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首页 2013高考英语考试大纲

2013高考英语考试大纲.doc

2013高考英语考试大纲

evatomato
2013-03-08 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《2013高考英语考试大纲doc》,可适用于高等教育领域

完形高分策略(SkillsofClozeTests)(课时-)一、高考完形填空命题趋势选材特点:以记叙文为主,多以记叙文和夹叙夹意为主命题特点:()设空特点:名词动词(个)为主()考点层次分三部:里边层次:(语篇层次以上)体现了突出语篇的命题思路句子层次:(占左右)单词层次:(只须读懂单词所在句子就能做,分数较少)()考查重点:短文第一句不设问高考完形填空题型特点以叙为主,叙议结合篇章短小,意义完整首句完整,主题明确结构清晰,层次分明考查语境,侧重辨析实词为主,虚词为辅逻辑推理,隐于语篇常识语法,每年出现。完型填空之能力训练目标:词语辨析能力语法结构分析能力语篇理解能力逻辑推理能力文化背景透析能力作者意图剖析能力生活常识综合运用能力二、考生易失分之处:、忽视行文逻辑断章取义就题论题。、脱离语境滥用固定搭配。、缺乏必要的生活常识和不了解中西文化的差异。做题三忌:·急于求成未通读全文便忙于答题不了解文意无整体概念边读边填两眼忙于空白与选项之间欲速则不达。·只抠字眼语法不顾文意抓不住关键。·断章取义就题论题不管前后联系互不照应前后矛盾。三、做题三步法方法:四、巧解完形填空高分技巧、研究首尾找主题、上下联系寻信息、左顾右盼找搭配、思前想后觅逻辑、语境分析辨词义、集中精力破难题、回读检查补漏洞、提高阅读能力(速度、理解)、打好语法基础(固定搭配)、扩充词汇量(动词、名词)、增长生活常识培养广泛的兴趣爱好、多做多练以提高实战能力Howtogethighscores?正确的答题步骤必要的答题技巧适量的实践训练九大方法巧解完形一、利用首句来解题根据全文来选择IdidverybadlyatschoolMyheadmasterthoughtIwas    andwhenIwashesaid,“You’renevergoingtobe(anything)butafailure”   Abright      Buseless       Csimple     Dhopeful二、根据上下文语境合理推断来解题Ourfatherwasastrugglinglawyer,butIalwaysknewhewas Henevercriticizedus,butusedtobringoutourbest    Astrict      Bhonest      Cspecial   DlearnedAhelpBpeaceCsmileDpraisePractice:HisbigstomachhasalwaysballoonedoutbetweenhisTshirtandtrousersAlthoughhisfamilyoftenaboutthat,EdrefusedtobuyaTshirtortoloseweightAcaredBforgotCquarreledDjokedAcleanBstraightClargerDdarker三、利用语篇标志解题(三找)常见的标志性的词语有以下几种:结构层次:firstly,secondly,thirdly逻辑关系:thus,therefore,so递进关系:besides,what’smore,further转折关系:but,while,however,ontheotherhand等。Shetoldthefrontdeskclerkshehadhada(n)vacation,butwasheartbrokenaboutlosingseveralrollsofKodakcolorfilmshehadnotyetdevelopedAdisappointingBwonderfulCuncomfortableDimportant、找逻辑关系题(转折、让步、解释、对立、因果、并列、总分、递进)、找NOT题(在原文中找not)句式结构:前面肯定后面否定、前面否定后面肯定则选对立关系的词。考点:(以下条件缺一不可)①考查的是一个肯定句和否定句之间的逻辑关系空前后必须是独立的句子②出题位置在两个句子之间或第二个句子的开头不能处在一个句子的末尾或中间③选项中必须要有对立关系的词。、找AND题(在原文中找and)考点:①and前后选同义词词性一致②and前后选同一范围词③and前后句子对应成分相同④在文章中并列关系词前后如果出题利用已知关系解题。、找同现复现原则LiumeiisamongtheonesTheChineseUniversityofHongKonggranted(答应给)LiuafullscholarshipHK$,NotallstudentsaresofortunateApoorBsmartCluckyDsilentFriendshipisoneofthepermanentthemesintheliteratureofalllanguage…SomeofuslikefriendswhileotherslikedifferentfriendsPersonallyIpreferbothHavingsimilarfriendshasmanyadvantages…AtrueBrightCsameDsimilar四、根据逻辑推理解题…andtheofficersthenbegantoeattheirmeal,sayingthatthemushroomshadaverystrangequitepleasanttasteAbesidesBbutCandDor五、根据常识和文化背景的角度来选择Theamountofusablewaterhasalwaysbeenofgreatinterestintheworld(Owning)springsandstreamssometimesmeanscontrol,particularlyintheareaslikethedesert              