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首页 A Conceptual Metaphorical Analysis of Emily Dick…

A Conceptual Metaphorical Analysis of Emily Dickinson's poem.doc

A Conceptual Metaphorical Analy…

怅施德亮
2019-06-14 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《A Conceptual Metaphorical Analysis of Emily Dickinson's poemdoc》,可适用于外语资料领域

AConceptualMetaphoricalAnalysisofEmilyDickinson'spoemBecauseICouldNotStopforDeathIntroductionAmetaphorreferstoafigureofspeechinwhichawordorphraseisusedtodescribesomethingthatdoesnotliterallydenoteTherefore,metaphorisanimportantdeviceofthepoeticimaginationPoetsusuallyusemetaphortoexpresstheirthoughtsCognitivelinguisticsregardsthatmetaphoristhebasicwaytoconceptualizetheworld,it"permeateseverydaylifeandnotonlyinfiltrateslanguage,nutalsopermeatesthinkingandactivities"Besides,cognitivelinguisticstheoryusescognitivemetaphortoanalyzepoem,justastheconceptualmetaphortheoryexploredbyGeorgeLakoffandMarkJohnsonThispaperintendstotakeEmilyDickinson'sseveralpoemsasexample,includingBecauseICouldNotStopforDeath,,analyzingthemetaphoraboutloveanddeathinEmily'sworkwithconceptualmetaphortheoryThemethodologyadoptedinthisthesisisthecombinationoftheoreticalelaborationandcasestudiesLiteraturereviewConceptualMetaphorTheoryTheresearchonmetaphorhasbeenamajorcharacteristicofliterarystudysinceancientrhetoricAristotleholdsadualistviewinregardingmetaphorasanornamenttothesense:poeticimageryissimplyapleasingartisticappealOntheotherside,ColeridgetakesamonistViewpfthe"untranslatableness"ofmetaphor,believingthateveryexpressionisuniqueandmetaphorconstitutestheworldAmongthecomprehensiveliteraryonmetaphor,thetheorythatreceivesthemostattentionmaybeGeorgeLakoffandMarkJohnson'sconceptualmetaphortheory"Ourordinaryconceptualsystem,intermsofwhichweboththinkandact,isfundamentallymetaphoricalinnature"(LakoffandJohnson,metaphorsweliveby,)Thistheoryclaimsthatmostofournormalconceptualsystemismetaphoricallystructured,thatis,mostconceptsarepartiallyunderstoodintermsofotherconceptsAnexampleofoneofthecommonlyusedconceptualmetaphorsis"argumentiswar"ThismetaphorshapesourlanguageinthewayweviewargumentaswarorasabattletobewonItisnotuncommontohearsomeonesay"Hewonthatargument"or"Iattackedeveryweakpointinhisargument"TheverywayargumentisthoughtofisshapedbythismetaphorofargumentsbeingwarandbattlesthatmustbewonArgumentcanbeseeninotherwaysthanabattle,butweusethisconcepttoshapethewaywethinkofargumentandthewaywegoaboutarguingEmilyDickinsonandherpoemsEmilyDickinsonisoneofthemosthighlyregardedpoetsevertowriteEmilyDickinsonwasborninDecemberoftoawellknownfamily,longestablishedinNewEnglandAroundshebeganwritingpoetryHerfirstpoemsweretraditionalandfollowedtheestablishedform,butastimepassedandshebeganproducinghugeamountsofpoetry,EmilybeganexperimentingEmilyDickinson'spoemsarelyrical,condensedandoftenbasedonasingleimageorsymbol,andithasunusualthematicsignificanceandasurprisingdenseverbaltextureItisremarkableforitsvariety,subtlety,andrichnessItisalsoremarkableforherwit,pathos,andloveSheusedthebiblicallanguageandallusionsandstrikinglyilluminatedhiddenreasonsinhumansoulsPeoplewhoknowEmilyDickinson'spoemsmustbeprofoundlyimpressedbyavarietyofmetaphorsinherpoems,suchas"flowers","bees","birds","sunset"andsoonItisthesemetaphorsinherpoetrythatreflectherviewsonreligion,nature,universeandlifeMostreadersholdtheviewthattheseexpressionsarerathermotivatedInotherwords,theyfitoneormorepatternspresentingintheconceptualsystemLetustakeacloserlookatthesemetaphoricalexpressionsConceptualMetaphorinBecauseICouldNotStopforDeathDeathandimmortalityareimmortalsubjectsofEmilyDickinson'spoemsDeathisnotonlythedominantsubjectofherpoetrybutinfluencedherlaterlifeInDickinson'slaterlives,manyofhermostpreciousandinfluentialfriendshipspassedaway,whichmakeherreflectupondeathdeeplyandgivewaytomoreconcentratedobsessionwithdeathinherpoetryAmongDickinson'spoems,aboutsixhundredpoemsareaboutdeathWewilltakeEmilyDickinson'sBecauseICouldNotStopforDeathforexample,deployingconceptualmetaphortheory,tomakeananalysisRichards()notesthatBecauseICouldNotStopforDeathisEmilyDickinson'smostwellknownpoemonthesubjectofdeathInherpoem,sheemployssimpleimagestoshowinfiniteconceptionsbytheestablishmentofadialecticalrelationshipbetweentheknownandunknown,realityandimaginationThisfamouspoemreflectsabasicambiguityaboutdeathandimmortalityBecauseIcouldnotstopforDeath–Hekindlystoppedforme–TheCarriageheldbutjustOurselves–AndImmortalityWeslowlydrove–HeknewnohasteAndIhadputawayMylaborandmyleisuretoo,ForHisCivility–WepassedtheSchool,whereChildrenstroveAtRecess–intheRing–WepassedtheFieldsofGazingGrain–WepassedtheSettingSun–Orrather–Hepassedus–TheDewsdrewquiveringandchill–ForonlyGossamer,myGown–MyTippet–onlyTulle–WepausedbeforeaHousethatseemedASwellingoftheGround–TheRoofwasscarcelyvisible–TheCornice–intheGround–Sincethen–‘tisCenturies–andyetFeelsshorterthantheDayIfirstsurmisedtheHorses’HeadsWeretowardEternity–Inthispoem,"School,FieldsofGazingGrain,andSettingSun"areemployedbyEmilyDickinsontorepresentvariousstagesoflifeItisatypicalexampleofherusingmetaphorsThroughrecallingspecificstagesoflifeonearth,Dickinsonnotonlysettleshertemporalpastbutviewsthesefromahigherawareness,bothliterallyandfigurativelyInsomeways,asthecarriagegainsaltitudetomakeitsapproachtoheaven,ahouseseemsas"ASwellingoftheGround"Figuratively,thispoemmayindicatethreestagesoflife:"School,,whereChildrenstrove"maysymbolizechildhood"FieldsofGazingGrain",maturityand"SettingSun",oldageRegardingtheprogressionofthesestagesoflife,death,eternity,asacontinuum,Dickinsonendowstheseisolated,usuallyincomprehensibleeventswithmeaningFromtheperspectiveofDickinson,lifeislikethe"HorsesHeads",leadingtoward"Eternity"ThinkingthingsinaphilosophicalwaydisplaysEmilyDickinson'sgift,especiallywhenthesephilosophicalideasareillustratedbysimpleimagesHereEmilyDickinsonspeaksofDeathasacoachmansheisusingallextensionofthesamegeneralandordinarymetaphoricalconceptionofDEATHISDEPARTUREthatweusewhenwespeakofsomeonepassingawayWeusetheDEATHISDEPARTUREmetaphorinmakingsenseofDickinson'spoemTheDEATHISDEPARTUREmetaphorisoftenextendedinreligioustraditions,wherethedepartureisseenasthebeginningofajourneytoafinaldestinationViaDEATHISDEPARTURE,itcanbe,forexample,GodtheFather'shouse,punishmentinthehell,anassignmentspotintheunderworld,finalrestortheplaceofone'sorigin,whichcanbeone'shomeAndweknowwhenthepoetsays,"theCarriageheldbutjustOurselves"thatthepassengersarenotsimplysittinginthecarriageorgoingforavisitorgoingforaridearoundtheblockWeknowbecauseweunderstandthatadeparturedeathwithnoreturnBecauseweconceiveofdeathinthisway,DickinsondoesnotneedtostateallofthedetailsWeknowthembyvirtueofknowingthebasicconceptualmetaphorMoreover,weunderstandthatwhatthespeakercouldnotstopallherpurposefulactivitiesWecanunderstandthosepurposesasdestinationsandherlifeasajourneytoreachthosedestinationTheoccurrenceoftheword"Death"inthefirstlineindicatesthatwhatshedeclinetostopisherlife'sjourneyThesecondline,"Hekindlystoppedforme",andtheoccurrenceoftheword"Carriage"inthethirdlinemakeitclearthatwhatisbeingtalkedaboutisajourneyTheexpressionof"stopfordeath"isactuallyavariantstatementofLIFEISAJOURNEY,becauseonlywhenlifeisajourney,canitstopandhavedestination,thatis,deathInstanza,thetripcontinues,thecarriagetrundlesalongataneasy,unhurriedpace,perhapssuggestingthatdeathhasarrivedintheformofadiseaseordebilitythattakesitintoaccountInstanza,Dickinson'scoachmanistakingherdeath'sjourney,thepoetappearstoreviewthestagesofherlife:childhood,maturity,anddescentintodeathasshepassestotheothersideWeinterpretthechildrenatschoolasthestageofchildhood,thefieldofripecropsasfullmaturity,thesettingsunasreferringtooldageAsweshallsee,weusethebasicmetaphorPEOPLEAREPLANTStounderstandthatthe"FieldsofGazing"suggestsmaturityInthemetaphorPEOPLEAREPLANTS,peopleageviewedasplantswithrespectstothelifecircle,moreprecisely,theyareviewedasthatpartoftheplantthatburgeonsandthenwitherordeclinessuchasleaves,flowers,andfruits,thoughsometimesthewholeplantisviewedasburgeoningandthendeclining,aswithgrassorwheatDeathcomeswiththeharvestandthefallingoftheleavesWhenwespeakofsomeasa"ayoungsprout",wemeanthatheisintheearlystageoflife,someonein"fullbloom"isinmature,some"witheringaway"isapproachingdeathTherefore,inDickinson'spoem,wecanapplyPEOPLEAREPLANTSmetaphortointerpretthe"FieldsofGazing"Instanza,thedewsandchillsuggestedonsetofdeathWecanusethemetaphorDEATHISDARKNESStounderstandthisstanzaBasedontheabovecognitivemetaphoranalysis,wecanseethatthepoetcreativelycomparesdeathtoagentlecoachmanHestoppedandpolitelyinvitedthepoettosetfootonthelastjourneyoflifeThecarriagetookthepoetallthewayforward,goingthroughmorning,noonandnightfall,anddidnotstoprunningeveninthetwilightAstheduskwasgathering,thepoetfeltthechill"TheDewsdrewquiveringandchill",thislineoftheverserefersto继续阅读

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A Conceptual Metaphorical Analysis of Emily Dickinson's poem

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