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首页 英语摘要写作2

英语摘要写作2.ppt

英语摘要写作2

sunshine20081990
2013-03-15 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《英语摘要写作2ppt》,可适用于人文社科领域

主要内容主要内容人称(person)时态(Tense)语态(Voice)注意事项(Attention)人称主要用第三人称较少使用第一人称人称主要用第三人称较少使用第一人称ThisisastudyofAmericanpublicopiniontowardeuthanasiaandthephysician‘sroleinperformingitTheauthors(第三人称)examinehowtheseattributesareaffectedbyreligiousaffiliation,religiousselfperception,politicalselfperceptionandeducationThedata(第三人称)includeAmericanrespondentsfromyears,,,andoftheGeneralSocialSurveyconductedbytheNationalOpinionResearchCenterThefindings(第三人称)suggestthathighlyeducated,politicallyliberalrespondentswithalessreligiousselfperceptionaremostlikelytoacceptactiveeuthanasiaorsuicideinthecaseofaterminallypatientThedata(第三人称)alsoshowthatAmericanstendtodrawadistinctionbetweenthesuicideofaterminallyillpatientandactiveeuthanasiaunderthecareofaphysician,preferringtohavethephysicianperformthisroleinthedyingprocessThetendency(第三人称)toseeadistinctionbetweenactiveeuthanasiaandsuicidewasclearlyaffectedbyreligiousaffiliationandeducation时态时态现在时态(presenttense)()介绍背景资料时如果句子的内容为不受时间影响的普遍事实应使用现在式如果句子的内容是对某种研究趋势的概述则使用现在完成式。()在叙述研究目的或主要研究活动时如果采用“论文导向”多使用现在式(如:Thispaperpresents…)如果采用“研究导向”则使用过去式(如:Thisstudyinvestigated…)。()概述实验程序、方法和主要结果时通常用现在式。()叙述结论或建议时可使用现在式。一般过去时(simplepasttense)回顾研究过程中所使用的方法,做过的实践、实验,出现的具体情况等。现在时态现在时态Examples:Theauthorsreviewriskandprotectivefactorsfordrugabuse,assessanumberofapproachesfordrugabusepreventionpotentialwithhighriskgroups,andmakerecommendationsforresearchandpracticePreviousresearchhasconfirmedfourdimensionsoftemperament现在时态现在时态Examples:ThisarticlesummarizesresearchonselfinitiatedandprofessionallyfacilitatedchangeofaddictivebehaviorsusingthekeyTrantheoreticalconstructsofstagesandprocessesofchangeWeinvestigatedwhethercaporalcouldreducemorbidityandmortalityinpatientswithleftventriculardysfunctionafteramyocardialinfarction现在时态现在时态Examples:WedescribeanewmolecularapproachtoanalyzingthegeneticdiversityofcomplexmicrobialpopulationsOurresultsindicatethatpmaybeauniversalinhibitorofcyclingkinesis现在时态现在时态Example:WesuggestthatclimateinstabilityintheearlypartofthelastinterglacialmayhavedelayedthemeltingoftheSaaleanicesheetsinAmericaandEurasia,perhapsaccountingforthisdiscrepancy一般过去时一般过去时Example:Anunusualnewcyclicpeptidewithapyrrolidine,dioneunitwasisolatedfromGypsophilaoldhamianaItsstructurewaselucidatedbythespectroscopic(光谱)evidencesThestereochemistrywasdeterminedbyapplicationoftheMarkey'smethodandthesinglecrystalXraydiffraction在描述性摘要(descriptiveabstract)中使用现在时态比较多。在结构性摘要(informativeabstract)中使用一般过去时较多。现在完成时用得很少。MicroRNAs(miRNAs)areaclassofsmall,endogenousRNAsof–nucleotides(nts)inlengthTheyplayanimportantregulatoryroleinanimalsandplantsbytargetingspecificmRNAsfordegradationortranslationrepressionRecentscientificadvanceshaverevealedthesynthesispathwaysandtheregulatorymechanismsofmiRNAsinanimalsandplantsmiRNAbasedregulationisimplicatedindiseaseetiologyandhasbeenstudiedfortreatmentFurthermore,severalpreclinicalandclinicaltrialshavebeeninitiatedformiRNAbasedtherapeuticsInthisreview,theexistingknowledgeaboutmiRNAssynthesis,mechanismsforregulationofthegenome,andtheirwidespreadfunctionsinanimalsandplantsissummarizedThecurrentstatusofpreclinicalandclinicaltrialsregardingmiRNAtherapeuticsisalsoreviewedTherecentfindingsinmiRNAstudies,summarizedinthisreview,mayaddnewdimensionstosmallRNAbiologyandmiRNAtherapeuticsObjective:ThepurposeofthisstudywastodeterminewhetheraninhospitaltransportableCTscannercanprovidediagnosticbrainimagesandtocomparethequalityoftheseimageswiththosefromaconventionalfixedplatformCTscannerSubjectsandMethods:TwentysevenpatientswithknownorsuspectedintracranialpathologyunderwentimagingonatransportablescannerandafixedplatformscannerwithinhrofeachotherImagesfromeachCTexaminationwereevaluatedindependentlybytwoneuroradiologistswhowereunawareofpatienthistoryConspicuousnessofintracranialpathologyandnormalanatomywereratedonapointscale(point''optimalpoints'‘poorornotvisualized)StatisticalcomparisonsweremadeusingnonparametrictestsResults:SevenCTscanswereinterpretedasshowingnormalfindingsandscansrevealedintracranialpathologyonbothCTscannersImagequalitywashigheronthefixedscanner(averagerating''points'‘SE=)thanonthetransportablescanner(averagerating''point's=(p=)Depictionofthecerebellum''midbrain'‘andsupratentorialgraywhitematterwasbetteronthefixedscanner(p<=However'wefoundnosignificantdifferencesindetectionofintracranialpathologybetweenscannersBothradiologistsfoundimagesfrombothscannerstobediagnosticinallpatientsConclusion:ImagesofthebrainonthetransportableCTscannerwerelessclearthanthoseonafixedscannerHowever'‘imagesfromthetransportableCTscannerwerediagnosticinconsecutivepatientsTheimplicationsofthisfindingareimportantfortheprovisionofCTservicesforcriticallyillpatientswhocannotbetransportedtotheradiologydepartment语态语态目前,摘要的语态表达仍以被动为主,以表明研究中所观察的事物是主要的同时也表示作者是从客观的立场讨论问题。但是由于主动语态的表达更为准确更易阅读目前大多数期刊都提倡使用主动语态。国际知名科技期刊“Nature”,“Cell”等尤其如此其中主动语态的使用十分普遍。Anunusualnewcyclicpeptidewithapyrrolidine,dioneunit,gypsophin,wasisolatedfromGypsophilaoldhamianaItsstructurewaselucidatedbythespectroscopicevidencesThestereochemistrywasdeterminedbyapplicationoftheMarkey'smethodandthesinglecrystalXraydiffractionCompoundexhibitedinhibitoryactivityagainstaglucosidasewithICofµMThisisastudyofAmericanpublicopiniontowardeuthanasiaandthephysician‘sroleinperformingitTheauthorsexamine(主动语态)howtheseattributesareaffectedbyreligiousaffiliation,religiousselfperception,politicalselfperceptionandeducationThedatainclude(主动语态)Americanrespondentsfromyears,,,andoftheGeneralSocialSurveyconductedbytheNationalOpinionResearchCenterThefindingssuggest(主动语态)thathighlyeducated,politicallyliberalrespondentswithalessreligiousselfperceptionaremostlikelytoacceptactiveeuthanasiaorsuicideinthecaseofaterminallypatientThedataalsoshow(主动)thatAmericanstendtodrawadistinctionbetweenthesuicideofaterminallyillpatientandactiveeuthanasiaunderthecareofaphysician,preferringtohavethephysicianperformthisroleinthedyingprocessThetendencytoseeadistinctionbetweenactiveeuthanasiaandsuicidewasclearlyaffected(被动)byreligiousaffiliationandeducationAttentionAttentionPreciseKeypointsAstory:PConciseThereshouldbenoexamplesandcomparisonswiththepreviousstudyintheabstractLongandtedioussentencesshouldalsobeavoided“Forexample”Sentencelike“afteranextendedseriesoftrialsoveraperiodofseveralmonths”DefiniteEverysentencesandargumentsshouldbedefiniteandclearontheconditionofconciseHerearesomeexamples:Example:Azodyes(偶氮染料)arepreparedbythecouplingofdiazoniumsalts(重氮盐)AzodyesarepreparedwhenaphenolorarylistreatedwithadiazoniumsaltsolutionExample:TherewereseveralperiodsofelevationanderosionTheregionhasbeenelevatedanderodedatleasttwiceandpossiblyfivetimesCompletenessTheabstractshouldbecompleteSomereadersmayhavenoaccesstothefulltextAnabstractshouldstatethepurposeoftheinvestigationorstudy,basicprocedures,theprincipalconclusionandimplicationTheimplicationandbenefitsshouldcommensuratewiththeresultsobtained,andaretobehighlightedDo()It’sbettertobegintheabstractwithafact()It’sbettertoconfinetheabstracttobelessthanofthewholetext()It'sbettertouseindicativewordtoshowthedifferentpartofthethesisForexample:"Wefoundthat"Fortheresult"Wesuggestthat"ForthediscussionDon't()Don'tuseabbreviationsexceptsomeabbreviationsareknownascommentsensesuchasHPLC()Don'tmixdifferenttense()Don'tusetoomorecompositesentences()Don'tuseoralEnglish()Don'tjustsimplyextendthetitleforabstract()Don'tusemathematicalequations,chemicalstructuresandspecialsignalsintheabstract

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