A.dry     B.distant       C.deserted      D.wild六、从语法角度来解题Iwentintoacaféandaskedforacoffee     Iwaswaitingformydrink,Irealizedthattherewereotherpeopleintheplace,butIsensed (loneliness)A.Before      B.Since      C.Although     D.WhileHaveyouevershoutedatateacher,toldsomeoneyouwerelonely,orsaidyouwereinlove,andthenlateryouhadkeptyourmouthshutAwishedBhopedCblamedDshared解题思路:利用语法分析解题选项中的动词都是过去式其后句宾语从句hadkept是过去完成时故判断是虚拟。七、从惯用法和固定搭配方面来解题)HewasonlyfourteenandwasnotgoodatswimmingSoheshouldn’thavegoneintothatplaceAafterallBinallCatallDforall八、从词语辨析的角度来解题When,twoweekslater,Ithissameboy,IwasmoreawareofmypositioninNigeriansocietyIshould(enjoy)thiscountryasthesonofaministerAranafterBranintoCranoverDranto九、同义近义复现来解题IbelievethatamixtureoffriendsisequallyadvantageousOnecanfromvarioussortsoffriendsinthreeaspectsFirst,frequentcontactswithdifferentfriendsbroadenmyworldoutlooksJustasvariouskindsofnutrimentskeepyouhealthy,makingaoffriendskeepyoulively…Secondly,Ihavefoundthatdifferentfriendscannotonlyleadtonewadventuresbutalsoshowmenewavenuestosuccessinlife…AobtainBbenefitCsufferDearnArangeBseriesCquantityDvariety完型填空实战四招:抓首抓住首句,预测全文。完形填空所选短文多没有标题,但一般首句是一个不设空(或较简单)的完整的句子,往往用以点明短文的体裁,如议论、说明或叙述等。因此,我们在解题时一定要注意以首句的时态、语态及表述方式为立足点来进行逻辑思维,判断文章体裁,找出文章中心。捕眼捕捉题眼,寻找契机所谓“题眼”,就是指那些在短文中起重要作用的关键词以及能够帮助我们解决问题问题的特定的语境。捕捉题眼,就是要迅速找到语篇中的特殊的内在联系那些表示因果、递进、转折、指代等意义的连接词及动词、形容词、副词、同位语等,还有那些明确具体的事实(如时间、地点、人物、形状、色彩、顺序),以及它们之间的关系等。跳身避难就易,节省时间在解题过程中,我们应该遵循“先易后难”的原则,遇到少数疑难问题时不可徘徊不前。为了不影响做题速度,我们可以暂时跳过难点,去解决那些靠上下文能确定的、比较直接具体的问题。或许在上文中难以判断的题在下文中就有暗示或明确的表示,或许一个在前面不能解的题在填出了另一空后会令你豁然开朗。一般说来,固定词组、习惯搭配、常见句型及明显的语法结构等易于判断。扫尾复读全文,解决残敌到了这时,借助已经补全的空白,我们应该对全文有了更清楚的理解,可以集中解决所遗留的少数疑难问题,如采用排除法逐步缩小包围圈等方法。对于实在无从下手的个别题目,我们则完全可以凭语感来确定:把几个选项逐一放在空格内念两遍,哪个念起来顺口、舒服就选哪个。注意:凭语感选定的答案不要轻易改动,因为最初的感觉很可能是正确的。在各空都已填出后,再复读全文。我们必须重视这最后的弥补疏漏,改正错误的扫尾机会,以争取最好成绩。真题实战演练(·全国新课标卷)完形填空(共小题每小题分满分分)Inourdiscussionwithpeopleonhoweducationcanhelpthemsucceedinlife,awomanrememberedthefirstmeetingofanintroductory(同义复现)courseaboutyearsago(记叙文回忆、人物、时间、事件education)Theprofessorthelecturehall,placeduponhisdeskalargejarfilledwithdriedbeans(豆),andinvitedthestudentsto(同义复现)howmanybeansthejarcontainedAftershoutsofwildlywrongguessestheprofessorsmiledathin,drysmile,announcedtheanswer,(与前面wrong相对应)andwentonsaying,”YouhavejustanimportantlessonaboutscienceThatis:Neveryourownsenses”Twentyyearslater,the(上文提到的人物)couldguesswhattheprofessorhadinmindHehimself,perhaps,asinvitinghisstudentstostartanexciting(概括的是答案)intoanunknownworldinvisible(无形的)tothe,whichcanbediscoveredonlythroughscientificButtheseventeenyearoldgirlcouldnotacceptor顺接关系)eventheinvitationShewasjusttounderstandtheworldAndshethatherfirsthandexperiencecouldbetheTheprofessor,however,与小女孩的观点相反的saidthatitwas(与相对)hewastakingawayheronlyforknowingandwasprovidingherwithnosubstitute“Irememberfeelingsmalland,”(找and)thewomensays,“andIdidtheonlythingIcoulddoIthecoursethatafternoon,andIhaven’tgonenearsciencesince”(找否定词).AartBhistoryCscienceDmath.AsearchedfoBlookedatCgotthroughDmarchedinto.AcountBguessCreportDwatch.AwarningBgivingCturningawayDlisteningto.AreadyBpossibleCcorrectDdifficult.AlearnedBpreparedCtaughtDtaken.AloseBtrustCsharpenDshow.AlecturerBscientistCspeakerDwoman.AdescribedBrespectedCsawDserved.AvoyageBmovementCchangeDrushAprofessorBeyeCknowledgeDlightAmodelBsensesCspiritDmethodsAhearBmakeCpresentDrefuseAsuggestingBbeginningCpretendingDwaitingAbelievedBdoubtedCprovedDexplainedAgrowthBstrengthCfaithDtruthAfirmBinterestingCwrongDacceptableAtaskBtoolCsuccessDconnectionAcruelBproudCfrightenedDbraveAdroppedBstartedCpassedDmissed【要点综述】本文是记叙文。二十年前在第一节理科实验课上一位教授做了一个实验这个实验告诉学生们不要相信自己的判断。正是这个实验让一位妇女以后远离了理科。C联系下文animportantlessonaboutscience我们知道这是一节理科实验课。D从空后的placeduponhisdeskalargejarfilledwith…我们可以知道老师走进了教室。B联系空后的howmanybeansthejarcontained我们可以知道教授让学生们猜一下这个坛子能装多少豆子。D联系空后的shoutsofwildlywrongguesses我们知道学生们喊出了各种错误的推测教授听了他们喊出的答案。C联系空前的announced和空后的answer我们知道教授向学生们公布了正确答案。A联系空后的animportantlessonaboutscience我们知道教授认为他们学到了一堂非常重要的理科课程。B学生们的推测都是错误的因此教授说“不要相信你们的意识。”D联系下文Buttheseventeenyearoldgirlcouldnotaccept…我们知道这个妇女能够推测教授心里是怎么想的。C前文有提示:Theprofessor(marchedinto)thelecturehall由此我们可以得出答案。A联系空后的intotheunknownworld我们知道教授的目的是带学生们进行一次激动人心的知识旅行。B联系后文whichcanbediscoveredonlythroughscientific(method)我们知道这个世界是眼睛看不到的只有通过科学方法才可以看到。D联系前文的invisibletotheeye我们知道这个世界只有通过科学的方法才可以看到。A联系空前的couldnotaccept我们知道她不能接受甚至听到这个邀请。or在这里表达前后为顺接关系因此其他选项可以排除。B联系前文的theseventeenyearoldgirl我们可以推断这个小女孩年龄很小只是刚刚开始认识这个世界。A空后的herfirsthandexperiencecouldbethe(truth)是她的认识因此我们选believed。D联系前文我们知道教授想告诉学生的是第一手经验并不一定是事情的真相我们要通过科学实验来验证真相但是小女孩的想法与之相反。C联系前文我们可以知道教授认为小女孩认识世界的方式是错误的。B显然空前提到的herfirsthandexperience就是她认识世界的工具。