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首页 England Your England by George Orwell

England Your England by George Orwell.doc

England Your England by George …

日理万鸡千金
2019-06-16 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《England Your England by George Orwelldoc》,可适用于外语资料领域

Yourtask:readandwriteReadthefollowingessaycarefully,atleasttwice,beforeyoubegintowriteasummaryofnomorethanwordsonthenationalcharacteristicsoftheEnglishpeopleEnglandYourEnglandbyGeorgeOrwellNationalcharacteristicsarenoteasytopindown,andwhenpinneddowntheyoftenturnouttobetrivialitiesorseemtohavenoconnectionwithoneanotherSpaniardsarecrueltoanimals,Italianscandonothingwithoutmakingadeafeningnoise,theChineseareaddictedtogamblingObviouslysuchthingsdon'tmatterinthemselvesNevertheless,nothingiscauseless,andeventhefactthatEnglishmenhavebadteethcantellsomethingabouttherealitiesofEnglishlifeHereareacoupleofgeneralizationsaboutEnglandthatwouldbeacceptedbyalmostallobserversOneisthattheEnglisharenotgiftedartisticallyTheyarenotasmusicalastheGermansorItalians,paintingandsculpturehaveneverflourishedinEnglandastheyhaveinFranceAnotheristhat,asEuropeansgo,theEnglisharenotintellectualTheyhaveahorrorofvabstractthought,theyfeelnoneedforanyphilosophyorsystematic‘worldview’Noristhisbecausetheyare‘practical’,astheyaresofondofclaimingforthemselvesOnehasonlytolookattheirmethodsoftownplanningandwatersupply,theirobstinateclingingtoeverythingthatisoutofdateandanuisance,aspellingsystemthatdefiesanalysis,andasystemofweightsandmeasuresthatisintelligibleonlytothecompilersofarithmeticbooks,toseehowlittletheycareaboutmereefficiencyButtheyhaveacertainpowerofactingwithouttakingthoughtTheirworldfamedhypocrisy–theirdoublefacedattitudetowardstheEmpire,forinstance–isboundupwiththisAlso,inmomentsofsupremecrisisthewholenationcansuddenlydrawtogetherandactuponaspeciesofinstinct,reallyacodeofconductwhichisunderstoodbyalmosteveryone,thoughneverformulatedThephrasethatHitlercoinedfortheGermans,‘asleepwalkingpeople’,wouldhavebeenbetterappliedtotheEnglishNotthatthereisanythingtobeproudofinbeingcalledasleepwalkerButhereitisworthnotingaminorEnglishtraitwhichisextremelywellmarkedthoughnotoftencommentedon,andthatisaloveofflowersThisisoneofthefirstthingsthatonenoticeswhenonereachesEnglandfromabroad,especiallyifoneiscomingfromsouthernEuropeDoesitnotcontradicttheEnglishindifferencetotheartsNotreally,becauseitisfoundinpeoplewhohavenoaestheticfeelingswhateverWhatitdoeslinkupwith,however,isanotherEnglishcharacteristicwhichissomuchapartofusthatwebarelynoticeit,andthatistheaddictiontohobbiesandsparetimeoccupations,theprivatenessofEnglishlifeWeareanationofflowerlovers,butalsoanationofstampcollectors,pigeonfanciers,amateurcarpenters,couponsnippers,dartsplayers,crosswordpuzzlefansAlltheculturethatismosttrulynativecentresroundthingswhichevenwhentheyarecommunalarenotofficial–thepub,thefootballmatch,thebackgarden,thefiresideandthe‘nicecupoftea’Thelibertyoftheindividualisstillbelievedin,almostasinthenineteenthcenturyButthishasnothingtodowitheconomicliberty,therighttoexploitothersforprofitItisthelibertytohaveahomeofyourown,todowhatyoulikeinyoursparetime,tochooseyourownamusementsinsteadofhavingthemchosenforyoufromaboveThemosthatefulofallnamesinanEnglishearisNoseyParkerItisobvious,ofcourse,thateventhispurelyprivatelibertyisalostcauseLikeallothermodernpeople,theEnglishareinprocessofbeingnumbered,labelled,conscripted,‘coordinated’Butthepulloftheirimpulsesisintheotherdirection,andthekindofregimentationthatcanbeimposedonthemwillbemodifiedinconsequenceNopartyrallies,noYouthMovements,nocolouredshirts,noJewbaitingor‘spontaneous’demonstrationsNoGestapoeither,inallprobabilityButinallsocietiesthecommonpeoplemustlivetosomeextentagainsttheexistingorderThegenuinelypopularcultureofEnglandissomethingthatgoesonbeneaththesurface,unofficiallyandmoreorlessfrownedonbytheauthoritiesOnethingonenoticesifonelooksdirectlyatthecommonpeople,especiallyinthebigtowns,isthattheyarenotpuritanicalTheyareinveterategamblers,drinkasmuchbeerastheirwageswillpermit,aredevotedtobawdyjokes,anduseprobablythefoulestlanguageintheworldTheyhavetosatisfythesetastesinthefaceofastonishing,hypocriticallaws(licensinglaws,lotteryacts,etcetc)whicharedesignedtointerferewitheverybodybutinpracticealloweverythingtohappenAlso,thecommonpeoplearewithoutdefinitereligiousbelief,andhavebeensoforcenturiesTheAnglicanChurchneverhadarealholdonthem,itwassimplyapreserveofthelandedgentry,andtheNonconformistsectsonlyinfluencedminoritiesAndyettheyhaveretainedadeeptingeofChristianfeeling,whilealmostforgettingthenameofChristThepowerworshipwhichisthenewreligionofEurope,andwhichhasinfectedtheEnglishintelligentsia,hasnevertouchedthecommonpeopleTheyhavenevercaughtupwithpowerpoliticsThe‘realism’whichispreachedinJapaneseandItaliannewspaperswouldhorrifythemOnecanlearnagooddealaboutthespiritofEnglandfromthecomiccolouredpostcardsthatyouseeinthewindowsofcheapstationers’shopsThesethingsareasortofdiaryuponwhichtheEnglishpeoplehaveunconsciouslyrecordedthemselvesTheiroldfashionedoutlook,theirgradedsnobberies,theirmixtureofbawdinessandhypocrisy,theirextremegentleness,theirdeeplymoralattitudetolife,areallmirroredthereThegentlenessoftheEnglishcivilizationisperhapsitsmostmarkedcharacteristicYounoticeittheinstantyousetfootonEnglishsoilItisalandwherethebusconductorsaregoodtemperedandthepolicemencarrynorevolversInnocountryinhabitedbywhitemenisiteasiertoshovepeopleoffthepavementAndwiththisgoessomethingthatisalwayswrittenoffbyEuropeanobserversas‘decadence’orhypocrisy,theEnglishhatredofwarandmilitarismItisrooteddeepinhistory,anditisstronginthelowermiddleclassaswellastheworkingclassSuccessivewarshaveshakenitbutnotdestroyeditWellwithinlivingmemoryitwascommonfor‘theredcoats’tobebooedatinthestreetsandforthelandlordsofrespectablepublichousestorefusetoallowsoldiersonthepremisesInpeacetime,evenwhentherearetwomillionunemployed,itisdifficulttofilltheranksofthetinystandingarmy,whichisofficeredbythecountrygentryandaspecializedstratumofthemiddleclass,andmannedbyfarmlabourersandslumproletariansThemassofthepeoplearewithoutmilitaryknowledgeortradition,andtheirattitudetowardswarisinvariablydefensiveNopoliticiancouldrisetopowerbypromisingthemconquestsormilitary‘glory’,noHymnofHatehasevermadeanyappealtothemInthelastwarthesongswhichthesoldiersmadeupandsangoftheirownaccordwerenotvengefulbuthumorousandmockdefeatist()TheonlyenemytheyevernamedwasthesergeantmajorInEnglandalltheboastingandflagwagging,the‘RuleBritannia’stuff,isdonebysmallminoritiesThepatriotismofthecommonpeopleisnotvocalorevenconsciousTheydonotretainamongtheirhistoricalmemoriesthenameofasinglemilitaryvictoryEnglishliterature,likeotherliteratures,isfullofbattlepoems,butitisworthnoticingthattheonesthathavewonforthemselvesakindofpopularityarealwaysataleofdisastersandretreatsThereisnopopularpoemaboutTrafalgarorWaterloo,forinstanceSirJohnMoore'sarmyatCorunna,fightingadesperaterearguardactionbeforeescapingoverseas(justlikeDunkirk!)hasmoreappealthanabrilliantvictoryThemoststirringbattlepoeminEnglishisaboutabrigadeofcavalrywhichchargedinthewrongdirectionAndofthelastwar,thefournameswhichhavereallyengravedthemselvesonthepopularmemoryareMons,Ypres,GallipoliandPasschendaele,everytimeadisasterThenamesofthegreatbattlesthatfinallybroketheGermanarmiesaresimplyunknowntothegeneralpublicThereasonwhytheEnglishantimilitarismdisgustsforeignobserversisthatitignorestheexistenceoftheBritishEmpireItlookslikesheerhypocrisyAfterall,theEnglishhaveabsorbedaquarteroftheearthandheldontoitbymeansofahugenavyHowdaretheythenturnroundandsaythatwariswickedItisquitetruethattheEnglisharehypocriticalabouttheirEmpireIntheworkingclassthishypocrisytakestheformofnotknowingthattheEmpireexistsButtheirdislikeofstandingarmiesisaperfectlysoundinstinctAnavyemployscomparativelyfewpeople,anditisanexternalweaponwhichcannotaffecthomepoliticsdirectlyMilitarydictatorshipsexisteverywhere,butthereisnosuchthingasanavaldictatorshipWhatEnglishpeopleofnearlyallclassesloathefromthebottomoftheirheartsistheswaggeringofficertype,thejingleofspursandthecrashofbootsDecadesbeforeHitlerwaseverheardof,theword‘Prussian’hadmuchthesamesignificanceinEnglandas‘Nazi’hastodaySodeepdoesthisfeelinggothatforahundredyearspasttheofficersoftheBritisharmy,inpeacetime,havealwaysworncivilianclotheswhenoffdutyOnerapidbutfairlysureguidetothesocialatmosphereofacountryistheparadestepofitsarmyAmilitaryparadeisreallyakindofritualdance,somethinglikeaballet,expressingacertainphilosophyoflifeThegoosestep,forinstance,isoneofthemosthorriblesightsintheworld,farmoreterrifyingthanadivebomberItissimplyanaffirmationofnakedpowercontainedinit,quiteconsciouslyandintentionally,isthevisionofabootcrashingdownonafaceItsuglinessispartofitsessence,forwhatitissayingis‘Yes,Iamugly,andyoudaren'tlaughatme’,likethebullywhomakesfacesathisvictimWhyisthegoosestepnotusedinEnglandThereare,heavenknows,plentyofarmyofficerswhowouldbeonlytoogladtointroducesomesuchthingItisnotusedbecausethepeopleinthestreetwouldlaughBeyondacertainpoint,militarydisplayisonlypossibleincountrieswherethecommonpeopledarenotlaughatthearmyTheItaliansadoptedthegoosestepataboutthetimewhenItalypasseddefinitelyunderGermancontrol,and,asonewouldexpect,theydoitlesswellthantheGermansTheVichygovernment,ifitsurvives,isboundtointroduceastifferparadegrounddisciplineintowhatisleftoftheFrencharmyIntheBritisharmythedrillisrigidandcomplicated,fullofmemoriesoftheeighteenthcentury,butwithoutdefiniteswaggerthemarchismerelyaformalizedwalkItbelongstoasocietywhichisruledbythesword,nodoubt,butaswordwhichmustneverbetakenoutofthescabbardAndyetthegentlenessofEnglishcivilizationismixedupwithbarbaritiesandanachronismsOurcriminallawisasoutofdateasthemusketsintheTowerOveragainsttheNaziStormTrooperyouhavegottosetthattypicallyEnglishfigure,thehangingjudge,somegoutyoldbullywithhismindrootedinthenineteenthcentury,handingoutsavagesentencesInEnglandpeoplearestillhangedbytheneckandfloggedwiththecato’ninetailsBothofthesepunishmentsareobsceneaswellascruel,buttherehasneverbeenanygenuinelypopularoutcryagainstthemPeopleacceptthem(andDartmoor,andBorstal)almostastheyaccepttheweatherTheyarepartof‘thelaw’,whichisassumedtobeunalterableHereonecomesuponanallimportantEnglishtrait:therespectforconstitutionalismandlegality,thebeliefin‘thelaw’assomethingabovetheStateandabovetheindividual,somethingwhichiscruelandstupid,ofcourse,butatanyrateincorruptibleItisnotthatanyoneimaginesthelawtobejustEveryoneknowsthatthereisonelawfortherichandanotherforthepoorButnooneacceptstheimplicationsofthis,everyonetakesitforgrantedthatthelaw,suchasitis,willberespected,andfeelsasenseofoutragewhenitisnotRemarkslike‘Theycan'trunmeinIhaven'tdoneanythingwrong’,or‘Theycan'tdothatit'sagainstthelaw’,arepartoftheatmosphereofEnglandTheprofessedenemiesofsocietyhavethisfeelingasstronglyasanyoneelseOneseesitinprisonbookslikeWilfredMacartney'sWallsHaveMouthsorJimPhelan'sJailJourney,inthesolemnidiociesthattakeplaceatthetrialsofconscientiousobjectors,inletterstothepapersfromeminentMarxistprofessors,pointingoutthatthisorthatisa‘miscarriageofBritishjustice’Everyonebelievesinhisheartthatthelawcanbe,oughttobe,and,onthewhole,willbeimpartiallyadministeredThetotalitarianideathatthereisnosuchthingaslaw,thereisonlypower,hasnevertakenrootEventheintelligentsiahaveonlyaccepteditintheoryAnillusioncanbecomeahalftruth,amaskcanaltertheexpressionofafaceThefamiliarargumentstotheeffectthatdemocracyis‘justthesameas’or‘justasbadas’totalitarianismnevertakeaccountofthisfactAllsuchargumentsboildowntosayingthathalfaloafisthesameasnobreadInEnglandsuchconceptsasjustice,libertyandobjectivetrutharestillbelievedinTheymaybeillusions,buttheyareverypowerfulillusionsThebeliefintheminfluencesconduct,nationallifeisdifferentbecauseofthemInproofofwhich,lookaboutyouWherearetherubbertruncheons,whereisthecastoroilTheswordisstillinthescabbard,andwhileitstaystherecorruptioncannotgobeyondacertainpointTheEnglishelectoralsystem,forinstance,isanallbutopenfraudInadozenobviouswaysitisgerrymanderedintheinterestofthemoneyedclassButuntilsomedeepchangehasoccurredinthepublicmind,itcannotbecomecompletelycorruptYoudonotarriveatthepollingboothtofindmenwithrevolverstellingyouwhichwaytovote,norarethevotesmiscounted,noristhereanydirectbriberyEvenhypocrisyisapowerfulsafeguardThehangingjudge,thateviloldmaninscarletrobeandhorsehairwig,whomnothingshortofdynamitewilleverteachwhatcenturyheislivingin,butwhowillatanyrateinterpretthelawaccordingtothebooksandwillinnocircumstancestakeamoneybribe,isoneofthesymbolicfiguresofEnglandHeisasymbolofthestrangemixtureofrealityandillusion,democracyandprivilege,humbuganddecency,thesubtlenetworkofcompromises,bywhichthenationkeepsitselfinitsfamiliarshape

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England Your England by George Orwell

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