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首页 英语国家概况电子书PDF版

英语国家概况电子书PDF版.doc

英语国家概况电子书PDF版

绯色琉璃真人
2017-09-26 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《英语国家概况电子书PDF版doc》,可适用于高中教育领域

英语国家概况电子书PDF版PartOneTheUnitedKingdomofGreatBritainandNorthernIrelandLandandPeopleChapter()ChapterTheOriginsofaNationChapter(BC)()ChapterTheShapingoftheNation()Chapter()ChapterTransitiontotheModernAgeChapter(JusticeandtheLawChapter)SocialAffairsChapterChapter()TheRiseandFalloftheBritishEmpire()()TheEconomy()GovernmentandAdministration()()()CulturalAffairs()PartTwoChapterTheRepublicofIrelandChapterGeographyandHistory()IrelandToday()PartThreeChapterTheUnitedStatesofAmericaChapterChapterChapterChapterGeography()Population,RaceandEthnicGroups()AmericanHistory(I)()()AmericanHistory(II)()()AmericanHistory(III)AmericainPostWWIIEra(s)()ChapterTheEconomy•••••••••••••••••••••••()••ChapterPoliticalInstitutions()•Chapter•••()Education••••••••••••••••••••Literature,ArchitectureandMusic••••••••••••••••••••,•••Chapter()•ChapterHolidaysandFestivals()PartFourCanada•••,•••••••GeographyandHistory••••••••••••••••••••Chapter()ChapterTheEconomy()ChapterGovernmentandPolitics()ChapterSocietyandCulture()PartFiaoriInspiteofNewZealand'sdependenceonagriculture,mostpeopleliveintownsandcitiesAboutliveinthesevenurbancentresofAuckland,Wellington,Christchurch,Dunedin,Hamilton,PalmerstonNorthandNapierHastingsThepopulationsofthefourmaincentresareAuckland,,Wellington,,Christchurch,Dunedin,NearlythreefourthsofthepeopleliveinNorthIsland,withoverofNewZealanderslivingnorthofHamiltonReasonsforthisunevendistributionarethemilderclimateinthenorth,theexpansionofNorthIslandindustriesandtheavailabilityoflandsuitableforspecializedfarmingIThePoliticalSystemThereisnosinglewrittenconstitutionItiscontainedinalargenumberofparliamentarystatutes(laws),judiciary(court)rulings,andadministrativepracticesNewZealandisasovereignindependentstate,withaparliamentarygovernmentandaconstitutionalmonarchyQueenElizabethIIisQueenofNewZealandaswellasBritainSheisrepresentedinNewZealandbytheGovernorGeneral,whoisaNewZealanderThepresentGovernorGeneralisawoman,DameKathTizzardTheGovernorGeneralhasverylittlerealpower,butprovidescontinuitywhengovernmentschangeandhasanimportantnationalroleasrepresentativeofthemonarchTheParliamentNewZealandfollowstheBritishParliamentarysystemwithsomevaritionsSincetheNewZealandParliamenthashadonlyonechamber,theHouseofRepresentativesThereisnoequivalenttotheBritishHouseofLordsSince,debatesinParliamenthavebeenbroadcastonnationalradioGeneralelectionshavebeenheldabouteveryyearssinceOnsomeissuestheremaybeanationalreferendum,whenpeoplevoteononeparticularissueandnotforapoliticalpartyInareferendumwasheldonthevotingsystemAsaresultNewZealandwilluseasystemofProportionalRepresentationwhichwillprobablyresultinmorepartiesbeingrepresentedinParliamentForthelastyearsthetwomainpartieshavebeentheNationalPartyandtheLabourPartyAlmosteverypermanentresidentcanvoteSincethevotingagehasbeenlBNewZealandwasamongthefirstcountriestoadoptthesecretballotOnaverageofelectorsvoteingeneralelectionsTheexecutiveTheleaderofthepartywithamajorityofmembersintheHouseofRepresentativesbecomesPrimeMinisterHeorsheandaboutotherchosenmembers,formtheCabinetCabinetmakespolicyandCabinetministershaveresponsibilityfordifferentareas,suchashealth,trade,women'saffairs,finance,etcMinistersorgovernmentdepartmentsputgovernmentpoliciesintoactionThestaffofthesedepartmentsareacareerpublicserviceTheydonotgiveuptheirjobswhenthereisachangeofgovernmentThejudiciaryThecourtshandlebothcivilandcriminalcastsThejudiciary(courtsystem)isindependentofthegovernmentTheHighCourtjudgessitonawidevarietyofcasesThejuryintheHighCourtconsistsofcitizensAnyoneontheelectoralrollmaybecalledforJuryService,whichiscompulsorywithoutgoodreason,andforwhichpaymentisreceivedThelowercourts,knovnasdistrictcourts,tryminoroffensesFamilydisputesareheardintheFamilyCourt,andyoungpeople'scasesareheardintheChildrenandYoungPersonsCourtLessercriminalchargesmaybeheardbyJusticesofthePeacewhoareordinarycitizensnominatedbytheirMemberofParliamentfortheirpositionintheneighbourhoodtheyservePoliceofficersbelongtoanationalserviceTheMinistryofTransport,whichpolicestrafficmatters,andthepolicehaverecentlycombinedLocalgovernmentInadditiontothenationalgovernmenttherearelocalauthoritiesCitizensofanarea,atownoracitydistrictvotefortheirlocalgovernmentrepresentativesLocalauthoritiesattendtolocalneeds,suchasroads,drainage,streetlighting,rubbishcollection,publictransport,zoos,museums,parksandlibrariesintheirareaTheseactivitiesarefundedbyrates,ielocaltaxespaidbypropertyownersintheareaIICharacteristicsofNewZealandPeopleThecombinationofEuropeanandPolynesiancultureshasproducedacharacteristicnationaEidentitywhichishardtodefineNewZealanderstakeacommunityapproachtoproblems,butatthesametimetheyareveryproudofbeingindependentandselfreliantTheyvalueapracticalapproachwhetherdoinghouseholdrepairsorsettingupanationalwelfareschemeThereiswidespreadbeliefinsocialequalityAwellestablishedwelfaresystemhasremovedthefearofdestitution(lackoffood,shelter,clothes)Therighttoworkisacceptedbyeveryone,andthelevelofunemploymenthasbeenlowbyinternationalstandardsChristianityisthemostwidespreadreligionEnglishandMaonareofficiallanguagesAlmostallNewZealandersuseEnglishandanincreasingnumberofpeoplespeakMaoriMaoriwordsarewidelyusedineverydayconversationandmanyplacenamesarefromtheMaorilanguageAdistinctiveNewZealandaccenthasdeveloped,aswellaslocalslangandvocabularyTheEqualPayAct()guaranteesequalpayforwomenTheMatrimonialPropertyAct()andtheMaternityLeaveandEmploymentProtectionAct()bothsupportwomen'srightsAministryofwomen'saffairswasestablishedinHealthTreatmentatpublichospitalsisfree,asareprenatalandmaternityservicesandmostprescriptionmedicineThereareabout,IllHealthCaredoctorsandover,dentistsMedicalschoolsareinAucklandandOtago(Dunedin)andmedicalstudentscanspendtheirfinalyearatclinicalschoolsinWellingtonandChristchurchDentistsaretrainedatOtagoApercentageofdoctors'feesispaidbythestatePeopleonlowincomesgetreducedfeesandmedicinecostswiththeircommunityservicescardTheAccidentCompensationCorporationprovidesimmediatebenefitsoffreemedicaltreatmentforeveryonewhosufferspersonalinjurybyaccidentTheaveragelifeexpectancyisformenandforwomenDentalhealthNewZealandwasoneofthefirstcountiresintheworldtoestablishafreenationaldentalserviceforyoungpeopleFromtheageoftwoandahalftotheageofthirteenandahaildentalcareisprovidedbyschooldentalnursesFromthirteenandahalftoeighteenteenagerswhoarenotworkinggetfreedentalcarefromdentistsAdultspayfordentaltreatment,althoughpeopleonlowincomespayreducedfeesPublichealthandchildrenInfantsandpreschoolchildrenreceivefreehealthcareandfreeimmunizationagainstarangeofdiseasesSchoolchildrenwhoareinpoorhealthcangotoHealthCamps,whicharefundedpartlybyHealthStamps,aspecialserviceofpostagestampsissuedeachyearHealthEducationOfficerseducatepeopleinthepreventionofsicknessTheyprovidedietaryadvice,helppreventairpollution,protectworkersfromoccupationaldiseasesandadviseonhomesafety,smokingandhealthylivingTheytestplumbinganddrainageTheyensurethatpremisessellingfoodanddrinkconformtohygieneregulations,andthatfoodmeetslabellingandpackagingstandardsWelfareThesocialsupportsystemhelpspeoplewithpersonal,familyandfinancialdifficultiesNewZealandhasasystemofcashbenefitswhichprovideforgeneralfamilywelfareandforproblemsituationsarisingfromsickness,accident,unemployment,soloparenthood,disability,oldage,andthedeathofafamily'sincomeearnerPrivateandvoluntaryorganizationsinthecommunityalsoreceiveassistancesotheycanprovidebetterservicesIVEducationEducationisfreelyavailabletoeveryoneNearlyallschoolsarerunbythestateAllthesepublicschoolsaresecular(noreligionistaught)andfreeAboutofpupilsattendprivateschools,mostofwhichareconnectedtochurchesEarlychildhoodeducationThisisprovidedmainlybykindergartens,playcentres,childcarecentres,informalnonprofitmakinggroupsandKohangoReo(Maorilanguagepreschools)Whilesomeofthesetakechildrenfrombirth,kindergartensusuallyonlytakechildrenfromyearsoldKindergartenteachersandchildeareworkersaretrainedincollegesofeducationPlaycentresandKohangoReo,whicharemorecommunitybased,havedevelopedtheirowntrainingPrimaryeducationStateprimaryschoolsarecoeducationalMostchildrenstartschoolontheirthbirthdayandschooliscompulsoryfromtheageofThefirstyearsofschooltakechildrentostandardInsomeareaschildrenattendanintermediateschoolforyears(Forms)whichbridgesprimaryandsecondaryeducationManyprimaryschoolsteachuptoFormSecondaryeducationSomesecondaryschools,especiallyinthelargercities,aresinglesexschoolPupilsenterFormataboutyearsofageThisisthefirstlevelinsecomlaryschools,whichareusuallycalledcollegesorhighschoolsPupilsmustattenduntiltheyarealthoughmorethancontinuetostudyafterthatageRuraleducationNewZealandhasdonealottoremovedifferencesinlevelbetweenurbanandruraleducationRuralchildrenhavetransportassistancetoschoolandsomesecondaryschoolshaveboardingaccommodationforruralpupilsIntheCorrespondenceSchoolwasstarted,toprovidefulltimeprimaryaridsecondaryeducationCoursesaremailedtostudentsandarecomplementedbydailyradiolessons,occasionalteachervisitsandperiodic"schoolweek"gatheringstogivestudentstheopportunitytoworkingroupsOtherpeoplewhoareservedbytheCorrespondenceSchoolareadultsandotherswhocannotattendsc:hoolbecauseofillnessorotherreasonsTertiaryeducationTheuniversitiesoffercoursesinthearts,law,commerceandscienceSpecialistcoursesareprovidedbymedicalschoolsatAucklandandOtago,engineeringschoolsatAucklandandCanterbury(Christchurch),architecturalschoolsatVictoria(Wellington)andAuckland,veterinaryscienceatMassey(PalmerstonNorth)andschoolsofdentistry,domesticscience,physicaleducation,physiotherapyandtheologyatOtagoTertiaryvocationaleducationisofferedbyalargenumberofpolytechnicsinurbancentresTheyoffercourses,fromafewweekstoyeardegrees,innursing,computers,design,languages,communication,engineeringandconstruction,Food,fashion,business,tourism,horticulture,environmentalhealth,carpentryandmanymore"Continuingeducation"isprovidedbyuniversityextensiondepartments,theWEA(Workers'EducationAssociation),polytechnics,communityinstitutesandsecondaryschools,theCorrespondenceSchoolandtheOpenPolytechnicwhichoffersinstructioninovertechnicalsubjectsThereiswidespreadattendanceatnightclassesandweekendseminarsonawiderangeofsubjects,fromacademictopractical,includingwinetasting,film,carmaintenance,poetrywriting,religion,economics,flowerarranging,pottery,history,sewing,computing,ethniccookery,politics,timemanagementandahugevarietyofothersubjectsVTheInternationalMarketplaceTradeisNewZealanslivelihoodAsthecountrylacksmanymineralresourcesandhasonlydiscoveredsmallreservesofoii,NeweRlandneedstoimportmineralstokeepitseconomyrunningOverofimportsarerawmaterialsneededforproductionandtransportfuelsNewZealanddependsonincreasingitsexportincomebydiversifyingitsproductsGreaterefficiencyandcompetitivenessareseenasthekeytolongtermgrowthAnumberofgovernmentdepartmentshavebeenmadefullycommercialandareexpectedtomakeaprofitSeveral,inckidingTelecomandNewZealandRailhavebeencompletelyorpartlysoldtooverseasinvestorsThefinancialsectorhasseenthemostrapidandfarreachingderegulationinitshistoryForeign'investmentisincreasingandfinancialmarketsareactiveExportsNewZealandisoneoftheworld'slargestexportersofmeat,dairyproductsandwoolHowever,becausethecountrydependsheavilyonagriculturalproductsitisveryeasilyaffectedbychangesinworldpricesforthoseproductsItisalsoaffectedbyproblemswithoilpricesandsupplyAlotofagriculturalproductsareexportedthroughproductboardsTheseincludeboardsresponsibleforwool,dairyproducts,kiwifruit,applesandpears,berryfruit,eggs,poultry,honey,wheat,tobacco,potatoesandhopsAswellasexporting,theseboardsensurethereisanadequatesupplyforthehomemarketWesternEuropeandparticularlyBritainhavetraditionallybeenNewZealand'smajorexportmarketSinceBritain'sentrytotheEuropeanCommunityin,thepercentageofexportssoldtotheEuropeanCommunityhasbeenreducedfromtounder'Themajormarketsforexportsinwere,inorderofvalueofexports,Australia,Japan,USA,UK,SouthKorea,MalaysiaProductsexported,inorderofvalue,aremeat,dairyproducts,wool,fishandseafood,forestproducts,fruitandnuts,aluminium,skinsandleather,mechanicalmachineryNewZealandhasaworldwidereputationforprovidingtechnicalexpertise,particularlyinagriculture,engineering,forestryandlandmanagementNewZealandcompaniesarealsosuccessfulexportersofcomputersoftwareandelectronicinspecialistareasImportsThemainimportsareindustrialrawmaterials,capitalequipmentandconsumergoodsManyitemsareimporteddutyfreeMajorsourcesofimports,inorderofvalueofgoods,are()Australia,USA,Japan,UK,Germany,SaudiArabia,Taiwan,SingaporeAgricultureNewZealandissometimescalled"theworld'sbiggestfarm"However,althoughithasanidealclimateforgrasslandfarming,littlelandisnaturallyarableandmuchofitismountainousScientistsandfarmershavedevelopedtechniquesforgrasslandmanagementAbouttwothirdsoffarmlandistooruggedtobefertilizedorsewnbytractor,soNewZealandhasbeenapioneerinagriculturalaviation,usinglocallydevelopedaircrafttospreadfertilizerandseedsfromtheairThereareabout,farmsandhorticulturalbusinessesOverhalfofthesefarmsaresmallerthanhectaresBeefranchesandsheepstationsinSouthIslandarelargebymoststandardsThelandsupportsaboutmillionsheepandmillioncattle,whichliveoutsideallyearroundFarmingishighlymechanizedandelectricityisavailableeveninremoteareasFarmsarehighlyefficientandmostofNewZealand'sfarmersowntheirownlandFarmsareverymuchfamilybusinessesSome,farmsstockmainlysheepTheaverageflockis,sheepMostsheepfarmshavetheirwoolshedswheresheepareshornbyvisitinggangsofshearersonceayearNewZealandistheworld'slargestexporteroflambandmuttonItisalsothelargestexporterofdairyproductsThereareovermilliondairycattle,withcowsintheaverageherdRecentlydeerhavebeendomesticatedforvenison,andgoatsfortheirfibre(hair)CropsandhorticultureOv,hectaresoflandproducebarley,maize,hops,wheat,peas,potatoes,etcOrchardsproduceapples,apricots,pears,peaches,avocados,blackcurrants,lemons,kiwifruit,orages,passionfruit,etcMuchofthisiscannedorfrozenVineyardsproduceinternationalawardwinningredandwhitewines,IndustryTherearetwosteelcompanies:NewZealandSteelwhichusesironsandsfromthewestcoastofNorthIsland,andPacificSteelwhichreusesscrapironTheTiwaiPointAluminiumSwelterinthefarsouthofSouthIslandproduces,tonnesayearMotorvehiclesareassembledinNewZealand,exceptforsomeluxurymodelswhichareimportedfullyassembledAutomotivecomponentsandrelateditemslikecomputerizedpetrolpumpsareexportedSeveralcompaniesconstructsteelships,tugs,fishingboatsandpassengerferriesThe"jetboat"wasdevelopedinChristchurchandisusedforworkandpleasurethroughouttheworldNewZealandyachtdesignersandmanufacturersalsohaveworldwiderecognition,particularlysinceNewZealandwontheAmerica'sCupforyachtinginNewZealandersareknownfortheirinventivenessThishasproducedmanydevelopmentsinagriculturalmachineiyandequipmentNewZealandisaworldleaderintheCNA(compressednaturalgas)industryGarments,fabricsandcarpetsareexportedThefishingindustryhasexpandedgreatlyandisnowthethlargestexportearnerAquacultureincludesoyster,mussel,trout,salmonandscallopfarmingTheleatherindustrysuppliesthelocalmarketforshoes,bags,etcandexportshides(uncutskins)TheforestryindustryisinaperiodofdramaticgrowthMorethanmillionhectareshavebeenplantedintreesItproducestimberandpulpforpaperaswellasliquidfuelsForestbasedindustriesmployofthepopulationEnergyEnergypolicyplanninghasfocusedonreducingdependenceonimportedfuelPetroleumimportssupplyaboutofthecountry'stotalenergyneedsAnincreasinglylargeshareofenergycomesfromlocalresources:naturalgas,crudeoil,hydroelectricityandgeothermalsteamCoalisofgrowingimportanceSolarenergy,vegetableoilsandethyWcoholfromfermentationmakesmallcontributionsOtherdevelopmentsincludetheproductionofgasandliquidfuelfrombiomas(humanandanimalsewage)ThereisnonuclearpowerandnoforseeableneedforitHydroelectricityfromriversanddamssuppliesoftotalenergyAsubmarinecabletransmitspowerfromSouthIsland,wheremosthydrostationsare,toNorthisland,whichhasmostpopulationandindustryGeothermalpowerisproducedinthevolcanicregionofcentralNorthIslandNaturalgassuppliesdomestic,commercialandindustrialcustomersinNorthIslandtowns,forcooking,heatingandwaterheatingAsroadtransportusesofthecountry'spetroleumCNA(compressednaturalgas)wasdevelopedandpowersover,vehiclesTheNorthIslandthermalstationatHuntlyproduceselectricityfromgasandcoal("ralisminedinbothNorthandSouthIslandsandtheindustryisexpandingforbothelectricitygenerationandsteelproductionEachyear,torinesofcoalisexportedtoJapanNewZealandimportspetroleumfromtheMiddleEastandSouthEastAsiaforprocessingatMarsdenPointnearWhangareiSmalllocalfieldsproducecrudeoilandthesearchforoilonlandandundertheseacontinuesVICultureandtheArtsPaintersandsculptorsandartists,groupsperformingballetdrama,musicandopera,andfilmmakersallreceivefinancialassistancethroughtheQueenElizabethIIArtsCouncilThroughregionalandcommunityArtsCouncilsamateurgroupsandindividualsreceiveassistancetohelppromotethevisualandperformingartsSince,allaspectsofthevisualartshaveflourishedPrintmakers,spinners,weavers,potters,woodworkersandjewellershavedevelopedandusedlocalmaterialsTheMoanExhibitionintheUSAwashighlysuccessfulandMaoriartistsbothancientandcontemporary,areacknowledgedasapowerfulforceinNewZealandartThemanyamateurartistsarealsoanimportantpartofthelocalartsceneTheprofessionalnationalorchestratheNewZealandSymphonyisadministeredandfinancedbytheBroadcastingCorporationTherearealsoregionalorchestrassupportedbytheArtsCouncilFouramateurjuniororchestrasprovidetrainingforyoungpeopleNewZealandhasproducednotedsingersandrockbandsProfessionaltheatresandmodemdancegroupsarestronginbigcities,andsmallertownshavetheirownamateurproductionsofavarietyoftheatreartsTheNewZealandBallethasexistedasapermanentfulltimecompanysinceTheNewZealandOperaCompanyisgaininginstrengthTheNewZealandfilmindustryhasagrowingreputationlyespecialsince"ThePiano","OnceWereWarriorsandHeavenlyCreatures"becameinternationalsuccesssViiNewZealandandtheWorldAsaSouthPacificnation,NewZealandplaysanimportantroleinitsneighbourhoodHistoricalandethniclinkswithislandneighboursintheSouthPacificarestrengthenedbypoliticalandeconomictiesTobeluisNewZealand'sonlydependencyTheCookIslands()andNiue()havebecomeselfgoverningcountries,withNewZealandresponsiblefordefenceandforeigripolicyThosepeopleareNewZealandcitizensandhavefreeaccesstoNewZealandCommoninterestsareservedthroughtheSouthPacificForumAbilateraltradeagreementwassignedwithAustraliaThisistheCER(CloserEconomicRelations)Treaty,ThereisalsoarangeoftieswiththeUSA,CanadaandothernationsofthePacificrimTrade,travelandculturalexchangeshavebroughtNewZealandclosertoAsiaJapan,ChinaandKoreahavemadeNorthEastAsiaoneofthemostimportantareasforNewZealandtodealwithThereisclosecooperationwiththecountriesofASEAN(AssociationofSouthEastAsianNations)Brunei,Indonesia,Malaysia,Singapore,thePhilippinesandThailandAsiaasawholetakesofNewZeaknd'sexportsTradelinkswithBritainandEuroperemainInrecentyearsNewZealandhasmadeconnectionswiththeMiddleEast,LatinAmericaandAfrica,fortradeandotherareasofcooperationNewZealandworkswithmanycountriesthroughinternationalorganizationsItsmembershipoftheCommonwealthhasledtostrongrelationshipswithcountriesinnearlyeveryregionoftheworldNewZealandisafoundationmemberoftheUnitedNations,andisamemberofnumerousinternationaleconomicbodies,includingGATT(GeneralAgreementonTariffsandTrade),theIMF(InternationalMonetaryFund)andtheOECD(OrganizationforEconomicCooperationandDevelopment)NewZealandhasagoodrecordforprovidingassistancetodevelopingcountriesTheSouthPacificreceivesaboutofNewZealand'stotaloverseasassistanceSupportforotherregionsischanneledthroughinternationalaidagenciesPercapita,NewZealandersmakelargecontributionstorelieforganizationslikeRedCross,UNICEF(UnitedNationsChildren'sFund),WorldVision,etcthOpWhatisthepopulationofNewZealandandwhatpercentageareMaoriWhatisNewZealand'srelationshiptoBritainIsitindependentIdentifythecharacteristicsoftheNewZealandpeopleWhatpercentageofpeopleworkonfarmsMostNewZealanderspaykindsoftaxWhataretheyFivekindsofhealthcarearefreeinNewZealandWhataretheyEducationinNewZealandisfree,secularandcompulsoryWhatdoesthismeanWhatareNewzealand'smainexportsFlowisNewZeiandelectricityproduced(Therearethreemainsources)DescribeNewZealand'srelationswithothercountriesJSflT(iL*i)u*AIWF:(w),(*),TJLM'J(L*),(O),HelenWylie(w),MO(O*),(ibt(I),(),k()II,fT*tuZ:(),AT*
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