C联系下文的haven’tgonenearsciencesince我们知道她对理科产生了恐惧。A联系空后的haven’tgonenearsciencesince我们知道那天下午她就放弃了理科。D有一定干扰性miss意思是“错过”因此可以排除。高考英语完型填空实战演练二(共小题每小题分满分分)Sometimespeoplecalleachother“scaredcat”,buthaveyoueverthoughtaboutthisexpressionWhenacatisfrightened,itsheartstartsbeatingfaster,itsmusclesgettense,andtherearechangesinthechemicalsinitsbloodstreamAlthoughthecatdoesn’tthis,itsbodyisgettingreadyforactionIfthedangercontinues,thisanimalwilldooneofthetwothingsItwillitself,oritwillrunawayasfastasitcan,whenpeopleareexcited,angry,scared,orarousedbyotheremotions,ourbodiesalsogothroughmanychangesOurheartsbeatfaster,andourmusclesgettenseAllofthesechangesmakeusmorealertandreadytoreactWe,too,getreadytodefendourselvesrunHumanbeings,,haveaproblemthatanimalsneverfaceIfwegivewaytoourfeelingsandletthem,wecangetintotroubleHaveyoueversaidsomethinginanger,orhitsomebodyandregretteditlaterHaveyouevershoutedatateacher,toldsomeoneyouwerelonely,orsaidyouwereinlove,andthenlateryouhadkeptyourmouthshutItisn’talwaystoexpressyourfeelingsfreelyDoesthismeanthatit’ssmarteralwaystoourfeelingsNo!Ifyoufeelingsofanger,sadness,andbitternesshiddenawayorbottledupinside,yourbodystaysPhysicalillnessescandevelopItcanactuallybeforyourhealthFeelingsthatyoukeepallbottledupinside,don’tjustIt’slikeyouboughtsomebananasandstucktheminacupboardYoumightnotbeabletoseethem,butyou’dsmellthemAndifyouopenedthecupboard,you’dlittlefruitflieshovering(盘旋)alloverthemThey’dberottenYoucantrytotreatemotionstheywerebananasinthecupboardYoucantheydon’texist,butthey’llstillbeAndatlastyou’llhavetothemJustlikethosebananasAmindBadmitCrealizeDrememberAsaveBhelpCdefendDhideATrulyBFrequentlyCSimilarlyDDifferentlyAchemicalBphysicalChealthDillAandBorCbutDyetAthereforeBbutCbesidesDhoweverAtakeoffBtakeonCtakeoverDtakeupAwishedBhopedCblamedDsharedAusefulBrightCeasyDwiseAhandleBhurtChideDpreventAkeepBfindCcontrolDletArelaxedBtenseCsameDdifferentAgoodBharmfulChelpfulDusefulAgoawayBgoonCgoupDgooutAlongbeforeBasusualCbeforelongDrightawayAmeetBobserveCcatchDseeAasifBjustasCjustafterDeventhoughApretendBexpectCdecideDassumeAinBaroundCoverDbeyondAeatupBdealwithCthrowawayDsendoutSometimespeoplecalleachother“scaredcat”,buthaveyoueverthoughtaboutthisexpressionWhenacatisfrightened,itsheartstartsbeatingfaster,itsmusclesgettense,andtherearechangesinthechemicalsinitsbloodstreamAlthoughthecatdoesn’tthis,itsbodyisgettingreadyforactionIfthedangercontinues,thisanimalwilldooneofthetwothingsItwillitself,oritwillrunawayasfastasitcanAmindBadmitCrealizeDremember解题思路:题眼法代入法捕捉题眼寻找契机:所谓“题眼”就是解题线索就是那些原句中出现的、对解题起重要暗示作用的关键词。