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首页 中国扇子文化

中国扇子文化.doc

中国扇子文化

无言的小恋人
2019-06-14 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《中国扇子文化doc》,可适用于初中教育领域

Thefanistheessentialcontent,summerChina'sfanculturehasprofoundculturalfoundation,nationalcultureisacomponentparts,andbambooculture,buddhistculturehascloserelationChinahasmadeknownasfankingdomMainmaterial:fanbamboo,wood,paper,fan,ivory,tortoise,jade,birdsandotherpalmfronds,feathers,straw,betelnut,alsocanmakeupstrongrushesintovariousdailyorsleekcraft,refinedbyskillfulcraftsman,ornamentalironmeticulouslycarved,orcelebrities,paint,maketheusualextensivelyfanartvalueahundredfoldOriginatedinancienttimesofChina,thefancultureofourancestorsinsorchingsummer,convenientlywaferplantleavesorpoultryplumehunt,simpleprocessingforthedisabled,fan,isdisabled,said,thisisthebeginningofthefanThefaninChinahasthree,fourthousandyearshistory,afterthousandsofyearshistoryevolutionhasbecomeperfectimprovementofhundredsoffans,butonthewholefamilytotwocategories,ApingfanTuanShan(thatis,KuiShan,wheatstraw,jadeeditionfan,etc),twofoldingfancanbefoldedcannotreceivefreeopenFlatdoortodoor"disabled"(palmdoor)"bambootheancient"(withbamboocompiledintofansays"bamboojie")Duringthewarringstates,qinandhandynastiesahalfrulesform"face"itsshapesingledoor,againsay"doorwindow"singledoorscanbecoveredpeepatthemainstreamoffans"Face"withafineZhuMiewovenintoshapeandundertheemperor,PingMinZhetouseitAndthedisabled,pheasants,fordisabledblottingoutthedustofagear,closingThefanoriginatedinChina,inChinaformorethan,yearshistoryYin,firstappearedinthelatewithcolorful,called"disabled","door"wordina"feather"wordAtthattime,thefanisnotusedtocoolbreeze,butasKingstakeoutfromShaZhiYongwindscreenwhenpatrolshadingAfterthehan,fansbegantotakecoldThreeEMaoShanrockinggentlywhenzhugeliang,inspirationcontinues,plottingcoupsItrequiresasoftwind,thecoujustifiedslowlyHan,mostlyforchangerequires,silk,cloth,suchasfineembroideredtoadornThemooniscalled"fanshapeWanShan"or"TuanShan",alsocalled"fanWhenthefanhaslonground,sunflower,plum,hex,shortofformAlsohavewood,bamboo,woodhilttheboneetcAndtheShanZhui,tassel,jadeornamentsPrintedinlandscapeflowers,oftenembroiderdesign,howeverTuanShanhandfullbreeze,attic,notonlycanbeHanperiod,"fan"(alsocalledGongShan,WanShan,TuanShan),itsshapeisround,fancharacteristicsisthesurfacewithdoorhandlemeatwhite,symmetricaxisisWanShanmoon,withbamboo,facetocircle,ellipticorwiththinsilkpasteintoWhenthecentralareawiththemostfastidious,"WanShanWanqichu"say,namelyinshandongsilkandbambooproductionentityWanShanofhunanWhentheWanShanhanisverypopular,andpraise,suchasclassofchanting,"theworld'snewcrack,freshcleanasWannativesforfan,cutting,likethemooncircle,junbosomsleeve,shakethebreezesend"ThisTuanShansymmetricaltype,useandlong,andintraditionalChinesestyleasfanDuringtheqingdynasty,symmetricaltypefan,exceptthecircularlonground,flat,fangyuan,plumflowerform,sunflower,melons,waist,bullyinghorseshoeshapedlikeTheoutstandingcharacteristicoffanissymmetrical,light,workmanshipFans,called"JuToufan",or"fan,orfoldingfan,withitscurlcanbeamergeroftwoInsouthernsongdynastyhadconsiderablescaleproductionoffansInMingdynasty,emperorfanscalllifewithinthenextdoor,absorbartisansgenericKoreanforeignproductionprocess,promotethedevelopmentofdomesticfanInthefanfirstappearedindrawingextensivelykingdomsAccordingtoZhangYanYuantangdynastiesofthepaintingsofthecontainingthecaomengvirtuousipericalacademyandTaiZuwei"picture"fanwasdelayedintofliesChapter,"wangwangawomanfortheproblemWhenamother","hold"hexbamboofans,wang","inthebookfivewordsforxihe,"shesoldbywhenwenwen"to"ZhejiangshaoxingtodayJishannanedge","fanbridgeproblemiswangxizhitopicfanhenorthern,carryconvenienceoffansFans,alsocalled"JuToufan","and"or"gatherbonefan"Thehorn,tortoise,appreciationusefulXiangFeiZhu,jade,ivoryandsandalwoodetctogetherematerialsThere,withharps,bamboo,thegrasshoppereyeetcSevenpoints,nine,appreciation,and:andthestereotypeAtsouthern,painting,sell,hiddenfan,andappearfanandartdealerQingliteratipaintingsfanfanengravedquestionsbecomeakindoffashionThemodernyunshouping,ZhengBanQiao,JinNong,famous,RenBoNianandWuChangShuo,qibaishi,ZhangDaQian,xubeihong,FuBaoShinavypolitical,etcArepaintedthedoorproblemfanartmasterNow,thefamouscalligraphyindeed,everyfan,highvaluehandletensofthousandsandthousandsofdollarsThewordRuHua,fanpleasing,giveapersonwithbeautifulenjoymentAppreciatesectoralpaintingshouldchewslowlysavor,includingartimplicationLaoshe'skeentocollectpaintingforMrFan,fordecades,tohisfans,includinghundredsofthemodernartistextensively,andthefans,alsohavepaintedthedoorShakespearecelebritiespaintingMrZhengYiMeilot,dependingonthefanfan,loveforallthetreasures"painting"HemakesthemostcherishedsealWuHuFanfanandpaintedgreenmei'scalligraphyandpaintingContemporarywriterYeWenLinghavehidden,calligraphyandpaintingtheantiquecollectioninherdoorSheisthestudyofthebookcasewithliuhaisusectoralwords"cool"words,Fengyoulaninscribed"moon"words,PeiYanLing"clouds"fourwordmuddilyruttedcollapse,TheYouMoHuaHuaJunWuworks,theYeWenLingverycherish,etcExtensivelyThefanhistoricalbiographyatcalled"wuningdoor"Legendforwideningaudiovisualseekingshuntheauxiliary,hadproducedfiveMingfanYanZhouperiodalreadyappeareda"di",thatisthetailpheasantswithcolorful,thereforerequires","saidThesaid:"inJapan,tobecomewithwooddoor"reedyueThissuggeststhatearlyfromthefansmayberectangularreedplaitEarlyfanisnotusedtotheshade,buttheruleroftheetiquette,assocalled"closingdoor"AftertheqinandhandynastiesinChina,themainsquare,fan,etc,withthesilkfabricsusingthefan,