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首页 透明太阳能电池新结构

透明太阳能电池新结构

透明太阳能电池新结构

野草
2013-03-07 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《透明太阳能电池新结构pdf》,可适用于工程科技领域

wwwadvmatdewwwMaterialsViewscomCOMAdvMatePingKuang,JoongMokPark,WaiLeung,RakeshCTaeGeunKim,SumitChaudhary,*KaiMingHo,*ANewArchitectureforTransparentElectrodes:RelievingtheTradeOffBetweenElectricalCTransmittancePKuaDepartIowaSAmes,EmailProfKDepartIowaSAmes,EmailJMPAmesUSDOAmes,KSNalwa,ProfSChaudharyDepartmIowaStaAmes,IAEmail:sProfTGSchooloKoreaUAnamdDOI:Transparentconductingelectrodeswiththecombinationofhighopticaltransmissionandgoodelectricalconductivityareessentialanddesirableinsolarenergyharvestingandelectriclightingdevicesincludingorganicsolarcellsandlightemittingdiodes(LEDs)aswellasintheirinorganiccounterpartsCurrently,indiumtinoxide(ITO)coatedglassismostoftenusedbecauseITOhasrelativelyhightransparencytovisiblelightandlowsheetresistanceforelectricalcurrentconductionHowever,ITOiscostlyduetolimitedresources,isbrittle,andhaspoorchemicalcompatibilitywiththeactiveorganicmaterialsThesedisadvantageshavemotivatedthesearchforotherconductingelectrodeswithsimilarorbetteropticalandelectricalpropertiesInrecentresearchefforts,carbonnanotubemetalnanowforITelectrstillsmittancondutance,transpatradeofribbonatdesiprovidecellsornanoscductiviandFapatternthatsuertiesfOurexofthePUtopsurfaceroughnessinducedduringthemilling©WILEYVCHVerlagGmbHCoKGaA,Weinheimwileyonlinelibrarycomr,,–entofElectricalandComputerEngineeringteUniversity,USAumitciastateeduKimfElectricalEngineeringniversityong,SeongbukGu,Seoul–,Koreaadmaprocess(Figured,e)Itshouldbenotedthatotherionetchingmethods,includingthereactiveionetching(RIE)technique,arealsoviablefortheremovalofmetallayers,,providedtheprocessisdirectionalinordertopreservethemetalonthePUsidewallsFigurea,bshowscanningelectronmicroscopy(SEM)imagesofthePUgratingstructureonaμmthickglasssubstrateatbothhighandlowmagnificationsThePUgratingng,RCMahadevapuram,ProfKConstantmentofMaterialsScienceandEngineeringtateUniversityIA,USA:constantiastateeduMHomentofPhysicsandAstronomytateUniversityIA,USA:kmhiastateeduark,WLeungLaboratoryE,IowaStateUniversityIA,USAnetworks,unpatternedthinmetalfilms,randomsilvernanowiremeshes,graphenefilms,andpatternedmetaliregridshavebeenevaluatedaspotentialreplacementsOelectrodes–AlthoughthesealternativetransparentodeapproachesdohavethepotentialtoreplaceITO,theyufferfromtheclassictradeoffbetweentheopticaltransceandelectricalconductivityThickerlayersofferhigherctivity,butthiscomesattheexpenseofopticaltransmitandviceversaHere,wereportanewarchitectureforpromisThesFirst,aμmtransfegoldanensureusedTsourcethemeThedeoftheonlythInordeofthePaphysiionbomiscapaevenbeSincethtionisthePUintact(waschMUNICATIONMahadevapuram,KanwarSNalwa,andKristenConstant*onductivityandOpticalrentelectrodes,whichleadstoquasieliminationofthisfThisarchitectureconsistsofhighaspectratiometallicswithnanoscalethicknessandmicroscalewidth,spacedredperiodicitiesandheldinplacebyapolymermatrixtoaflattopsurfaceforfabricationofactivelayersinsolarLEDsBydesign,thelightpathisonlyobstructedbythealethicknessoftheribbons,thusdecouplingthecontyandtransmittancepropertiesfromeachotherCatryssenperformedtheoreticalinvestigationsonsimilarnanoedmetallicstructures,andtheirsimulationsindicatechstructureshaveexcellentopticalandelectricalproporpotentialuseastransparentconductiveelectrodesperimentalresultsshowthatthenovelstructureisveryingforsuchapplicationsestructureswerefabricatedinamultistageprocesspolyurethane(PU)gratingstructurewithaperiodicityofwasfabricatedonglasssubstratebytwopolymermicrormolding(PμTM)(Figurea)Metalfilms,suchasdsilver,werethermallyevaporatedontothesampleTohighertransparency,twoobliqueangledepositionswerehesamplewastilted°tothenormaldirectionofthesothePUbaritselfwouldactasshadowmasktoblocktalfrombeingdepositedonthebottomofthetrenchpositionsweredonebycoatingtheleftsidewallandtopPUbarsandthenrepeatingfromtherightTherefore,ePUsurfacewascoatedwithmetalfilms(Figureb)rtoachieveevenhighertransmission,themetalontopUbarswasremovedWeemployedargonionmilling,caletchingtechnique,tophysicallyremovethemetalbybardmentIthasbeenshownthatargonionmillingbleofetchingmetalssuchasgoldandsilver,anditcanusedtoremoveoxidefornanostructurefabrication,eargonmillingisdirectional,whentheionbeamdirecparalleltothatofPUgrating,onlythemetalontopofgratingisremoved,leavingthetwometallicsidewallsFigurec)Furthermore,lowangleionmilling(°)osenforcontrollablemetaletchingrateandreductionwwwadvmatdewwwMaterialsViewscomCOMMUNICATIONwileyonbothPUsidewallsstayintactwithoutdefectorbreakageTheheightandthicknessofthemetarespectivaspectrmetalwaperiodicireducedwithperiusefultotransmisthepolarthevisibofthefaExperimTwodevaporatesamplesweresubstratethathesidewAsththemetallicstructuresleaablefortransmissionoflsectionthatthethicknessTocharacterizethelighttropticaltransmissionmeasuionmillingstepDuetotstructure,anintegratinghFyflatandwthinfilmwasuniformlypatternedinonedirectionandthesurfaceofthePUbarswassmoothThegratingstructurehadaperiodicityofμm,andthePUbarheightandwidthwereboth≈μmTheprofileofthePUbarswasisoscelestrapezoidalandhadabaseangleof≈°Typicalsampleshadanareaof×mm,althoughlargersampleshavebeenmadeAstheSEMimages(Figurec,d)show,themetalontopofthePUwascompletelystrippsomeisnoFigurea)highgolds(a)(b)(c)(d)(e)PUgratingGlassMetalangleevaporationMetalonPULowangleargonionmillingMetaltopremovedLowangleargonionmillingMetaltopremovedFigureSchematicsofthefabricationprocessa)PUonelayergratingbyPμTMonglasssubstrate,b)angledepositionsofmetalfilmsonPUgrating,andc)directionallowangleargonionmillingtoremovethemetalfromthetopTheargonionmillingstepisshownseparatelyinperspectiveviewsd)beforeande)afterthemetaltopsurfaceisremovedfusedligsamplemercialledoff,andthePUtopsurfacewasslightlyetchedwithroughnessBecausethemechanicalintegrityofPUbarstalteredduringthemillingprocess,themetallayerson©WILEYVCHVerlagGmbHCoKGaA,WeinheimlinelibrarycomThereduwasduetionfromternedsgoldandspectraFwastotaltrathepeaknmsidewallsperiodicimissionaboutwalls,thbyanadtionintrPUtopSEMimagesofaonelayerPUgratingstructurewithμmperiodicitybyPμTMatmagnificationandb)lowmagnificationandoftheargonionmilledsamplewithnmidewallsatc)highmagnificationandd)lowmagnificationAdvMater,,–as≈ThetransmissionofaPUonglasswassimilartoglassatcedtransmissionofthePUgratingtotheadditionaldiffractivereflecthegratingFortheionmilledpattructureswithmetallicsidewalls,silvershowedsimilartransmissionorgold,thepeaktotaltransmissionataroundnmandtheaveragensmissionwasForsilver,transmissionwasataroundandtheaveragewas≈Fortwoofnmthickmetaloverthetyofμm,thereductionintransduetothemetalsistheoreticallyTherefore,withthemetallicsideemeasuredtransmissiondroppedditional–Theadditionalreducansmissionmaybecausedbysomesurfaceroughness,whichresultstandtomeasurethetotaltransmissionthroughtheorcomparison,thetransmissionofastandardcomavailableITOcoatedglasswasalsomeasuredAllthesamplesweremeasuredwithairasthereferenceTheITOcoatedglasshadapeaktransmissionofataroundnmandanaveragetransmissionofovertheentireopticalwavelengthrange(–nm)ForaPUgratingstructureonglasswithoutanymetal,thetotaltransmissionspectrumwaslsidewallswereμmandnm,elyThisgivesaveryhigh(:)atioforthemetallicfilmsSincesdepositedonbothsidewalls,thetyofthegoldnanowirepatternswasbyhalfto≈–μmAstructureodslargerthanopticalwavelengthisimproveopticalproperties(highersionandreduceddiffraction),andizationeffectdoesnottakeplaceinlewavelengthrangeFurtherdetailsbricationprocessesaregivenintheentalSectionifferentmetals,AuandAg,weredonseparateonelayerPUgratingbyangledepositions,andthesamplessequentlyargonionmilledtodemontvariousmetalscanbedepositedonallsusingthisfabricationmethodeSEMimagesshow(Figurec,d),vemostofthesubstrateareaavailight,exceptforthenanoscalecrossofthemetallicsidewallsoccupiesansmissionbehavior,weperformedrementsonthestructuresafterthehediffractingnatureofthegratingspherewasusedtocollectthedifwwwadvmatdewwwMaterialsViewscomCOMMUNICATIONAdvMaofgoldandsilverare×−Ωmand×−Ωm,respectivelyThecalculatedvaluesofsheetresistancefromationareΩ�−andΩ�−forgoldandsilvere,respectivelyThetheoreticalsheetresistancesofouresaremorethantenfoldlowerthanthemeasuredhefirstprobablecauseisthatthereissomebreakageolymertemplate(disconnectedPUbars)suchthatthedewallsonsuchPUbarsarenotcontinuousanddonottributetotheelectricalconductionThesecondreasonresenceofnanograinsformedduringthemetalthinposition,whichhavesignificantlyhigherresistivitiesebulkThegrainboundaryeffectcouldbereducedalingthegoldinultrahighvacuumandathightemtoformlargerandfewergrains,ThemuchlowersistanceofthesilversamplecouldbebecausesilvertexperienceassevereofananograineffectasgoldalizeanorganicorinorganicsolarcellorLEDontheentelectrodeplatform,itisnecessarytofilltheopenswithatransparentmaterialtoprovideaflatareafortheyerdepositionWeachievedthisasshowninFigureindiftionewasinfrareionmsamplarationcharacTomeasuthearresistawasmturewtypicaForcoawidtwithtwaboutwhichisthepersqoftheThereargontherethantofourfoundgoldavaluesorganmethometallstructu(aw),aisthFigureperiodwallsaTotaltransmission()(a)theequstructurstructuronesTinthepmetalsifullyconisthepfilmdethanthbyanneperaturesheetredoesnoToretranspartrencheactivelafusedscatteringbackwardsNevertheless,thepolarizaffectwasnotseveresincetheperiodicityofthesamplesμm,whichshowsgreatpolarizationcontrastinthedwavelengthregimeTheinsetinFigureshowsanilledsamplewithnmgoldsidewallsTheareaoftheewas×mm,andtwometalcontactswithmmsepweredepositedattwoendsofthesampleforelectricalterizationcharacterizetheelectricalconductivity,twowireelectricalrementswereperformedtomeasuretheresistanceofgonionmilled,highaspectratiometallicstructuresThenceoftheμmstructurewithnmgoldsidewallseasuredtobeΩTheresistanceoftheμmstrucithnmsilversidewallswasmeasuredtobeΩAlITOcoatedglasshasasheetresistancearoundΩ�−mparison,theresistanceofaITOcoatedglassslabwithhofmm(thesameasoursamplewidth)wasmeasuredoparallelmetalcontactsdepositedandalsoseparatedbyTotaltransmissionofITOcoatedglassandlayerμmPUgratingstructuresonglasswithnmgoldandsilversidefterargonionmillingWavelength(nm)ITOGoldSilver©WILEYVCHVerlagGmbHCoKGter,,–mmontheslabThemeasuredresistanceisaboutΩ,isclosetothatobtainedbyR=RsqLW=Ω,whereRmeasuredresistanceofthesample,Rsqistheresistanceuare,Wisthewidthofthesample,andListhedistancetwometalcontactsdepositedattwoendsofthesamplefore,theresistanceofthepatternedgoldstructureafterionmillingisequivalenttothatofITOcoatedglass,andsistanceofpatternedsilverstructureisthreetimeslesshatofITOcoatedglassTocalculatethesheetresistancestructure,weusedRsq=R(WL)Fromtheequation,wethesheetresistanceofpatternedmetallicstructureswithndsilverwereΩ�−andΩ�−,respectivelyBotharelessthantheITOsheetresistancetypicallyusedforicLEDsandsolarcellsCatrysseandFanestablishedadforcalculatingthesheetresistanceofnanopatternedicstructuresSpecificallyforaDmetallicgratingre,thesheetresistancecanbecalculatedbyRsq=(ρh)whereρisthebulkresistivityofmetal,histheheight,eperiodicity,andwisthewidthThebulkresistivitiesFiguredepositionorganicsoTheinsetCurrentdensity(mAcm)aA,Weinheimwileyonlinelibrarycoma)Schematicsforsampleinversionandorganicactivelayersandb)currentdensityversusvoltagecharacteristicsoflarcellswiththegoldstructureasthetransparentelectrodeshowstheinvertedsamplewithoutactivelayersVoltage(V)(b)wwwadvmatdewwwMaterialsViewscomKCOMMUNICATIONwileyonlinewouldrequiresuchencapsulationtoprotectthestructureItisdemonstratedthat,withtheopentrenchesfilled,thestructuretiindlugtutmohronFinsemPonlaanlefeitplaelsaninWefirstmadethePUgratingonawatersolublesacrificiallayercoatedglasssubstrateAftermetaldepositionandargonionmilling,thesamPUprepontothesolidifiedsolvethdetachedthebottwasinvefusedtrPUinthtureinTheresifactthatinversioofthesacontactstricalmthetranpolythioturesThcellwercessfullyformancsolarceSincethelectrodeformancbecausesidewallrialprocwithpoimagestionsSascribedthroughmetalnabyusingasPHtransporTheimainsidethresult,thchargetetchingedgesIntactbetwvitalissuachievinForadows,wsamplesameAnelsbeteffectfrobondedanenca©WILEYVCHVerlagGmbHColibrarycomdoesnohighincicantmattributereplacesTheappremovesmarycastanding≈–dentangtherebyInformacanbeftiontreaInsumetallicbinationdepositihavehiglight,anrialsweaccommAworkiricatedricatedwindowberealizExperiThinMAftertheasgold(ebeam)incidencesurfaceitiltedangsidewallsopticaltrwasmainTheebedepositiosidewallsofvisibleTopMfurtherimontopomill,modwasposalignedwerenotincomingacontroltimevaritopmetaargonionTranspFabricatiowithaasmalldropletofthePUprepolymerwasplacedonpletofillinthetrenchesofthegratingstructureTheolymeralsoservedtoglueasecondglasssubstratesampleAfterthePUfillingwasultravioletcuredand,thesamplewassubmergedindistilledwatertodisesacrificiallayerandtheoriginalglasssubstratewasUpontheseparationoftheoriginalglasssubstrate,ompartofthestructurewasexposedandthesamplertedTheinvertedstructurehadanaveragetotaldifansmissionof≈–Thisisbecausethefillingofeairgapsreducesdiffractionfromthegratingstrucaddition,asmootherPUbottomsurfaceisexposedstanceoftheinvertedstructurewasaboutΩThetheinvertedsamplehadhigherresistancethanbeforenwasprobablyduetooverfillingofPUatthetwoendsmple,whichwouldblocktheconnectionsofthemetaltosomeofthemetallicsidewallsduringtwowireeleceasurementsAsaproofofconceptforapplicabilityofsparentelectrodes,wefabricatedabulkheterojunctionphene:fullerenebasedsolarcellontheinvertedstrucecurrentdensityversusvoltagecharacteristicsoftheethenmeasuredunderilluminationThedevicesucshowedphotovoltaiccharacteristicsHowevertheperewasslightlyinferiortotypicalITOelectrodebasedlls(usuallyshortcircuitcurrentis≈–mAcm−)econductivityandtransmittanceofthetransparentwascomparabletoITO,webelievethatthepereofthesolarcellisnotsimilartoITObaseddevicesinsomeregionsthetopexposedregionsofthegoldswerepartiallycoveredbyPUduetoimperfectmateessingpriortopoly(,ethylenedioxythiophene)dopedly(styrenesulfonate)(PEDOT:PSS)depositionSEMinFigureb(inset)showevidenceofsuchimperfecomecontributiontopoorerperformancecanalsobetoresistivelossesduetohorizontaltransportofholesthePEDOT:PSSlayer,beforetheyarecollectedbynoribbonsHowever,thisissuecanbeeasilyresolvedhighlyconductingformulationsofPEDOT:PSS,suchIthasbeenshownthatPHisabletoefficientlytholesoverdistancesgreaterthanmicrometersgeshowsthatsomemetallicribbonswereembeddedepolymer,andtheywerenotexposedatthetopAsaeymaynothavebeenincontactwithPEDOT:PSSforransferHowever,thisissuecanberesolvedbyslightlytheunnecessarypolymercoveringthemetalelectrodeaddition,thefieldenhancementattheinterfacialconeenactivelayersandtheelectrodesmaybeamoreethantheopticalimprovementoftheelectrodesforgbetterperformanceefficiencyofthedevicepplicationssuchassolidstatelightingandsmartwinehavesuccessfullymadethestructurewithalargerarea(×cm),keepingtheotherdimensionsthedditionalPUprepolymerwasusedtofilltheairchanweenthemetalsidewallstoreducethediffractionmthegratingpattern,andanotherglasssubstratewasontopofthestructurewiththeadditionalPUtoformpsulatedstructureItislikelythatmostapplicationsGaA,WeinheimAdvMater,,–sufferareductioninopticaltransmissionevenatverydentangles(>°),andthediffractionisataninsignifimumHightransmissionatsteepincidentanglesistothehigherrefractiveindexofPU(n≈),whichthelowindexair

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