找准关键词语,有时题干中带有对解题起着关键作用的词语如果能迅速找准这些词语再结合各选项的意义和特点就能很快选出正确答案。AsaveBhelpCdefendDhide解题思路:没有同义复现或固定搭配考虑概括的是解。并列结构法:根据文章中表示并列关系的连词或副词如:andalsoor或逗号“”等它们的提点是and前后的成分结构相似意义相关再做出准确判断。,whenpeopleareexcited,angry,scared,orarousedbyotheremotions,ourbodiesalsogothroughmanychangesOurheartsbeatfaster,andourmusclesgettenseAllofthesechangesmakeusmorealertandreadytoreactWe,too,getreadytodefendourselvesrunATrulyBFrequentlyCSimilarlyDDifferently解题思路:前后呼应法代入法前后呼应法:做完形填空要始终抓住文章本身联系“双语境”判断做题即大语境全文中心和基调小语境空格前后所构成的语意环境再根据前有伏笔后有呼应的思路做题。句群、段落、篇章等。语篇与语篇之间往往有表明其内在联系的词语这些词语被称为“语篇标志”。如表示结构层次的语篇标志语有:firstly,secondly,thirdly,finally等 表示逻辑关系的语篇标志语有:thus,therefore,so等 表示改变话题的语篇标志语有:bytheway等 表示递进关系的语篇标志语有:besides,what’smore,further等 表示时间关系的语篇标志语有:before,sofar,yet,meanwhile,later等。AchemicalBphysicalChealthDill解题思路:摆脱思维定势排除“陷阱”chemical后提示句Ourheartsbeatfaster,andourmusclesgettense都是physical。AandBorCbutDyet解题思路:与前面句子Itwillitself,oritwillrunawayasfastasitcan同义复现。同义复现:是英语中常见的一种现象。为强调某一意思但又不想重复使用某个词文中前后两处会使用一组同义词或同义词组。由于在完形填空题中这两个同义词的位置多半比较靠近很容易找到。无须过多推理只须确定相同的是哪个意思然后找出选项中与之相符的一项即可。Humanbeings,,haveaproblemthatanimalsneverfaceIfwegivewaytoourfeelingsandletthem,wecangetintotroubleHaveyoueversaidsomethinginanger,orhitsomebodyandregretteditlaterHaveyouevershoutedatateacher,toldsomeoneyouwerelonely,orsaidyouwereinlove,andthenlateryouhadkeptyourmouthshutItisn’talwaystoexpressyourfeelingsfreelyAthereforeBbutCbesidesDhowever解题思路:转折特点:but转折法:文中一出现“but”“Although”“though”“however,”“while”等词应该马上想到前后语意有转折。只要知道其中一方的语意就可以反向推出另一方的意思从而解题。完形填空题中but一词后多半会设题。所以大家在考试时只要看到but就做一个标记遇到类似but这样表转折的词也同样处理。这样便于回到原文去寻找解题的依据。AtakeoffBtakeonCtakeoverDtakeup解题思路:and并列结构法,givewayto的同义词let。。takeAwishedBhopedCblamedDshared解题思路:利用语法分析解题选项中的动词都是过去式其后句宾语从句hadkept是过去完成时故判断是虚拟。AusefulBrightCeasyDwise解题思路:后暗示法smarter的近义词是。利用暗示和对应解题:虽然重点是对语法、短语和词的辨析、句子结构的考查但对文章故事情节发展线索的逻辑考查仍是重点。暗示与上下对应的思维方法是突破此类完形填空最关键的思维方式。Doesthismeanthatit’ssmarteralwaystoourfeelingsNo!Ifyoufeelingsofanger,sadness,andbitternesshiddenawayorbottledupinside,yourbodystaysPhysicalillnessescandevelopItcanactuallybeforyourhealthAhandleBhurtChideDprevent解题思路:同义复现法AkeepBfindCcontrolDlet解题思路:利用语法分析解题动词可以带宾补hiddenawayorbottledupinside。ArelaxedBtenseCsameDdifferent解题思路:跨段落篇章复现tense查找文章多处反复复现概念的已知词:复现可以是相同的词在文章的不同地方重复出现。复现的解题意义在于:如果判断出一个未知填空与上下文的那些已知词汇有复现关系只要从选项中选出与那些词汇意义相同的就是正确答案。