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语言学流派.doc

语言学流派.doc

上传者: twinkle 2013-03-13 评分 3 0 46 6 210 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《语言学流派doc》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含西方语言学流派漫谈SchoolsofLinguistics:somerandomthoughts北京外国语大学中国外语教育研究中心刘润清为何要讲流派符等。

西方语言学流派漫谈SchoolsofLinguistics:somerandomthoughts北京外国语大学中国外语教育研究中心刘润清为何要讲流派问题?我主张进入一个研究领域时第一要宏观第二要对思想(ideas)感兴趣。宏观:做研究别一下扎到一个小领域、小题目里去那样会见木不见林。了解宏观背景让你不失迷方向。对思想、哲学理念感兴趣比只对纯技术性的东西感兴趣更有意义。技术是手段提高认识是追求。区分流派与分支流派多指思潮,有代表人物,代表著作,主要观点,研究方法,盛行时代,有其影响,往往有历史视角。(它未必对领域中的诸多问题都有论述。)Schoolsrefertotrendsofthought,withtheirrepresentativefigures,works,uniqueideas,methodsandinfluenceonlaterdevelopmentadiachronicperspective分支多指领域,研究范围,也有经典著作,有影响的人物,多用共时观点。可能多个流派都对它有过贡献。(Branchesrefertoareasofstudy,withtheirclassics,andinfluentialfiguresoftenasynchronicperspective)历史视角和共时视角一起可以画出一个十字,像一个坐标Thediachronicandsynchronicperspectiveswillformacross,whichlikeacoordinateDistinctionbetweenSchoolsandBranches语言学的分支:Branches:从内部分:语音学,音系(位)学,词汇学,形态学,句法学,语义学,语用学()Distinctionfromwithin:phonetics,phonology,lexicology,morphology,syntax,semantic,pragmatics()从外部分:心理语言学,社会语言学,计算语言学,神经语言学,文化语言学,人类语言学语料库语言学等。Distinctionfromwithout:psycholinguistics,sociolinguistics,computationlinguistics,neurolinguistics,anthropologicallinguistics,culturallinguistics,corpuslinguistics,etc大分类:理论语言学,应用语言学Theoreticallinguisticsandappliedlinguistics语言学流派:传统语法(BC世纪)traditionalgrammar历史语言学(世纪年)historicallinguistics现代语言学开端(索緖尔,世纪初)thebeginningofmodernlinguistics欧洲功能主义(世纪)Europeanfunctionalism伦敦学派()TheLondonSchool系统功能语法(现在)Halliday’sSystemicfunctionalgrammar美国结构主义语言学()Americanstructuralism美国转换生成语法(现)Chomsky’sGenerativeGrammar认知语言学(today)Cognitivelinguistics宏观区分流派AMoreMacroDistinction形式派注重分析语言的形式,结构,成分和成分的分布,对语言进行形式描写和描写的形式化,考虑语言的心理性Theformalschool:emphasizetheformal,structuralaspectsofL,anddistributionofelementsformalizethedescriptionofLapsychologicalperspective功能派注重分析语言的功能,分析不同层次上的成分的语义功能,认为功能决定形式,考虑语言的社会性Thefunctionalschool:emphasizethefunctionalnatureofLanalyzethesemanticfunctionofelementsonalllevelsfunctiondeterminesformasociolinguisticperspective两派的区别形式主义者认为语言是心理现象功能主义者说语言是社会现象Theformalcampsaylanguageisapsychologicalfactthefunctionalcampsaylanguageisasocialfact形式主义者说语言普遍现象是人类生理遗传功能主义者说是来自社会对语言的普遍运用Theformalcampsaylinguisticuniversalsaremen’sbiologicalinheritancethefunctionalcampsaylanguagesimilaritiescomefromthecommonuseoflanguage形式主义者说儿童习得语言是人类的内在能力功能主义者说这是儿童交际的需要和能力的发展Theformalcampsaythatchildrenarebornwiththeabilitytoacquirelanguagethefunctionalcampsaythatlanguagelearningcomesfromchildren’sneedsanddevelopment形式主义者把语言当成独立系统研究功能主义者把语言放在社会功能中研究。Theformalistsregardlanguageasanindependentsystemtheformalistsstudylanguageinthesocialcontextbyreferringtoitssocialfunction韩礼德:世纪下半叶的基本对立阵营不是结构主义与生成语法。