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首页 英语毕业论文:《苏菲的选择》中苏菲的心理创伤研究

英语毕业论文:《苏菲的选择》中苏菲的心理创伤研究.doc

英语毕业论文:《苏菲的选择》中苏菲的心理创伤研究

徐水月
2017-09-01 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《英语毕业论文:《苏菲的选择》中苏菲的心理创伤研究doc》,可适用于高等教育领域

英语毕业论文:《苏菲的选择》中苏菲的心理创伤研究石河子大学毕业论文题目:《苏菲的选择》中苏菲的心理创伤研究OnSophie‟sPsychologicalTraumainSophie’sChoice院(系):外国语学院专业:英语班级:学号:姓名:指导教师:完成日期:年月日AbstractSophie’schoiceisoneofthegreatestnovelswrittenbyWilliamStyron,afamousthAmericannovelistinthecenturyThepaperpresentsaninterpretationofthethenovelfromtheperspectiveofPsychologicalTrauma,fromthescenesofAuschwitzConcentrationCampandpostwarAmericanlife,combiningwiththefeminismtofocusontheinfluenceofthewarandPatriarchalcageonfemale(takingtheheroineSophieasanexample)ThepaperanalyzestheinfluenceofPsychologicalTraumaonSophiebyintroducingthePsychologicalTraumaTheoryandthecauseofSophie‟sPsychologicalTraumaAuschwitzConcentrationCampandPatriarchalcageThroughresearch,thispapernotonlyoffersconveniencetootherresearchers,butalsohascertainsocialandrealisticsignificanceinhelpingpeopledealwithtraumasinthepastandpresent,thusavoidingsuchtragedyhappeningagainKeywords:Sophie’schoicePsychologicalTraumaAuschwitzConcentrationCamp摘要威廉斯泰龙是世纪美国著名的小说家《苏菲的选择》是其成名作之一。本文主要从心理创伤角lFirst,thethemeofthenovel,forinstance,ChenWeiwei‟s“TheDisillusionofRedemptionandSelfRescueWilliamStyron‟s„Sophie‟sChoice‟”,focusesonthethemeofredemption,ChenWeiweithinksthatStyronshowsthedisillusionofredemptionandselfrescuethroughtheexaminationofpeople‟shugetraumainWorldWarIISecond,thenarrativetechniques,forexample,“OntheNarrativeStrategiesof„Sophie‟sChoice”ofZengChuanfangputsforwardthatStyronnotonlyemploysthenarrativeasrhetoricandcriticalmetanarrative,butalsoblendsandcorroboratesthemwitheachotherThispaperisfromanewperspectivetointerpretthenovel‟snarrativestrategiesBesidesthetwomainresearch,somepapersarefromtheperspectiveofthefemaleimagetoexplorethetragicfateofwomeninStyron‟snovel,suchasFanGexin‟s“Women,theProtagonistoftheTragedyofLifeContemporaryAmericanWriterontheFemale”discussingtheimageofSophieSomepapersarefromtheperspectiveofNewHistoricismYangYouyu‟s“WilliamStyron‟sNewHistoricismConsciousnessin„Sophie‟sChoice‟”probesintotheNewHistoricistConsciousnessembodiedinthenovelCPersonalReviewSophie’sChoiceissooutstandinginthenovelsconnectedwithhistory,notonly第页共页年毕业论文OnSophie'sPsychologicalTraumainSophie'sChoicebecauseitrevealspeople‟ssufferingduringandafterthewar,butalsoanalysestheinfluenceofPatriarchalcageinthelifeofwomenOntheonehand,WorldWarII,theNazis,Auschwitzasarealhistory,leftpeoplewithnowaytomeasurethehurtandthepuzzleToday,Auschwitzhasbecomeasymbolofhistory,andremindstheworldthattheNazishadharshexistenceAftertheendofthewar,thesurvivorseventuallycouldnottolerateallkindsofpsychologicalpressureandchosetocommitsuicideBytakingSophie‟straumaandtragedyasamirror,WilliamStyronimpliestheuniversalityoftheNazievilwhichcancausedestructivetraumaticeffectsindividuallyandcollectively,andshowshishumanisticconcernthatpeopleshouldconfrontwithandwipeoutevilOntheotherhand,althoughfemaleareindispensabletothesociety,theyarenotonequaltermswithmalebutanaccessoryformaleandtrappedinthepatriarchalcageTakingSophieforexample,Sophie'slifeisunderthecontrolanddominationofthemen:lifeinPolandbeforeWorldWarII,SophieisabsoluteobediencetoherfatherlifeinconcentrationcampduringWorldWarII,SophieistryingtolureNazisusingherbodytosurvivelifeinBrooklynafterWorldWarII,SophieisdependentonhersaviorNathanHeronlyfemaleconsciousnessisexhaustedbecauseofthedespairoflife,sheultimatelychoosesdeathAsavictimoftheAuschwitzConcentrationCampandthepatriarchy,maybedeathisakindofrelieftoherThepaperaimsatlettingpeoplecomprehendthecomplexityofhumannature,understandhumanbeings‟feelingsofsufferingandthuspeoplewillpaymoreattentiontothelifeinthefutureMoreover,itadvocatesthatthefemaleshouldbreakfreefromtheshacklesofpatriarchalcagetheyshouldnotbetheaccessoryofmaleIIIAnalysisofSophie’sChoiceASophie’spsychologicaltraumaTraumaticeventscannotonlycauseapersontosufferfortraumaticsymptomsbutalsocausephysicalandpsychologicaldamagesandoverwhelmtheabilitytointegrateselfandmaintainrelationshipswithothersAuschwitzConcentrationCampAuschwitzisNaziGermany'slargestconcentrationcampandexterminationcampLocatedneartheindustrialtownofOświęciminsouthernPoland(inaportionofthecountrythatwasannexedbyGermanyatthebeginningofWorldWarII),第页共页年毕业论文OnSophie'sPsychologicalTraumainSophie'sChoiceAuschwitzwasactuallythreecampsinone:aprisoncamp,anexterminationcamp,andaslavelabourcampAsthemostlethaloftheNaziexterminationcamps,Auschwitzhasbecometheemblematicsiteofthe“finalsolution,”avirtualsynonymfortheHolocaustAsaprisonerinAuschwitz,Sophienotonlysuffersfromthepersecutionbothinmindandbody,becomingavictim,butalsoshehasbecomeahelperwhoworksforGermanarmyandindirectlyinvolvesinthepersecutionoftheJewishraceactionAllinall,sheisspirituallycondemnedbyherselfasanaccompliceJustasshesays,“therewasnoruleNoButsuchaterribleplacewasthisAuschwitz,Stingo,terriblebeyondallbelief,thatyoureallycouldnotsaythatthispersonshouldhavedoneacertainthinginafineornoblefashion,asintheotherworldIfheorshedoneanoblething,thenyoucouldadmirethemlikeanyplaceelse,buttheNazisweremurderersandwhentheywerenotmurderingtheyturnedpeopleintosickanimals,soifwhatthepeopledonewasnotsonoble,orevenwaslikeanimals,thenyouhavetounderstandit,hatingitmaybebutpityingitatthesametime,becauseyouknewhoweasyitwasforyoutoactlikeananimaltoo”(p)PatriarchalcageLivinginapatriarchalsociety,womencharacters‟lossofdiscoursepoweriscausedmainlybytheirsocialstatusandeconomicstatusTheprotagonistSophiealwaysreliesonthemalecharactersforlivingInPoland,shedependsonherfather,andafterescapingconcentrationcamp,shealwaysreliesonNathanShehaslostherownidentityandsearchesforthemeaningoflifeinothersUnderoppressionofmalecharacters,shebecomestooobedientandcowardtorebelaSophie‟sFatherInherrelationshipwithherfather,shecouldn‟tgetherfather‟sloveandcareshecouldonlyrecallthetenderfeelingfromtheactionofdribsanddrabsinchildhoodInadditiontothis,whatleftbyhisfatherisnothingbutfear,confusionandhatred:“IhatehimwithakindofterriblewonderatthehatredwhichenteredintomeItwasincredible,thesurpriseofthishatred,onlywithawfulpainlikeabutcherknifeinmyheart”(p)IntheeyesofSophie,herfatheris“ahouseholdtyrant”HeforceshisyoungdaughtertolearnGerman,typingandshorthand,lettingherbecomesecretaryforcollectinginformation,whichisactuallytogiveservicetohis第页共页年毕业论文OnSophie'sPsychologicalTraumainSophie'sChoicepoliticalbeliefsHeneverasksherdaughterwhethersheiswillingtodoornot,andwhathewantsisthatshemustunconditionallyobeyAslongasshehassomefeelingsthataresomehowcorrelatedtoherfather,unconditionalobedience,fearandpainareonlyhersEvensheherselfregardsheras“masochism”Ultimately,sheisnotonlyshockedwithfearbyherfathier‟spoliticalviews,butseesclearlyherfather‟sattitudetowardsherSheawakensthereforeshefeelsdisappointedandpainfulbNathanNathangivesSophieasecondlifeandsheregardshimashersaviorandrightpersonandcastsonhimallherhopesandlovesUnfortunately,Nathanisamadman,hesometimesisnormalbutsometimesnotWhenheisnormal,heisveryfriendlytoSophieandStingo,afaultlessloverofSophie,agoodfriendofStingohowever,whenheisabnormal,hecursesSophiewithviciouswords,doubtsherfaithfulness,interrogateswhyshecansurviveinAuschwitz,andevenstrikesherviolentlyInherview,themaltreatmentofNathandoesnotconstituteherpain,andonlyNathan‟sdeparturemakesherfeelflusteredandupsetSophiecantoleratehisviolenceanddrugabuse,buttheunpredictablepersonalityofNathangivesherunbearablepainAlthoughNathanisattractedbySophie‟sbeauty,hehatesSophieforherPolishidentityNathanhassuchastrongantiNazicomplex,thatheviewshimselfthespokesmanforthewholeJewnationHespendsmuchtimeandenergyincollectingdataofconcentrationcamp,antiSemitismandholocaustandconstantlyremindsSophiethetraumaticeventwhichSophietrieshardtoforgetHealsocallsSophieabeautifulwomanwhohangedmanyJewishprisonersintheAuschwitzconcentrationcampHeconvincesSophiethatsheisalreadyahalfdeadpersonanddeathisthedestinationofherbest“Don‟tyouseeSophiewearedying!Dying!”(p)InthepowerrelationwithNathan,shelosesherpersonalityandthinksNathanistheonlyhopeforhertoliveonSheherselfadmitsthatwithoutNathanshewouldbenothing,whileNathanalsothinksSophie“hastotallynoegoatall”“Oh,Ilovehimsomuch!”sheexclaimed“Somuch!Somuch!I‟lldiewithouthim”(p)Guilt“TheNazisturnedmeintoasickanimallikealltherest,IshouldfeelsomuchguiltyoverallthethingsIdonethereAndoverjustbeingaliveThisguiltissomethingIcannotgetridofandIthinkIneverwill”(p)第页共页年毕业论文OnSophie'sPsychologicalTraumainSophie'sChoiceSophie'sguiltfirstcomesfromherdaughter'sdeathIfshehadnotshowedoffherfluentGermantoarousetheattentionofNazis,shewouldn'thavemadethatnonoptionalchoiceHerinnerfeelingsofguiltcanneverbewashedSophieguiltalsocomesfrombecominganaccompliceoftheNazis,beingatypistintheconcentrationcampAsamother,whatshethinksisjustusingherthinpowertoprotectherchildrenshecouldnotsacrificeherselffortheinterestsofthewholenationWhenshebeginstorealizehersins,shecannotforgiveherselfBTheFemaleConsciousnessreflectedinSophie’sChoiceBeforeWorldWarII,atfirstinPolandSophieenjoysobeyingherfatherabsolutely,andiscontentwiththingsasherfatherinstructsButSophiegraduallybecomesawareofthedominationandcontrolofherfather,“thisfather,thismanwhichgavemebreathandfleshhavenomorefeelingformethanaservant,somepeasantorslave,andnowwithnotawordofthanksforallmyworkwasgoingtomakemegrovel”(p)Althoughsheiswellpreparedemotionallynottoblindlyfollowherfather,shehasinternalizedpatriarchyashervaluecriterion,beingallthemorereadytoobey,daringnottosay“no”AfterWorldWarII,inBrooklynSherealizesthatshehasbeentoodependentonNathan,sheisnothingbutalittlelamb,anaccessoryforhimtoentertainSowhenNathancomplainsaboutherworkandwantshertoquit,shethinksthatshecould‟tunconditionallyobey,musthaveasenseofindependenceandajob“IwanttowriteaboutAuschwitz,”shesays,“IwanttowriteaboutmyexperiencesthereIsupposeIcouldwriteinPolishorGermanormaybeFrench,butI‟dsomuchratherbeabletowriteinEnglish”(p)butshedoesn‟ttakeanactiontorealizeit,becausethisisjustthediscouragingwordswhenshefeelshopelessafterNathanleavesherSophiehasbeenaccustomedtorelyingonmenasshewasyoung,contentedwiththecontrolanddominationofmenAndheronlyalittlefemaleconsciousnesshasalreadybeendestroyedbythepatriarchalthoughtBeforesheendsherlife,shedoesn‟tdoanythingtoresistthemenshedependson,justwithalittlefemaleconsciousnessinhermind第页共页年毕业论文OnSophie'sPsychologicalTraumainSophie'sChoiceCSophie’sFailureinRecoveryfromTraumaSophiewantstohaveanewlife,soshedoesherbesttoadapttoAmericanlife,suchaslearningEnglish,attendingthefreeclassandsoonAfterescapingfromAuschwitz,shecomestoAmericawithasickbodyandatraumatizedheartAtthismoment,sheislikeaghostwithoutspiritualsupporter,norelatives,butsheiseagertoforgetthepastandrestarthernewlifeShelistenstomusictorecallthosebeautifuldaysandfindsajobtosupportherselfshealsogoestocollegetostudyEnglishWhenthepasthauntsher,shetrieseverythingtocurehertraumaAttemptingtoCureTraumaaTellingTraumaticStoriesTellingtraumaticstorycanhelpthetraumatizedrecoverfromtraumaJudithHermanproposes,“inthesecondstageofrecovery,thesurvivortellsthestoryofthetraumaShetellsitcompletely,indepthandindetailThisworkofreconstructionactuallytransformsthetraumamemory,sothatitcanbeintegratedintothesurvivor‟slifestory”(Herman:)Whetherlivinginthepastorinthepresent,inwarorinpeace,Sophiecan‟tgetridofherguiltwhichisleftbyhertraumaticexperiencesAsanAuschwitzvictim,SophieisnotaJewbutaPolishCatholicAsapatriarchalvictim,SophieisnotjustarepresentativeofindividualbutthewholefemaleunderthesameconditionSheisanxiousforreleasingherselfbypresentinghertraumaticexperiencesSophiedoesherbesttoburythepastexperiencesdeepintotherecessofhermindandencirclethemwithaprotectiveshellShemakeseveryefforttoforgetherpast,butthepastdoesnotgoawayThepastlingersinthedepthsofhermindandwaitsforanopportunitytoemergeintothepresentSophierealizesthatifshecan‟texpressherselfineverythingtotally,thentheconditionwilldefinitelybecomeworseandthereisreallynohopetoreturntothepresentReexperiencingthepastissopainfulthatshecan‟thideanymoreandhastotellherpastAtfirst,Sophietriestoconcealhercrimewithalie,acandidfather,athoughtfulhusband,whichisnotthefactbutanillusionIntheprocessofconfessionandpursuingtruth,SophiebeginstorecognizeherselfmoreclearlySheresortstoconfessionasherwayofexpiationwhensheconfessesherexperienceandsintoStingoAsshebecomesfamiliarwithStingoandtrustshimmore,shebeginstoconfesscontinuouslyherlifeinWarsaw,herharrowingexperienceinAuschwitz,herrefusaltohelpPolish第页共页年毕业论文OnSophie'sPsychologicalTraumainSophie'sChoiceunderground,andherexperienceofchoosingonebetweentwochildrentoliveonEverytimesheconfesses,shesinksintodeepmeditationandreflectsonherformerdeedsShegraduallyadmitshercrimesandaccusesherselfforhercowardiceandfoolerybReconnectingwithOthersHelplessnessandisolationarethecoreexperiencesofpsychologicaltraumaEmpowermentandreconnectionarethecoreexperiencesofrecovery(Herman:)Therefore,reconnectingwithothersisessentialtorecoverfromtraumaAseriesoftraumaticeventsSophieexperiencesinthepastandinthepresentconstructhertraumaOntheonehand,traumasmakehersufferfortraumaticsymptoms:sheunconsciouslyreexperiencestheintrusiveandrepetitiveimages,thoughtsandfeelingsshemakeseveryefforttoavoidandescapefromtriggersorremindersthatremindherofthetraumaticpainsOntheotherhand,hertraumaticexperiencestraumatizeherphysicallyandpsychologicallyPhysicallytraumaticeffectsleaveherdiseasesandevenmakeherlosebasicallyphysicalfunctionsandhumanfeelingsWhat‟smore,thetraumastraumatizeherpsychologically,whichmakeherfeeldevastatinglyguiltyandlosebeliefinGodforeverSophietriestotellhertraumaticstoryandreconnectwithotherstorecoverfromhertraumaHowever,themoreshetellsherstory,themoreshesuffers,andeveryoneshetriestoreconnectwithcan‟tsaveherAfrankexplorationofthetraumatizedperson‟sweaknessesandmistakescanbeundertakenonlyinanenvironmentthatprotectsagainstshamingandharshjudgment(Herman:)Sophieregardsherselfasacoward,ashameful,guiltyaccompliceSheisafraidthatothersasksheraboutherpast,especiallyNathan,“IwasstillreadyforNathantopissonme,rapeme,stabme,beatme,blindme,doanythingwithmethathedesired”(p)Asaresult,shefailstorecoverfromhertraumaHertraumaticsymptomsofreexperienceandavoidance,traumaticeffectsofguiltandlossofbeliefinGodandherfailuretorecoverfromtraumaleadherintoidentitycrisisAboveall,theabsoluteeviloftheNaziHolocaustandthelastingbandageofthepatriarchalcagewhichcauseallhertraumasleadshertochoosesuicideindirectlycErosThefactthatthenoiseofSophieandNathan‟slovemakinginbedgoesbeforethesightofthetwoseemstosuggestthesignificantroleofErosinthebookItistheway第页共页年毕业论文OnSophie'sPsychologicalTraumainSophie'sChoiceforthemtoescapethebrutalworldAnd,whatismore,theycommitsuicideinthissamebedStingoposestohimselfaquestion,“Wasn‟ttheresomeinexpressiblemeaninginthefactthatmyentireexperiencewhichnowofSophieandNathanwascircumscribedbyabed,fromthemomentseemedcenturiespastwhenIfirstheardthemabovemeinthegloriouscircusoftheirlovemakingtothefinaltableauofthatsamebed,whoseimagewouldstaywithmeuntildotageofmyowndeatheraseditfrommymind”(p)Deathhasactedasthemainmelodyoftheirlovestorysincetheirfirstencounterwitheachother,whenEmilyDickinson,afamouspoetessobsessedwithdeathandimmortality,bringsthemtogetherEmilyDickinsonhasbroughtthemtogetherandalsobidsthemfarewellwithStingo‟sreadingsomeofherlinesattheirfuneraltheymakeloveinbedanddieinthesamebedCircle,saidtobethegraphofcycling,seemstotellwhatlooksfinishedmayinfactnotbeended,asimpliedinthedescriptionoftheirsuicidescene,“„dressedwerefrozeninthisgraceandthus,butrecumbentandentwinedineachothersarms,…tenderembraceforever”(p)Theylive,loveandseekrelief,andtheydiebywayofliving,lovingandreleasingSophie‟sDeathThesourceofSophie‟stragedy,firstly,iscausedbythesocialenvironmentTheWaristhesituationSophiecan‟tescapefromWhatshecandoisjustacceptingthecrueltyofthewarandbecomingavictimDuringWorldWarII,NaziconductbrutallootingtoPolandUnfortunately,SophieisarrestedforhidingapieceofmeatandbroughtintoAuschwitz,whereshesuffersphysicallyandmentally,beingallbutdead,failingtoprotectherchildren,havingnochoicebuttobecomeNazi‟saccompliceSecondly,thepatriarchalcage,fromthebeginningtotheend,SophieneverescapesfromthepatriarchalcageSheisnothingbutapreyofmale,carnalobjectSheisdefinitelydespairing,andultimatelychoosesdeathasavictimofthepatriarchyThemoretraumaticthestoryis,thelatershetellsAsStingosays,“shetoldmemuchmoreaboutherseasoninhell(Muchmore,butnoteverythingThereisonematterthatremainedentombedinher,intherealmoftheunspeakable)”(p)Eva‟sdeathorthechoicewhichismadebySophieatthearrivalatAuschwitzisherlaststrawAlthoughithappensearlierthanotherevents,shetellsherdaughter‟sdeathandthehorrificchoiceatthelatestmomentBecauseitistoohorribleandunspeakableforher第页共页年毕业论文OnSophie'sPsychologicalTraumainSophie'sChoicetotell,asSophiesays,“Itistoodifficulttoomuchformetoeverthinkabout”(p)ThisisthedeadlystriketoherfinaldeathIVConclusionWhenStyronwritesthisworks,herethinksthepainofhumanexperiencedprofoundlyfromtheperspectiveofthewholeworldLikehisdescriptionaboutSophie,alwayswiththestreamofconsciousnesstechnique,Sophie‟smemories‟doorwillbeimmediatelyopenedaslongasthereisonethingthatmakesSophiefeelpainfulWiththepainsandsecretsuncovering,theintersectionofhistoryandrealityechoinginhermind,shebelievesthatsurvivalispainful,onlydeathisareliefFromthepainSophiesuffersandthedilemmasheencountersinherlifeWecanseethatsherepresentsthepainofsurvivalwhichisinevitabletoavoidFirstofall,SophieistheimageoftheweakinthenovelShecannotgetherfather‟slove,cannotprotectherchildrenandcannotbewiththeonewhoshetrulylovesforeverShejustgoeswiththeflowoflifetoherownsurvivalHowever,inthefaceoflife,eachofusisweak,becauseneithercanwechangethecurrentsituationcausedbythestrongsocialcontext,norwecanpredictthereachlessfutureWhatwecandoisjusttoendure,acceptandundertakeeverythingthatrealitygivesus,andthenjoinintheteamofflowingThesecondistherelationshipbetweenpeopleWhenSophiemakescontactwithothers,shealwaysletsothersandherselfdown,whichnotbecauseofherhugepersonaldesires,butbecauseofherinabilitytoestablishasatisfactorycontactwithothersHowever,asapersontosurviveinthissociety,wecannotlosecontactwithothersWeareunabletoreadthesoulsofothersjustlikereadingbooksSo,howcanweestablishasatisfactorycontactwithothersWemustfirstlearntolove,onlywithloveinheartcanwecontainthegrudgeThesecondisfulloftrusttoothers,questioningothercanneverbringyourselfhappinessThethirdistoletnaturetakeit‟scourse,forceonlybringharmstotheinterpersonalrelationshipThethirdisaboutthechoiceTosurviveinsociety,everyonewillinevitablyfacethechoice,andcertainly,choiceeventuallybringspeoplementaltortureandevenpainSophieishurtinherchoice,shelosesherheartinherchoiceandfinallyshechoosesdeathtoendWeshouldnottakesuchextremeinourlife,whatweshoulddoistothinkseriouslyaboutwhatwewantandmaketheproperdecisionbravelytosticktoit第页共页年毕业论文OnSophie'sPsychologicalTraumainSophie'sChoiceThepaperaimsatlettingpeoplecomprehendthecomplexityofhumannature,understandhumanbeings‟feelingsofsufferingandthuspeoplewillpaymoreattentiontothelifeinthefutureMoreover,itadvocatesthatthefemaleshouldbreakfreefromtheshacklesofpatriarchalcagetheyshouldnotbetheaccessoryofmaleAttheendofthispaper,theauthorwouldliketosaythat,duetotheauthor‟slimitedknowledgeaboutStyronandhisworks,thispaperislimitedindepthandwidthTheauthorhopesthatthestudycouldbehelpfulforthefutureresearchonWilliamStyronandhisworks,andthestudyofotherEnglishclassics第页共页年毕业论文OnSophie'sPsychologicalTraumainSophie'sChoice第页共页年毕业论文OnSophie'sPsychologicalTraumainSophie'sChoiceWorksCitedAlexander,JefferyCCulturalTraumaandCollectiveIdentityCalifornia:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,Caruth,CathyTrauma:ExplorationinMemoryBaltimore:JohnHopkinsUniversityPress,Coale,SamuelWilliamStyronRevisitedBoston:TwaynePublishers,David,DempseyTalkwithWilliamStyronTheNewYorkTimesCompany,Herman,JudithTraumaandRecoveryNewYork:BasicBooks,Ruderman,JudithWilliamStyronNewYork:TheUngarPublishingCompany,Sirlin,RhodaWilliamStyron‟sSophie‟sChoice:CrimeandSelfPunishmentAnnArbor:UMIResearchPress,Styron,WilliamSophie‟sChoiceNewYork:RandomHouse,“Styron,William”EncyclopediaBritannicaEncyclopediaBritannicaUltimateWest,ReferenceSuiteChicago:EncyclopediaBritannica,JamesLWConversationswithWilliamStyronJacksonandLondon:UniversityPressofMississippi,董雷《苏菲的选择》主题研究,D,(东北林业大学邵燕祥奥斯维辛之后银川:宁夏人民出版社杨仁敬世纪美国文学史,M,(青岛:青岛出版社威廉斯泰伦苏菲的选择,M,(周玲杨素娟译北京:中央编译出版,第页共
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英语毕业论文:《苏菲的选择》中苏菲的心理创伤研究

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