AgoodBharmfulChelpfulDuseful解题思路:利用关联成分将illnesses设置成已知另一个是未知的这样那个已知的词语便成为破解未知词语的关键线索。illnesses会对health?Feelingsthatyoukeepallbottledupinside,don’tjustIt’slikeyouboughtsomebananasandstucktheminacupboardYoumightnotbeabletoseethem,butyou’dsmellthemAndifyouopenedthecupboard,you’dlittlefruitflieshovering(盘旋)alloverthemThey’dberottenAgoawayBgoonCgoupDgoout解题思路:看清上下文找准定位词充分利用文章的上下文和前后句找到对选择有提示作用的词或句go看看文章中动词都与哪些副词或介词搭配成动词短语?Itwillitself,oritwillrunawayasfastasitcanNo!Ifyoufeelingsofanger,sadness,andbitternesshiddenawayorbottledupinside,yourbodystaysAlongbeforeBasusualCbeforelongDrightaway解题思路:利用语法分析解题butyou’dsmellthem句中的’d=would是过去将来时innotime=byandby=inaflash=beforelong=soon是将来时的时间状语表示“很快”而rightaway=rightnow=quickly=atonce=immediately则不受限制!AmeetBobserveCcatchDsee解题思路:利用语法分析解题you’dlittlefruitflieshovering(盘旋)alloverthem(AmeetBobserveCcatchDsee)littlefruitflieshovering(盘旋)。YoucantrytotreatemotionstheywerebananasinthecupboardYoucantheydon’texist,butthey’llstillbeAndatlastyou’llhavetothemJustlikethosebananasAasifBjustasCjustafterDeventhough解题思路:利用语法分析解题Youcantrytotreatemotionstheywerebananasinthecupboard是虚拟句。ApretendBexpectCdecideDassume解题思路:抉择于Apretend和Dassume之间exist?绝对相近法:它是从选项着手分析的若四个选项中有两个选项绝对矛盾、相近和对立那么正确选项大多在这两个对立项之间产生二者必居其一至于究竟是两者中的哪一个则需进一步根据上下文的语境判断。注意固定的搭配包括动词与介词的搭配、动词与名词的搭配以及形容词与名词的搭配等同时要根据内容选择正确的短语。AinBaroundCoverDbeyond解题思路:exist=bethere,there=inaroundOverbeyondAeatupBdealwithCthrowawayDsendout解题思路:容易错选Cthrowaway概括的是解。CCCBBDCADCABBACDAABB高考英语完型填空实战演练二(共小题每小题分满分分)AnnaarrivedfartooearlyUsuallysheleftthingstothelastminutetodaywasaveryspecialoccasionItwasalmostbygettingthereanhourbeforehandthatshetocausetheplanetoarrivesooner:racedthroughhermind“DoIlookallrightWillhenoticethatI’mwearingatrousersuitWillheevenme"AfterallitwasayearalmosttothedaysinceshehadseenJoeShefishedaoutofherhandbagandinspectedherfaceToomuchmakeup?Joehadmadeanycommentbutsheknewthathedidnotapproveof(赞成)heavymakeup“gildingthelily”heitItwasfunnyhowmuchimportancesheattachedtoagoodimpressiononhimAfterallfriendsdonotjudgeeachotherbyAllthesameitwasthefirstmeetingafteralongseparationandshewantedeverythingtoright·LookingoutofthewindowJoeafirstglimpsethroughabreakintheofthetownfarbelowCertainlyitwasveryflatteringthattheyhadhimtobetheguestlecturerattheirAutumnCongressyetagainTheChairmanoftheOrganizingCommitteeasamatterofCourtesy(礼貌)hadtomeethimattheairportashehad

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