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首页 全球变暖主要影响因素(Major factors affecting global warmin…

全球变暖主要影响因素(Major factors affecting global warming).doc

全球变暖主要影响因素(Major factors affect…

春南的千凡
2018-10-13 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《全球变暖主要影响因素(Major factors affecting global warming)doc》,可适用于社会民生领域

全球变暖主要影响因素(Majorfactorsaffectingglobalwarming)全球变暖主要影响因素(Majorfactorsaffectingglobalwarming)Watervaporisknowntobethemostabundantgreenhousegasonearth,butitsstatusinglobalwarminghasbeencontroversial,accordingtotheAmericandailysciencewebsiteMorerecently,researchershaveusedthelatestNASAsatellitedatatoestimateitstrappingabilityintheairmorescientificallyandaccurately,confirmingthatitisanimportantfactorinclimatechangeMorerecently,thestudy,fundedbyNASA,hasbeenpublishedinthegeophysicalresearchlettersintheAmericanGeophysicalunionWatervaporwasidentifiedasamajorcontributingfactortoclimatechangeWhenwetalkaboutgreenhousegasesandclimatechange,carbondioxideisoftenthemostwidespreadconcern,althoughcarbondioxideisbyfarthemostimportantcomponentofgreenhousegases,butthereareothergasesWhatallgreenhousegaseshaveincommonisthattheyallowthesun'sraystoshootintotheatmosphere,butabsorbsomeoftheinfraredradiationthatgoesoutandwarmstheatmosphereGreenhousegasescanhelpkeeptheearth'ssurfaceatamorepleasantlevelneardegreesF(degreesFahrenheit)Butashumanactivityproducescarbondioxideconcentrations,theaveragetemperatureoftheearthisrisingandcausingdangerouschangesinclimateCarbondioxideisoftenblamedforthecrisisbecauseitaccountsforofgreenhousegasemissionsWhenhomesareheated,cars,factories,andnuclearpowerstationsburnfossilfuelssuchasoil,gasandcoal,whenwecutorburnforests,whenweproducecement,wedischargecarbondioxideintotheatmosphereLikecarbondioxide,methaneandnitrousoxide,two,areallpriortohumanexistenceonearth,buttheirpresencehasdramaticallyincreasedtheirlevelsSixSF,fluorocarbonandHFCSisagreenhousegasproducedbyhumanactivityTheemissionsofthesegasesarealsoincreasingWatervaporisalsoanaturalgreenhousegasItincreaseswiththewarmingoftheclimate,thusexacerbatingthegreenhouseeffectcausedbyhumanactivitiesAMoftheUniversityofTexasintheUnitedStates(TexasAMUniversity)AndrewDessler(AndrewDessler)andhiscolleaguesshowthatthethermaleffectofwatervaporisstrongenough,itisequivalenttotheglobalwarmingeffectofcarbondioxideintheatmospherecausedbystrengtheningdoubledScientistsusenewobservationalmethodstotesthowexistingclimatemodelsaffectglobalwarmingTheresearchersusedNASA'sAQUAsatelliteAtmosphericInfraredSounder(AIRS)thelatestdatacapturedbythelowestatmosphericlayerwithinkmofthehumiditymeasureaccuratelywithtemperaturechangesintheglobalobservation,sothattheinteractionbetweenresearcherstobuildagastowatervapor,carbondioxideandotheratmosphericwarmingtheemissions,inordertogetmorecomprehensiveunderstanding"Everyoneagreesthatifcarbondioxideisreleasedintotheatmosphere,itcanleadtoclimatewarming,"DeislersaidButtherealquestionis,howmuchwilltheclimategetwarmer"Hesaid,theanswercanbecalculatedfromtheseriesofwatervaporfeedback,watervaporincreasewillleadtorisingtemperatures,andrisingtemperatureswillleadtomorewatervaporisabsorbedintotheair,warmingandwaterabsorptiontoincreasethespiralcycleWatervaporfeedbackalsoamplifiesthewarmingeffectsofothergreenhousegasesForexample,warmingcausedbytheincreaseincarbondioxidewillcausemorewatervaportoentertheatmosphereDeislersaid:"atmosphericwatervaporfeedbackisverydifferent,withstrongandweakwatervaporfeedbackpoints""Theclimatemodelcanestimatethestrengthofthewatervaporfeedback,butthepreviouswatervapordatarecordisnotfineenoughtoshowacomprehensiverelationshipbetweenchangesintheearth'ssurfacetemperatureandwatervaporThisisbecausetheearthandpreviousspaceinstrumentsareunabletomeasurethewatervaporatallaltitudesoftheearth'stroposphere,whichcoversaboutmilesfromtheearth'ssurfaceTheatmosphericinfrareddetectoristhefirstdevicetomeasuredifferentamountsofwatervaporinallaltitudesofthetroposphereUsingdataontheAIRS,theteamobservedhowsurfacetemperaturechangesbetweenandaffectedsurfacehumiditychangesBydetermininghowthehumidityvarieswiththesurfacetemperature,theresearchteamcancalculatetheaverageintensityofglobalwatervaporfeedback"Thedatasetsshowthatasthesurfacetemperaturerises,theatmospherichumidityincreases,too""Greenhousegasesareemittedintotheatmospheretomaketheatmospheremorehumid,"DeislersaidAswatervaporitselfisagreenhousegas,theincreaseinhumiditystrengthenstheglobalwarmingeffectofcarbondioxide"Specifically,theteamfoundthatiftheearthwarmsdegreesCelsius,thewatervaporaddedpersquaremeter(aboutsquarefeet)willtrapanadditionalwattsofenergy"Thismaynotsoundlikemuch,butconsideringallthewatervaporacrosstheearth'ssurfaceastrappingenergy,youwillfindthatthefeedbackofwatervaporisverypowerful"Itisequivalenttodoublingtheglobalwarmingeffectcausedbycarbondioxideintheatmosphere"NASA'sJetPropulsionLaboratoryofatmosphericscientistEricFetzersaid:"thisstudyconfirmsthatthepredictionmodelcanactuallyoccurintheatmosphere,watervaporisanimportantfactorinclimatechange"TheresultingglobalwarminghazardsBecausetheaccurateobservationofnewresultswiththepreviousassessmentoffavorableeffectsofwatervapor,scientistsmorereasonresearchersusedthemodelpredictionmethodthaninthepast,believethattheearth'smajorgreenhousegaswillmaketheglobaltemperatureriseofafewdegreesbeforetheendofthiscenturyFutureglobalwarming,thespecificdamagetotheearthandhumanity,including:Scorchinghot。ActualmeasurementsofglobaltemperaturegrowthshowthattheoveralltrendofglobalwarmingisveryclearThetemperaturehasbeenrisingsteadilyinrecentyearsOfthehottestyearsmeasured,belongtothelastyearsHeatwaveshavebeguntoemerge,andscientistsbelievesuchheatwaveswillbemorecommonifglobalwarmingisnotaddressedInthesummerof,Europesufferedapowerfulheatwave,killingpeopleGlacierablationAlmostallglaciersintheworldaremelting,manyofwhicharemeltingveryfastTanzaniaLuoshanKilimanjaro,pastSnowgleamswhiteglacierscoveredtheprestigious,now,snowmelt,glacierretreatseriousIceglaciersinMontana'sGlacierNationalPark,afamoustouristattractionintheUnitedStatesins,arerunningoutoficeandsnowScientistsbelievethatalltheglaciersintheparkwillprobablydieoutwithinyearsTherearetwoplacesonearththatcanactascanariesincoalminesthemostsensitivetotheeffectsofglobalwarmingOneisthenorthpoleandtheotheristheSouthpoleInthesetwoplacesoficeandsnow,scientistshaveseenfasterchangesinclimate,whichconstituteanevenmoresignificanteffectthananywhereelseonearthFromphotographs,thepolesoftheearthareverysimilar,coveredbyiceandsnowThereis,however,ahugedifferenceatthebottomofasimilarsurface,andtheArcticicecapislessthanfeetincomparisonwiththehugeicecapstensofthousandsoffeetabovetheantarcticTherootofthisdifferenceishiddenbeneaththeice:theAntarcticislandsurroundedbytheocean,whilethenorthpoleistheseasurroundedbylandThethinArcticicefloesandfrozenlayersthatsurroundtheArcticOceanonthenorthernsideoftheArcticCirclemakethemparticularlyvulnerabletosuddenupwardtemperaturesThishasledtothemostdramaticimpactofglobalwarmingontheArctic:acceleratedmeltingoftheiceThetemperaturethereishigherthananyotherpartoftheearthThemeltingoftheArcticOceanhasaprofoundimpactonglobalclimatepatternsFlood。Inmanypartsoftheworld,globalwarmingalsoincreasesthepercentageofrainfallinannualprecipitation(includingrain,snow,etc),whichresultsinmorefloodsinspringandearlysummerEuropewasexperiencingseveralterriblefloodswhentheUnitedStatescametoanendin,aseriesofunprecedentedpowerfulhurricanesInAugust,,UPIsummedupthefeelingsofmanyEuropeansatthattime:"inEurope,natureismad""FloodinginAsiahasalsoincreasedmarkedlyInMarch,India,Mumbai,hadarainfallofmillimetersinhours,thehighestrecordedrainfallinanycityinIndiasofarThehorizontalsurfacerisestometersBiologicaldeclineGlobalwarminghasdisruptedtheecologicalrelationshipsbetweenhundredsofmillionsofspeciesindelicatebalancebetweendifferentspeciesAnotherexampleofwhatweknowaboutglobalwarmingishowtobreakthebalanceofnatureInsouthernSwitzerland,thenumberofgroundfrostshasplummetedeveryyear,whilethenumberofinvasivealienspecieshasrisensharply,rapidlytakingoverthenewlycreatedecologicalpositionManyoftheworld'sspeciesarenowthreatenedbyclimatechange,someofwhichhavebecomeextinctPartofthereasonforthisistheclimatecrisis,partlybecauseofhumaninvasionsinareaswherethespeciesflourishedHurricane。Itisnowwidelybelievedthattheincreasingdestructivepowerofhurricanesislinkedtoglobalwarming,partlybecausestudiesshowamarkedincreaseinthemagnitudeofhurricanesfourandfiveAnotherstudypredictsthatglobalwarmingwilladduptohalfthelevelofHurricanepoweratthefamousfiveclassratingTheNationalOceanicandAtmosphericAdministrationsummedupsomeofthefactorsthatareprevalentinthesenewsurveysWhenthewatertemperaturerises,thewindspeedandstormhumidityincreaseDroughtWarmingalsocausesevaporationofsoilmoistureintheUnitedstatesChangesinsoilwatercontentintheUnitedStatesascarbondioxidelevelsdoubledAccordingtoscientists,ifthecurrentpracticeisnotchanged,inthenextyears,thevastplantingareaoftheUnitedStateswillloseofsoilmoisture,regardlessofotheradverseconsequencesNodoubt,drylandwillleadtoreducedvegetablemoisture,croplosses,increasedfirefrequencyNotonlythat,scientistshavewarnedthatifwedonottaketimelymeasurestocontrolthepollutioncausedbyglobalwarming,carbondioxidecontentquicklyincreasedfromtimestotimes,sothesoilmoisturelosswillreachThedroughtalsobroughtaboutpoliticalunrestandwarTaketheSaharadesertinAfricaasanexampleAnincredibletragedyfollowed,affectingtheregionfromsouthernSultantotheeastcoastofLakechadGenocideiscommonontheeastcoastofdarfurInNiger,theWestBank,faminecausedbydroughthasthreatenedmillionsofpeople(

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