最根本的两大阵营是:以组合关系为取向的形式派(形式语法源于逻辑和哲学)和以聚合关系为取向的功能派(功能语法源于修辞和人种学)。形式派把语言看成一系列的结构这些结构之间可以找出固定的关系(所以才有转换一说)他们强调语言的普遍性把语法(他们称之为句法)看成是语言的基础(所以语法是任意的)因此语法围绕着句子而展开。Halliday:Thebasicoppositionisnotthatbetween‘structural’and‘generative’grammarsThemorefundamentaloppositionisbetweenthosethatareprimarilysymtagmaticinorientation(byandlargetheformalgrammars,withtheirrootsinlogicandphilosophy)andthosethatareprimarilyparadigmatic(byandlargethefunctionalones,withtheirrootsinrhetoricandethnography)Theformerinterpretalanguagealistofstructures,amongwhich,regularrelationshipsmaybeestablished(hencetheintroductionoftransformation)theytendtoemphasizeuniversalfeaturesoflanguage,totakegrammar(whichtheycallsyntax)asthefoundationoflanguage(hencethegrammarisarbitrary),andsotobeorganizedaroundthesentence功能派把语言看成是一个关系网其基本关系借助于结构加以实现他们强调语言之间的不同点把语义看做语言的基础(所以语法是自然的)因此语法是围绕着文本或语篇而展开的。两个阵营之间有许多交叉也有互相借鉴但从思潮上讲二者是很不同的两大阵营开展对话也很困难。Thefunctionalistsinterpretlanguageasanetworkofrelations,withstructurescominginastherealizationoftheserelationshipstheytendtoemphasizevariablesamonglanguages,totakesemanticsasthefoundation(hencethegrammarisnatural),andsotobeorganizedaroundthetext,ordiscourseTherearemanycrosscurrents,withinsightsborrowedfromonetotheotherbuttheyareideologicallyfairlydifficultanditisoftendifficultytomaintainadialogue韩礼德还说:功能语法属于应用研究形式语法属于纯理论研究功能语法更近于修辞形式语法更近于逻辑功能语法研究实际语言能力形式语法研究理想的语言能力功能语法研究文本语篇形式语法研究句子。功能语法把文本分析看做行为方式语言理论是成事之手段。Halliday:Ingeneralthefunctionalapproachleanstowardstheappliedratherthanthepure,therhetoricalratherthanthelogical,theactualrathertheideal,thefunctionalratherthantheformal,thetextratherthanthesentenceTheemphasisisontextanalysisasamodeofaction,atheoryoflanguageasameansofgettingthingsdone研究流派更具理论价值:从哲学上看,如何看待世界就如何看待语言从心理学上看,“白板说”和“内容说”也区分两派从方法论上看,归纳法,演绎法,证实证伪还是二者结合等,也有不同。It’smoretheoreticallysignificanttostudyschoolstheyinvolvephilosophy,psychology(blankslatecontentapproach),andmethodology(inductiondeductionverification,falsification,abduction)流派与分支的价值SignificanceoftheTwo研究分支更具使用价值:语言内部分支也有理论价值,但有更多的使用价值外部分支既有理论价值,又有应用价值It’smoresignificantinpracticetostudythevariousbranchesoflinguistics,notwithouttheoreticalsignificance任何学科内,不应该只注重应用研究,基础理论研究十分重要。基础研究费时费力见效慢应用研究见效快。Inanydisciplineweshouldtakeseriouslybothbasic,pureresearchandappliedresearchBothareusefulandimportant流派介绍:传统语法传统语法:从希腊语到拉丁语,再从拉丁语到其他欧洲语言注重语音和词汇,句法很少,以教学语法为主,多为规定性语法,不是描写性语法影响很大,时间很长其贡献是创造了描写工具(其术语今天还在使用)TraditionalGrammar:focusonphoneticsandwordsschoolgrammar,prescriptiveinfluentialitstermsstillinusetoday历史语言学:语言比较,语言历史,语言谱系,语音变化规律其后期的新语法学派为避免世纪培养了人才历史语言学为避免世纪现代语言学开端铺平道路。HistoricalLinguistics:languagecomparison,familytreesoflanguageslawsofsoundchangeNeogrammarianspavedthewayformodernlinguisticsinthethcentury流派介绍:现代语言学开端索绪尔:现代语言学鼻祖区分了语言和言语,历时语言学和共时语言学,语言符号的任意性,所指和能指都是任意的语言是一个系统,一个关系系统(在系统中的位置决定其意义)语言是符号学中最典型的代表其理论影响深远Saussure:fatherofmodernlinguisticslanguagespeecharbitrarinessoflanguagesynchronicdiachronicsignifiersignifiedsystemofsigns德国哲学家ErnstCassirer把索绪尔与伽利略相提并论:“InthewholehistoryofsciencethereisperhapsnomorefascinatingachapterthantheriseofthenewscienceoflinguisticsInitsimportanceitmayverywellbecomparedtothenewscienceofGalileo,whichinthethcentury,changedourwholeconceptofthephysicalworld”流派介绍:早期功能学派欧洲功能学派:布拉格学派,哥本哈根学派贡献:音位学,已知信息和待传信息主位和述位主题和评述影响大功能主义鼻祖。FunctionalschoolsinEurope:thePragueSchooltheCopenhagenSchool:contributiontophonologygivennewinformationthemerhemetopiccommentinfluentialaround美国结构主义:博厄斯,萨裴尔,布龙菲尔德,哈利斯,豪克特等萨裴尔沃尔夫假说,又称语言相对论哲学上的实证主义和“百板说”心理学上的行为主义Americanstructuralism:FBoaz,ESapir,LeonardBloomfield,ZHariss,CHockett,theSapirWhorfhypothesis,empiricisminphilosophy,‘blankslate’,behaviorisminpsychology流派介绍:美国结构主义严格的“发现程序”,二分法,不问意义和功能,看结构分布重证据,不看主观印象教学上的“听说法”影响外语教学几十年豪克特的确个语言设计特征十分重要Rigid‘procedureofdiscovery’,binarycutting,ignoremeaningdistributionofelementsemphasisonevidencethanimpressionaudiolingualmethodinteachingdesignfeaturesoflanguage美国的乔姆斯基:生成语法语言上的一场革命其语言观,哲学上的唯理主义,心理学上认知主义语言与生俱来,强调大脑的初始状态目标是揭示语言本质和人类本质Chomsky’sGenerativegrammar:arevolutionrationalisminphilosophycognitivepsychologylanguageisinnateinitialstateofmindrevealnatureofLtoshownatureofman莱茵斯评乔氏:“Chomky’spositionisnotonlyuniquewithinlinguisticsatthepresenttime,butisprobablyunprecedentedinthewholehistoryofthesubject…Rightorwrong,Chomsky’stheoryofgrammarisundoubtedlythemostdynamicandinfluential,andnolinguistwhowishestokeepabreastofcurrentdevelopmentsinhissubjectcanaffordtoignoreChomsky’stheoreticalpronouncements”–JohnLyonsChomsky“Itseemsplainthatlanguageacquisitionisbasedonthechild’sdiscoveryofwhatfromaformalpointofviewisadeepandabstracttheory–agenerativegrammarofhislanguage–manyoftheconceptsandprinciplesofwhichareonlyremotelyrelatedtoexperiencebylongandintricatechainsoftheunconsciousquasiinferentialstepsAconsiderationofthecharacterofthegrammarthatisacquired,thedegeneratequalityandnarrowlylimitedextentoftheavailabledata,thestrikinguniformityoftheresultinggrammar,andtheirindependenceofintelligence,motivation,andemotionalstate,overwiderangeofvariation,leavelittlehopethatmuchofthestructureofthelanguagecanbelearnedbyanorganisminitiallyuninformedastoitsgeneralcharacter(Chomsky:Aspectsofthetheoryofsyntax)“显然语言习得基于儿童发现从形式角度看是一种深奥、抽象的理论即母语的一种生成语法。这种语法的许多概念和原则必须经过漫长、复杂的无意识的亚推理过程才与经验稍稍相连。稍微想一想儿童习得的语法性质他接触到的语料质量之差和范围之小儿童习得语言与智力、动机、情绪毫无关系而且他们的环境因素千差万别最后所得语法的却惊人地相似让我们很难相信一个对语法没有大致了解的有机体能够学到这麽多语言结构知识。”乔氏《句法理论面面观》语言描写力求形式化句法独立,句法为核心观察充分,描写充分,解释充分其影响深远,令人耳目一新乔氏理论对哲学,心理学,计算机语言,形式化等,都有贡献ToformalizethedescriptionofLindependenceofsyntaxemphasisonexplanatorypowercontributiontophilosophy,psychology,computersciencebiologybiolinguisticsChomsky:语言天赋In“TheArchitectureofLanguage”(:)hewrote:“LotsofpeoplerejecttheproposalthatlanguageisinnatebutnobodyanswersthemThereasonwhynobodyanswersisthattheirargumentswouldmakenosenseThere’snowaytoanswerthemTosaythat‘languageisnotinnate’istosaythatthereisnodifferencebetweenmygranddaughter,arockandarabbitInotherwords,ifyoutakearock,arabbitandmygranddaughterandputtheminacommunitywherepeoplearetalkingEnglish,they’llalllearnEnglishIfpeoplebelievethat,thentheybelievethatlanguageisnotinnateIftheybelievethatthereisadifferencebetweenmygranddaughter,arabbitandarock,thentheybelievethatlanguageisinnate”Chomsky:语言教学Chomsky()”…teachingshouldnotbecomparedtofillingabottlewithwaterbutrathertohelpingaflowertogrowinitsownwayAsanygoodteacherknows,themethodsofinstructionandrangeofmaterialcoveredareofsmallimportantascomparedwiththesuccessinarousingthenaturalcuriosityofthestudents唤起学生的自然好奇心andstimulatingtheirinterestin流派介绍:系统功能语言学伦敦语言学派:英国有悠久语言研究传统人造语言、速写、拼法改革等起于英国著名语音学家丹尼尔琼斯DanielJones、亨利斯威特HenrySweet生于这里。伦敦学派后来成为系统功能语法学派。马林诺夫斯基,佛斯,韩礼德等意义即使用语言环境决定意义结构与系统语言潜势和语言实际行为组合关系和聚合关系语言功能分类TheLondonSchool:BritainhasalongtraditionoflanguagestudiesThegreatphoneticiansHenrySweetDanielJones。Malinovki,JRFirth,MAKHallidaymeaningisusecontextdeterminesmeaningemphasisonbothstructureandsystemlinguisticpotentialandactualbehaviorparadigmaticsyntagmaticrelationstypesoffunctionsoflanguage语言是许多小系统组成的大系统语言的结构由社会功能所决定语言的三大功能儿童语言的七大功能在教学上和文体学上都有贡献Languageisasystemofmanysubsystemsthreemacrofunctionoflanguage(ideational,interpersonal,textualfunction)children’ssevenfunctionscontributiontolanguageteachingandstylisticspopularinChina语言系统Thematerialprocess:actionandeventThetransitivitysystem及物性系统:materialprocess,mentalprocess,relationalprocess,verbalandbehavioralprocess,existentialprocessTheactionprocess:intentionprocessandsuperventionprocessThementalprocess:internalizedprocessandexternalizedprocessTheinternalizedprocess:perception,reactionandcognitionprocesses(p)TherearerealizationrelationshipsbetweenvariouslevelsThechoiceofmeaningisrealizedbythechoiceofform,whichinturnisrealizedbythechoiceofsoundsWhatcanbedoneisrealizedbywhatcanbemeant,whichisrealizedbywhatcanbesaid语言功能FunctionsofChildren’sLanguage:Theinstrumentalfunction:tomeethismaterialneedsandservices(工具)Theregulatoryfunction:tocontrolothers’behavior(调节)Theinteractionalfunction:totalkwithothers(交际)Thepersonalfunction:toexpresshisfeelings(个人表达)Theheuristicfunction:toknowabouthisownsurroundings(探索)Theimaginativefunction:tocreatesurroundings(想象)Theinformativefunction:toprovideinformationforothers(告知)Theadult’slanguagehastoservemanyfunctions,thesearegraduallyreducedtoasetofhighlycodedandabstractfunctionsFunctionsofadult’slanguage:Ideationalfunction,interpersonalfunctionandtextualfunction概念功能、人际功能、语篇功能TheIdeationalfunction(概念功能):toconveynewinformationunknowntothehearerItisthemeaningpotential,usedinalllanguagesItistorefertocategoriesofexperienceoftheworldTheinterpersonalfunction(人际功能):itembodiesalltheusesoflanguagetoexpresssocialandpersonalrelationsthewaysthespeakerentersintoaspeechsituationandperformsaspeechactItisrealizedbymood语气andmodality情态TheTextualFunction(语篇功能):Languagehasmechanismstomakeanystretchofspokenorwrittendiscourseintoacoherentandunifiedtextandmakealivingmessagedifferentfromarandomlistofsentences“JohnsawahandbaginafieldJohnwalkedacrossafieldandpickedupahandbagJohntookahandbagtothepolicestationandJohnhandedahandbagtoapoliceman”一个新学派:认知语言学认知语言学:是不是一个新流派还是一个分支始于世纪年代,关心语言与心智和大脑的关系,说语言是认知系统的一部分认知系统是由感知,情感,范畴化,抽象化,和推理等能力组成目标不是描写语言行为,而是解释引起语言行为的心理结构和心理过程,揭示语言背后内在的深层规律人物:乔姆斯基,Talmy,Jackendoff,Langacker,Lakoff,Biewish,Hudson,Fillmore,Talor等莱科夫GeorgeLakoff"Weareneuralbeings,"statesBerkeleycognitivescientistGeorgeLakoff"OurbrainstaketheirinputfromtherestofourbodiesWhatourbodiesarelikeandhowtheyfunctionintheworldthusstructurestheveryconceptswecanusetothinkWecannotthinkjustanythingonlywhatourembodiedbrainspermit"LTalmyPhDBerkerleyPioneeringworkIncognitivelinguisticsIamnotifthisisanewschoolorwhatPeoplesaylanguageanditsusearebasedonourbodilyexperienceandthewaytoconceptualizeitiscalledcognitivelinguisticsItisanewapproachtothestudyoflanguageandmindTopicsincludestructureofcharacterization(prototype,metaphor,mentalimagery),conceptualinterfacebetweensyntaxandsemantics,theexperientialandpragmaticbackgroundoflanguageinuse,andtherelationshipbetweenlanguageandthought认知语言学的理论原则:语义结构没有普遍性语法不独立语法和词汇没有意义区别(符号连续体)研究领域:范畴化,概念隐喻,转喻,多义性,拟象性,语法化等跨学科性:与哲学,心理学,人类学,计算机科学,神经语言学等有关有不同学派:圣地亚哥派,伯克利学派Principles:semanticstructurehasnouniversalssyntaxisnotindependentsyntaxandvocabularyformacontinuumofsymbols,notdistinguishedinmeaningAreas:characterization,metaphor,polysemy,iconicity,grammatizationetcHighlycrossdisciplinary:philosophy,psychology,computerscience,neurology,anthropologyetc塔尔密Talmy’sworkCognitivesemantics:句中的视角:“Therearesomehousesinthevalley”“Thereisahouseeverynowandthenthroughthevalley”注意焦点:“Thebikeisnearthehouse”“Thehouseisnearthebike”动力学:“Theballrolledalongthegreen”“Theballkeptrollingalongthegreen”事件的时间划分:ThebeaconflashedThebeaconkeptflashingThebeaconflashedtimesinarowThebeaconskeptflashingtimesatastretchThebeaconskeptflashingtimesatastretchforhoursTowardaCognitiveSemanticsCambridge,MA:MITPressVolumeI    ConceptStructuringSystemsPart:FoundationsofConceptualStructuringinLanguageChTheRelationofGrammartoCognitionPart:ConfigurationalStructureChFictiveMotioninLanguageand"Ception"ChHowLanguageStructuresSpacePart:AttentionChTheWindowingofAttentioninLanguageChFigureandGroundinLanguageChStructuresthatRelateEventsPart:ForceandCausationChForceDynamicsinLanguageandHYPERLINK"http:linguisticsbuffaloedupeoplefacultytalmytalmywebVolumechappdf"t"parent"CognitionChTheSemanticsofCausationHYPERLINK"http:linguisticsbuffaloedupeoplefacultytalmytalmywebVolumereferencespdf"t"parent"ReferencesIndexVolumeII    