duetothepalaceinpieces,andsay","tangGongShantwogenerations,prevailedintheworldismainlyWanShanandrequires,andsmallamountsoffansAfterthesongdynasty,fansgraduallypopularDuringtheMingandqingdynasties,zhejiang,suzhou,sichuanprovince,isalsothefansinthispaintinginscriptionTheskilloftheMingdynastywasintroducedintoEuropefromthestart,thenpopulararoundtheworldCool,fanofanaliasSongTaovalley"green"vision",recordinginstrumentsShangShaninsidewindoweightsentencesonthecheekShiYun:'netjun,coolandfriendsgatherdust"isthebroomandcoolclearyifan”扇子是引风用品,夏令必备之物。中国扇文化有着深厚的文化底蕴,是民族文化的一个级成部分,它与竹文化、佛教文化有着密切关系。历来中国被誉为制扇王国之称。扇子主要材料是:竹、木、纸、扇、象牙、玳瑁、翡翠、飞禽翎毛,其它棕榈叶、槟榔叶、麦秆、蒲草等也能编强或制成各种千姿百态的日用工艺扇、造型优美,构造精制,经能工巧匠精心镂、雕、烫、钻或名人挥毫题诗作画,使扇子艺术身价百倍。中国扇文化起源于远古时代,我们的祖先在烈晶炎炎夏季,随手猎取植物叶或禽羽,进行简单加工,用以障日引风,故扇子有障日之称,这便是扇子的初源。扇子在我国已有三、四千年历史,经数千年沿革演变完善改进已发展成为几百种的扇子家族,但总的归纳为二大类一平扇(即是团扇、葵扇、麦草扇、玉版扇等)不能折叠,二折扇可自如敞开收叠。平扇来之于"障扇"(掌扇)"竹捷"(古代用竹片编制成的扇子称"竹捷")。战国秦汉时期,一种半规形"便面"其形似单扇门,故又称"户扇"单门扇可遮面窥视成为当时扇子的主流。"便面"一律用细竹篾编形制成,上至帝王,下至平民者使用它。而古之障扇、雉扇,为障尘蔽日用具,仪仗的一种。扇子起源于中国,在中国已有多年历史。最早出现在殷代,用五光十色的野鸡毛制成,称之为“障扇”,故“扇”字里有个“羽”字。当时,扇子不是用来扇风取凉,而是作为帝王外出巡视时遮阳挡风避沙之用。西汉以后,扇子开始用来取凉。三国时诸葛亮轻摇鹅毛扇,妙计横生,运筹帷幄。羽扇出风缓软,不入腠理。东汉时,大都改羽扇为丝、绢、绫罗之类织品,以便点缀绣画。一轮明月形的扇子称之为“纨扇”或“团扇”,也叫“合欢扇”。当时扇子有长圆、葵花、梅花、六角、匾圆之形亦有木、竹、骨等材之柄还有扇坠、流苏、玉器之饰。扇面上常绣以山水花卉,款式争奇斗艳,闺阁仕女手摇团扇,清风徐来,不但可以平添主人娴雅文静的仪态,又能体现女性天真活泼的个性。西汉时期,对称"合欢扇"(又称宫扇、纨扇、团扇),其形尚圆,合欢扇特点是面素白色以扇柄为中轴,左右对称似圆月,纨扇以竹木为架,面成圆形或椭圆形,用薄丝绢糊成。当时以中原一带所制纨扇最为考究,有"齐纨楚竹"之说,即指用山东绢和湖南竹制作扇面的纨扇。汉时十分流行这种纨扇,并赋诗颂之,如班婕的扇诗,"新裂齐纨素,鲜洁如霜雪,裁为合欢扇,团团似明月,出入君怀袖,动摇微风发"。此种对称式团扇出现后,历代沿用而不衰,并成为我国传统风格的扇型。清代时,对称类型的扇面除圆形外,有长圆、扁圆、方圆、梅花形、葵花形、瓜凌形、腰形、马蹄形……这些扇形突出的特点是对称、轻盈、工艺性强。折扇,古称"聚头扇",或称为撒扇,或折叠扇,以其收拢时能够二头合并归一而得名。南宋时,折扇的生产已有相当规模。折扇盛行于明代,皇帝下召命宫内工匠仿制高丽扇,吸取外来工艺制作,促进国内扇子发展。在扇子上题诗作画第一次出现于三国。据唐代张彦远的《历代名画记》载有曹孟德的主簿杨修与魏太祖“画扇误点成蝇”的故事。《晋书·王羲之传》有一则王羲之为老妇题扇的佳话。当时有位“老母”,“持六角竹扇,求书于王羲之”,“羲之为书五字”,她售出时便由十二文涨至“百文”。今浙江绍兴蕺山南边有“题扇桥”,相传便是王羲之题扇处。北宋时,出现了携带极为方便的折扇。折扇,亦叫“聚头扇”、“撒扇”或称“聚骨扇”。其扇骨有用牛角、玳瑁、象牙、翡翠、湘妃竹、檀香木等珍贵材料制成形式有琴式、如意头、竹节式、蚱蜢眼等扇骨分七、九、十二、十四、十六、十八股之多。到了南宋,画扇、卖扇、藏扇之风盛行,并出现了扇铺和画商。明清文人墨客题扇画扇成为一种时尚。近现代的恽寿平、郑板桥、金农、石涛、任伯年以及吴昌硕、齐白石、张大千、徐悲鸿、傅抱石、李可染等都是题扇画扇的艺术大师。眼下,这些名家的翰墨丹青扇子,每柄价值都高达数万,乃至数十万元扇面入字入画,使人赏心悦目,给人以美的享受。欣赏扇面书画务须细细品味,慢慢咀嚼其中的艺术意蕴。老舍先生平生热衷于收藏书画扇,几十年来,他集得扇子有数百把,其中有明、清和现代书画家题诗作画的扇子,亦有戏剧界名流的书画扇。郑逸梅先生爱扇成癖,视扇为“书画皆绝的珍品”。他最珍爱章太炎的篆书扇和吴湖帆所绘绿梅的书画扇。当代女作家叶文玲有藏古玩的雅好,书画扇亦在她的收藏之列。她书房的书橱中有把扇面,上有刘海粟题写的“清风”二字冯友兰题写的“明月”二字裴艳玲书写的“乱石崩云”四字华君武所绘的幽默画,曹禺的题诗等等,叶文玲非常珍爱。扇子史传上最初称为“五明扇”。相传舜为广开视听求贤自辅,曾制作五明扇。殷周时期已出现了一种“翟扇”,那是用五光十色的野鸡尾羽做成的,故有“羽扇”之说。《尔雅》中谈道:“以木曰扉,以苇曰扇。”从这可推测,早期的扇子可能是长方形的苇编物。早期的扇子并非用来纳凉,而是用作统治者礼仪之具,所以又叫“仪仗扇”。我国秦汉以后,扇子的形制主要有方、圆、六角等形,扇子的面料采用丝织的绢素,由于宫中用得多,故又称“宫扇”,隋唐两代,盛行于世的主要是纨扇和羽扇,以及少量的纸扇。宋以后,折扇渐渐流行。明清时期,浙江、苏州、四川等地盛产折扇,题字作画亦兴于此。这一精湛的技艺从明代开始传入欧洲,然后风行世界。凉友,扇子的一个别名。宋陶谷《青异录·器具》:“商山馆中窗颊上有八句诗云:‘净君扫浮尘,凉友招清风。’是帚与扇明矣。

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