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首页 西安电子科技大学09年专业英语阅读考题

西安电子科技大学09年专业英语阅读考题.doc

西安电子科技大学09年专业英语阅读考题

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2019-05-31 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《西安电子科技大学09年专业英语阅读考题doc》,可适用于考试题库领域

西安电子科技大学研究生课程考试试题考试科目:研究生专业英语阅读课程代码:考试日期:年月日考试时间:分钟答案请写在答题纸上。Partone:SentenceTranslationfromChinesetoEnglish()这种现象称为收敛(convergence),对它的研究构成了现代分析中重要的一章。Thisphenomenisknownasconvergence,anditsstudyformanimportantchapterinmodernanalysis二十世纪外太空探索的成就之一是人们意识到了外太空可能存在生命。Oneoftheachievementinouterspaceexplorationinthcenturywastheawarenessthattheremaybeexitlifeinouterspace尽管(as)没有经验,他却能设计出这样一个如此复杂的电路。Inexperienceasheis,hecandesignsuchacomplexcircuit弹性(elasticity)被定义为一物体形变(deform)后恢复其原状的趋势(tendency)。Elasticityisdefinedasthetendencyofabodytoreturnitsoriginalstateafterbeingdeformed由于计算机运算准确,速度高,它能够为人们节省很多时间和精力。Accuracyinoperationandhighinspeed,computercansavepeoplealotoftimeandenergy在这种情况下并不能保证(assuranceguarantee)该电路就调谐于(betunedto)那个频率上。Inthiscasethereisnoassurancethatthiscircuitistunedtothatfrequency自从本书出版以来的这十年间,在电子学方面发生了巨大的变化。Duringthetenyearssincethisbookwaspublished,therehavebeengreatchangesinelectronic为了访问这些记录,用户只需要启动(launch)浏览器(browser)来访问一下网址就行了。Tovisittheserecords,useronlyneedtolaunchthebrowsertovisitthewebsit普通的窗户均承受不了这么大的力。NoenofOrdinarywindowcanstandsuchsolargeaforce地球离月球的距离远达万英里。Thedistancebetweentheearthanthemoonreachat,miles必须确定到底在什么条件下这个方程是成立的。Itisnecessarytodetermineunderwhatconditiontheequationistrue测量过程是物理学中最基础的操作,本章将对其进行简要讨论。Themostfundamentaloperationinphysics,theprocessofmeasurementwillbediscussedbrieflyinthischapter为使这个级数(series)收敛(converge),x必须小于。Forthisseriestoconverge,xmustbelessthan当把这些值代入式Eq()之后,我们得到下面的结果。UponsubstitutingthesevaluesintoEq(),wecangetfollowingresult把信号从一地发送到另一地就是人们所说的传输(transmission)。SendingasingalfromoneplacetoanotherplaceiswhatiscalledtransmissoionParttwo:MistakesCorrection()(Writedownthecorrectedsentenceontheanswersheet)TheAtlanticwassodangerousfortheAmericanstosendenoughmenandwarmaterialsacrossOnlywhentheforceisknownasafunctionoftimethisintegralcanbeevaluatedBypowermeansthespeed,orrate,ofworkbeingdoneOnbeingheating,theairinthebottlewillbeexpanded(expanded)TheintroductionoftheabilityoffreezingoftherefrigeratorismadeThispaperdescribesthepropertiesandthealgorithmofthistypeofproblemTheresistanceofaconductor(depends)notonlydependsonthematerialwith(of)whichtheconductorismade,butalsoonthesizeandtemperatureoftheconductorEngineersarebusytodesign(designing)atypeofnewcomputerDistanceequalstospeedmultiplying(multipliedby)timeThisisinpartdue(inpart)to(thefact)thatearthisnotsphericalManyof(the)principlesofareceiveralsoapply(also)foratransmitterTheratethatworkisdoneisreferredtoaspowerThisdemandisdifficulttobesatisfied(satisfy)underthetemperatureof℃Thisisatoo(so)smallsignalthatitcannotmaketransistorQconductThevoltageontheresistorisafewtenthsofthevoltPartthree:Readthisarticle,translatetheunderlinedsentences(),answerthequestions()andthensummarizethisarticlewithinwords()AReviewofFragileImageWatermarks(水印)Theageofdigitalmultimediahasbroughtmanyadvantagesinthecreationanddistributionofimagecontentbuttheeaseofcopyingandeditingalsofacilitatesunauthorizeduse,misappropriation(占有),andmisrepresentation(误传)Contentprovidersarenaturallyconcernedabouttheseissuesandwatermarking,whichistheactofembeddinganothersignal(thewatermark)intoanimage,havebeenproposedtoprotectanowner’srightsManytypesofwatermarkshavebeendevelopedforavarietyofapplicationsWatermarksmaybevisibleorinvisible,whereavisiblemarkiseasilydetectedbyobservationwhileaninvisiblemarkisdesignedtobetransparent(清晰的)totheobserveranddetectedusingsignalprocessingtechniquesTheprocessofembeddingthewatermarkrequiresmodifyingtheoriginalimageandinessencethewatermarkingprocessinsertsacontrolledamountof“distortion”(失真)intheimageTherecoveryofthisdistortionallowstheonetoidentifytheowneroftheimageInvisibleortransparentmarksusetheproperties(特性)ofthehumanvisualsystemtominimizetheperceptual(知觉的)distortioninthewatermarkedimageIntheclassoftransparentwatermarksonemayfurthercategorizetechniquesasrobustorfragileArobustmarkisdesignedtoresistattacksthatattempttoremoveordestroythemarkSuchattacksincludelossycompression,filtering,andgeometricscaling(缩放)AfragilemarkisdesignedtodetectslightchangestothewatermarkedimagewithhighprobabilityThemainapplicationoffragilewatermarksisincontentauthenticationMostofthework,asreportedintheliterature,inwatermarkingisintheareaofrobusttechniquesManyimportantapplicationscouldbenefitfromtheuseoffragilewatermarksAfragilewatermarkisamarkthatisreadilyalteredordestroyedwhenthehostimageismodifiedthroughalinearornonlineartransformationFragilemarksarenotsuitedforenforcingcopyrightownershipofdigitalimagesanattackerwouldattempttodestroytheembeddedmarkandfragilemarksare,bydefinition,easilydestroyedThesensitivityoffragilemarkstomodificationleadstotheiruseinimageauthenticationThatis,itmaybeofinterestforpartiestoverifythatanimagehasnotbeenedited,damaged,oralteredsinceitwasmarkedImageauthenticationsystemshaveapplicabilityinlaw,commerce,defense,andjournalismSincedigitalimagesareeasytomodify,asecureauthenticationsystemisusefulinshowingthatnotampering(篡改)hasoccurredduringsituationswherethecredibilityofanimagemaybequestionedCommonexamplesarethemarkingofimagesinadatabasetodetecttampering,theuseina“trustworthycamera”sonewsagenciescanensureanimageisnotfabricatedoreditedtofalsifyevents,andthemarkingofimagesincommercesoabuyercanbeassuredthattheimagesboughtareauthenticuponreceiptOthersituationsincludeimagesusedincourtroomevidence,journalisticphotography,orimagesinvolvedinespionageAnothermethodtoverifytheauthenticityofadigitalworkistheuseofasignaturesystemInasignaturesystem,adigestofthedatatobeauthenticatedisobtainedbytheuseofcryptographic(密码的)hashfunctionsThedigestisthencryptographicallysignedtoproducethesignaturethatisboundtotheoriginaldataLater,arecipient(接收者)verifiesthesignaturebyexaminingthedigestofthe(possiblymodified)dataandusingaverificationalgorithmdeterminesifthedataisauthenticWhilethepurposeoffragilewatermarkinganddigitalsignaturesystemsaresimilar,watermarkingsystemsofferseveraladvantagescomparedtosignaturesystemsattheexpenseofrequiringsomemodification(watermarkinsertion)oftheimagedataSinceawatermarkisembeddeddirectlyintheimagedata,noadditionalinformationisnecessaryforauthenticityverification(Thisisunlikedigitalsignaturessincethesignatureitselfmustbeboundtothetransmitteddata)ThereforethecriticalinformationneededintheauthenticitytestingprocessisdiscreetlyhiddenandmoredifficulttoremovethanadigitalsignatureAlso,digitalsignaturesystemsviewanimageasanarbitrarybitstreamanddonotexploititsuniquestructureThereforeasignaturesystemmaybeabletodetectthatanimagehadbeenmodifiedbutcannotcharacterizethealterationsManywatermarkingsystemscandeterminewhichareasofamarkedimagehavebeenalteredandwhichareashavenot,aswellasestimatethenatureofthealterationsQuestions:Whatactioncanbetakentopreventtheunauthorizeduse,misappropriation,andmisrepresentationofimagecontentWhatarerobustwatermarksdesignedforArefragilewatermarkssuitableforimageauthenticationWhyInwhichfieldsareimageauthenticationusedWhataretheadvantagesoffragilewatermarkingoverthedigitalsignaturesysteminverifyingtheauthenticityofadigitalwork

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西安电子科技大学09年专业英语阅读考题

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