetsThermalCorrectionquotSensorReviewVolNopp外文译文超声波测距仪系统设计原文出处:传感器文摘布拉福德:年第页摘要:超声测距技术在工业现场、车辆导航、水声工程等领域都具有广泛的应用价值目前已应用于物位测量、机器人自动导航以及空气中与水下的目标探测、识别、定位等场合。因此深入研究超声的测距理论和方法具有重要的实践意义。为了进一步提高测距的精确度满足工程人员对测量精度、测距量程和测距仪使用的要求本文研制了一套基于单片机的便携式超声测距系统。关键词:超声波测距仪单片机、前言随着科技的发展人们生活水平的提高城市发展建设加快城市给排水系统也有较大发展其状况不断改善。但是由于历史原因合成时间住的许多不可预见因素城市给排水系统特别是排水系统往往落后于城市建设。因此经常出现开挖已经建设好的建筑设施来改造排水系统的现象。城市污水给人们带来了困扰因此箱涵的排污疏通对大城市给排水系统污水处理人们生活舒适显得非常重要。而设计研制箱涵排水疏通移动机器人的自动控制系统保证机器人在箱涵中自由排污疏通是箱涵排污疏通机器人的设计研制的核心部分。控制系统核心部分就是超声波测距仪的研制。因此设计好的超声波测距仪就显得非常重要了。、超声波测距原理压电式超声波发生器原理压电式超声波发生器实际上是利用压电晶体的谐振来工作的。超声波发生器内部结构它有两个压电晶片和一个共振板。当它的两极外加脉冲信号其频率等于压电晶片的固有振荡频率时压电晶片将会发生共振并带动共振板振动便产生超声波。反之如果两电极间未外加电压当共振板接收到超声波时将压迫压电晶片作振动将机械能转换为电信号这时它就成为超声波接收器了。测量脉冲到达时间的传统方法是以拥有固定参数的接收信号开端为基础的。这个界限恰恰选于噪音水平之上然而脉冲到达时间被定义为脉冲信号刚好超过界限的第一时刻。一个物体的脉冲强度很大程度上取决于这个物体的自然属性尺寸还有它与传感器的距离。进一步说从脉冲起始点到刚好超过界限之间的时间段随着脉冲的强度而改变。结果一种错误便出现了两个拥有不同强度的脉冲在不同时间超过界限却在同一时间到达。强度较强的脉冲会比强度较弱的脉冲超过界限的时间早点因此我们会认为强度较强的脉冲属于较近的物体。超声波测距原理超声波发射器向某一方向发射超声波在发射时刻的同时开始计时超声波在空气中传播途中碰到障碍物就立即返回来超声波接收器收到反射波就立即停止计时。超声波在空气中的传播速度为ms根据计时器记录的时间t就可以计算出发射点距障碍物的距离s即:st图电路原理图、超声波测距系统的电路设计系统的特点是利用单片机控制超声波的发射和对超声波自发射至接收往返时间的计时单片机选用C经济易用且片内有K的ROM便于编程。电路原理图如图所示。kHz脉冲的产生与超声波发射测距系统中的超声波传感器采用UCM的压电陶瓷传感器它的工作电压是kHz的脉冲信号这由单片机执行下面程序来产生。puzel:movhh超声波发射持续mshere:cplp输出kHz方波nopnopnopdjnzhhereret前方测距电路的输入端接单片机P端口在单片机执行上面的程序后P端口输出一个kHz的脉冲信号经过三极管T放大驱动超声波发射头UCMT发出kHz的脉冲超声波且持续发射ms。右侧和左侧测距电路的输入端分别接P和P端口工作原理与前方测距电路相同。超声波的接收与处理接收头采用与发射头配对的UCMR将超声波调制脉冲变为交变电压信号经运算放大器ICA和ICB两极放大后加至IC。IC是带有锁定环的音频译码集成块LM内部的压控振荡器的中心频率fRC电容C决定其锁定带宽。调节R在发射的载频上则LM输入信号大于mV输出端脚由高电平跃变为低电平作为中断请求信号送至单片机处理前方测距电路的输出端接单片机INT端口中断优先级最高左、右测距电路的输出通过与门ICA的输出接单片机INT端口同时单片机P和P接到ICA的输入端中断源的识别由程序查询来处理中断优先级为先右后左。部分源程序如下:receive:pushpswpushaccclrex关外部中断jnbprightP引脚为转至右测距电路中断服务程序jnbpleftP引脚为转至左测距电路中断服务程序return:SETBEX开外部中断popaccpoppswretiright:右测距电路中断服务程序入口ajmpreturnleft:左测距电路中断服务程序入口ajmpreturn计算超声波ナ奔在启动发射电路的同时启动单片机内部的定时器T利用定时器的计数功能记录超声波发射的时间和收到反射波的时间。当收到超声波反射

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单片机超声波测距仪 外文翻译 外文文献 英文文献道

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