TypologyandProcessinConceptStructuringPart:TypologicalPatternsintheRepresentationofEventStructureChLexicalizationPatternsChSurveyingLexicalizationPatternsChATypologyofEventIntegrationChBorrowingSemanticSpace:DiachronicHYPERLINK"http:linguisticsbuffaloedupeoplefacultytalmytalmywebVolumechappdf"t"parent"HybridizationPart:OtherCognitiveSystemsChTheCognitiveCultureSystemChACognitiveFrameworkforNarrativeHYPERLINK"http:linguisticsbuffaloedupeoplefacultytalmytalmywebVolumechappdf"t"parent"StructurePart:SemanticInteractionChSemanticConflictandResolutionChCommunicativeGoalsandMeans:TheirHYPERLINK"http:linguisticsbuffaloedupeoplefacultytalmytalmywebVolumechappdf"t"parent"CognitiveInteractionReferencesHYPERLINK"http:linguisticsbuffaloedupeoplefacultytalmytalmywebVolumechappdf"t"parent"Index莱科夫Lakoff’sworkTheybegantothinkofexpressionslike“It’sbeenalongbumpyroad”,“Themarriageisontherock”,“It’soffthetrack”,“We’respinningourwheels”,“We’regoingindifferentdirections”,“Weareatacrossroadsintherelationship”Thentheygeneralized:Ineverycase,theloverelationshipisavehicleIneverycase,thecommonlifegoalsoftheloversaredestinationstheywanttogettotogetherAndineverycasethedifficultiesintherelationshiparethingsthatkeepthemfromreachingthedestination:spinningwheels,deadendstreet,goingindifferentdirections,andsoonThetravelersmappedthelovers,vehiclesthemappedrelationshipsThisisakindofmathematicalmappingThereasoningthatyoudoabouttravelismappedontothereasoningyoudoaboutlove“LOVEISAJOURNEYisexactlyinthemapping”WhatisaconceptinthebrainHowdowegetconceptandhowdowegetcomplicatedconceptslikegrasping,andhowdowegetabstractconceptlikegraspingideasorcausationorsomethinglikethatSotheideaisthis:meaningismentalstimulationinthebrainusingyourphysicalbrainMentalstimulationisimaginingsomethingSoifIgiveyouasentencelike“Johnpickedupthebottle”,inordertounderstandthatsentence,youhavetoatleastbeabletoimaginesomeonepickingupthebottleIfyoucannotevenimagineit,thenyoucannotunderstandthesentenceSounderstandingrequiresimaginingsomethingasifyouweredoingit,seeingitthatrequiresthesamepartofthebrainasdoingitorseeingitHowdoesthatrelatetotheworldAconceptistheminimalunitoflinguisticmeaning,themeaningofwordsaremadeupofconceptsThereisaminimalunitofreasoning,whichusesconceptsThesamepartofthebrainthatmovesyourbodyalsoreasonsaboutaspectWecallourtheorysimulationsemanticsbecauseitsaysmeaningismentalsimulationusingthosepartsofthebrainthatyouusefortheimaginationofbothseeingandactingSoconceptshaveaninternalstructurecalledneuralparametersAndneuralparameterissomethingasdiscoveredintheneuralsystemForexample,somethinglikereachingforanobjectmakesuseoftheparameterofdirectionPAGE

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