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首页 撣語英語詞典.pdf

撣語英語詞典.pdf

撣語英語詞典.pdf

上传者: dengliang 2013-03-05 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《撣語英語詞典pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含IaTHELIBRARYOFTHEUNIVERSITYOFCALIFORNIALOSANGELESASHANANDENGLISHDICTIONARY符等。

IaTHELIBRARYOFTHEUNIVERSITYOFCALIFORNIALOSANGELESASHANANDENGLISHDICTIONARYSHANANDENGLISHDICTIONARYoDdSoo'^oo^oojS:cScjDD^(^'^coqojog,ccccocSo'>coo'cc^oqSByJNGUSHING,MA,PhD,DDRANGOON:AMERICANBAPTISTMISSIONPRESSrDPHINNEYSUPTAllKii^htsKescTvcdNolartofthisnil>licationmabertprcKluctnl,stored,maretricalsv'^tcnl,ortransmittedmanformorbanymeans,electronic,mechanicalihotoconin,ii,recordhig,orotherwisewithoutthepriorlermissionofClreai,'InternationalPublishersLmiitedISBNRepublishedinbyGreggInternationalPublishersLimitedWestmead,Farnborough,Hants,Fnglandl'n!itedinIji^lainlIPREFACETOTHESECONDEDITION,ThisrevisededitionoftheShanEnglishDictionarywaspreparedprincipallybyDrGushing,butothershavedoneagreatdealofworkonitManywordshavebeenaddedandsomedefinitionshavebeenslightlychanged^HWMIXToungoOfJanuary,'PREFACETOTHEFIRSTEDITIONTheaimofthisDictionaryistoplacebeforethestudentthecolloquiallanguageofthatdivisionoftheTaifamilyknownastheShanorBurmanShanThepronunciationcommonintheprincipalitiesofLaihkaandMongnaihasbeentakenasastandardDuringthepassageofthisbookthroughthepress,severalwordswereomittedaccidentallyandafewnewoneswerecollectedThesewordsappearintheAppendixJNGUSHINGRangoon,January,,INTRODUCTIONTheTaifamilyoflanguagesisspokenbyseveralmillionsDivisionsoftheTaifamily^^'P^^opie^hoinhabittlieplateauxofoflanguages^^^broad,mountainousbeltofcountry,whichsweepsaroundfromtheAssamesebordereasterlyandsoutherly,betweenBurmaandAnamtotheGulfofSiamThebranchesofthefamilyarethoKhamti,ChineseShan(TaiMow),Shan,Laos,andSiamese,TotheseshouldbeaddedthenowextinctlanguageoftheAhom,whowereoncetheconquerorsofAssamTheKhamtiisspokenintheextremenorthofBurmaabouttheUpperIrrawaddyanditsbranchesTheChineseShanisusedinthemanysmallprincipalitieswhichlieeastandnortheastofBhamoandaretributarytoChinaTheShanorBurmanShan,asitissometimescalled,isemployedbythepeoplewhoinhabittheterritorylyingbetweenthemountainseastofthegreatBurmanplainandtheCambodiaRiver,andbetweenthethandrdparallelsofnorthlatitudeBoththeKhamtisandShansareundertheGovernmentofBurma,TheLaosisspokenthroughoutthecountrysituatedbetweentheSalwenandCambodiaRiversandbetweenthethparallelofnorthlatitudeandthenorthernboundaryofthekingdomofSiamThegovernmentistributarytoSiam,butisindependentintheadministrationofinternalaffairsTheSiamese,whichdoesnotdifferwidelyfromtheLaosasaspokenlanguage,iscoextensivewiththekingdomofSiamAilthesedifferentbranchesoftheTaifamilyhaveseparatealphabets,whichare,withtheexceptionoftheSiamese,moreorlessrelatedinformThesefivedivisionsmaybeformedintotwogroups,whicharemorewidelydissimilartoeachotherthantheindividualmembersINTRODUCTIONofeachgrouparedissimilaronetoanotherTheymaybearrangedthusTAIFAMILYNortherngroupSoutherngroupIIKhamtiLaosChineseShanSiameseBarmanSi'anAtHotha,oneoftheChineseShanprincipalities,thelanguagespokenseemstobeChineseShanwithalargemixtureofaforeignelementOninvestigationitmaybeprovedthattheHothaSiiansarereallyShanizeddescendantsofaraceoccupyingtheterritoryofHothaatthetimeoftheirruptionoftheTaifamilyfromthenorthThisDictionaryembracesthevocabularyincolloquialuseDictionarybasedoathe^^"g^^^^^^"'^"^^^^^^"^"^^ShaucolloquialwhichhavebeenexaminedwordshavebeenfoundthatareneverusedinthespokenformofthelanguageThesewordshavebeenindicatedby()Doubtlessmanymorewordsofthiskindexistinbooksyetunexamined,buttheyareofnopracticalimpoi'tancetothestudentwhoisonlydesirousofacquiringacolloquialuseoftlielanguageThesewordsmayhavebeenincommonuseformerly,buthavebecomeobsoleteexceptinbooks,ortheymayhavecomeintousesimplytosupplywantsarisingfromthepeculiarrythmicalstyleinwhichallthenativebooksarewrittenIftheyarereallyobsoletewords,probablytheywouldaffordmuchassistancetothecomparativephilologist,TheShauasspokeninLaihkaandMongnaihasbeentakenasthestandardofpronunciationDialectsDialecticdifferencesexistinseverallocalities,buttheyareofnogreatimportanceINTRODUCTIONThemostnoticeabledialectsarethe'^oS,KhiinIc,atKengtungandthecS,Lii,c,atKenghong,principalitieseastoftheSalwen,wheretheLaosinfluencehasbeenverystrongIntheseprincipalitiesaslightlymodifiedformoftheLaosalphabetisusedquiteasmuchastheShanalphabet,whileafewconsonantslikey,whichareunknowninShan,areincommonuseThushpai,fire,ispronouncedaiWestoftheSalwen,theprincipaldialecticdifferencesarefoundintheborderprincipalitieslikeSamkah^coo'^)InthesedistrictsthedifferencesseemtohavearisenfromBurmaninfluenceandconsistprincipallyinslightvariationsofvowelsounds,andinacarelessnessintheuseoftonesThus'g'^,Ic,aflexure,isused^for"g"^,loInprincipalitieslikeMongPawn,wheretheTaungthusformalargeelementofthepopulation,thereareunimportantdialecticdifferences,whichperhapsshouldbecalledmereprovincialismsEvenintheregionwherethepurestShanirspoken,differentformsexistforthesamewordThusandoareinterchanged,as,S,meenandS'^,ween,Ic,toflyTheChineseShanandKhamtidialectshavebeenexaminedsomewhatandafewoftheirwordsaddedManyoftheirtonesaredifferentfromanyofthoseinuseamongBurmanShansandcannotbeindicatedexactlybythefiguresandlettersinusetoindicatetonesintheDictionaryThetonenearestliketheirshasbeenindicatedinplacesinwhichtheydifferThespellingofShanwordsisphoneticandthereforethegreater^,,portionofthemarefixedintheirorthoerDifierencesofspelling'raphyTherearehoweverafewsignshavingthesamephoneticvalueIntheuseofthesethereisnouniformityofpracticeBooksdiffer,scribesdiffer,andfrequentlythesamewriterisinconsistentinhisownusageThereisnostandard,towhichappealmaybemadeasaguideinsettlingtheorthographyofsuchwordsIntheorthographyadoptedforthisclassofwords,Ihaveendeavoredtofollowwhathasseemedtometobethemorefrequentusageofwriters,althoughinsomecasesthetwoformsofspellingseemtobeequallypopularINTRODUCTIONThefollowingareinterchangeablesigns:cINTRODUCTIONDifferencesofspellingalsoarisefromthecarelessnessofwritersTiiusc)jands^'areoftenwritteninterchangeablyFromthenatureofitsvowel,Cjdj,canbeofthefifthtoneonly,whilethevowelinc^isusedforanyoneofthefirstfourtones,asco'f,Ic,akindoftree,co'j',c,toappear,co^,c,afather,co^,c,if,butso,c,tostrikeAstheShanisatonallanguageliketheChinese,anicediscriminationbetweenthetonesisimportantTonesAsinglecombinationhasavarietyofdistinctmeaningsaccordingtothepeculiartoneofvoicewithwhichitisutteredFivetonesmaybedistinguishedreadily,althoughsomenativescholarsnoticeonlythreeThefirsttoneisthenaturalpitchofthevoicewithaslightrisinginflectionattheendandmaybecalledthenaturaltone,asin|,adogThesecondtoneisadeepbasstoneandmaybecalledthe^ravetone,aso|,theshoulderThethirdtoneisaneventone,inpitch,betweenthefirstandsecondtonesandmaybecalledthestraightforwardtone,as|,tobemadThefourthtoneisofamoreelevatedpitchthanthefirsttoneandmaybecalledthehightone,aswp,tocomeThefifthtoneisanabrupt,explosivetoneandmaybecalledtheemphatictone,as,aponySomeShansrecognizeasixthtone,asCt,thepoliteimperativeparticle,>P^>'cS,etcSomeofthesetoneshavebeenmarked()intheDictionaryThesixthtoneisslightlycircumflexandhasafallinginflectionattheendNosignsareusedbytheShanstomarkthetonaldistinction,except(s)whichisemployedsometimestodenotethehightonesaswilThetonesareindicatedintheDictionarybythenumerals,,,,and,thenumeralsbeingappliedintheorderinwhichthetoneshavebeendescribedINTRODUCTIONFromthegreatpaucityofsignsrepresentingvowelsounds,somevowelsignshavetwoorthreequantitiesSeriesofTonesassignedthemThishasgivenrisetothedistinctionofCoScoS,^q),closedtones(litclosedastothelips)andlo^o^'S,c,o,opentones(litopenastothelips)Thisdistinctionrecognizedbynativescholars,doesnotcoverailcases,forthevowel'^inclosedsyllablesiscapableofhavingthreedifferentquantitiesTherefore,forthesakeofprecision,Ihavedesignatedthevowelquantity,notnoticedbynativescholars,asamediateoneAsthedistinctionsofvowelquantityintheirdifferentcombinationsrunthroughfivetones,somecombinationsadmitoftwoorthreesetsorseriesoftonesThoseclosedsyllablesinwhichthevowelsareutteredwiththelipspartiallyclosedarecalledcriSo:^SorclosedseriesandareindicatedintheDictionarybycwiththenumeralmarkingthetoneprefixed,asRS,keep,c,tosqueeze,compressbetweentwo,j^S,koong,c,aprawnThoseclosedsyllablesinwhichthevowelsareutteredwitlithelipswellopenedarecallednfioySoropenseriesandareindicatedintheDictionarybyowiththenumeralmarkingthetoneprefixed,asRS,kep,o,tobenarrow,jdS,kong,o,aspinningwheelThoseclosedsyllablesinwhichthevowelisutteredwiththelipsmoderatelyopenarecalledmediateseriesandareindicatedintheDictionarybymwiththenumeralmarkingthetoneprefixed,asBS,kip,m,topickuporoutItwillbeseenfromthisthatsomecombinationsofvowelsandconsonants,admitofthreeseriesoftones,someoftwoseries,whilesome,fromtheirnatureadmitofonlyoneseriesThesyllableswhichadmitofonlyoneseriesoftones,forthesakeofuniformityinthesystemofnotationadopted,areinvariablymarkedintheDictionaryasbelongingtotheclosedseries,withoutreferencetotheinherentquantityofthevowelitselfThesecombinationsare:J|kah,^^kee,^koo,C>^kau,J^k,vg^kauk,J^Skaung,gokaut,OoSkaun,j^Skaup,jdSor<okaum,j^*kauaiorkoi,INTRODUCTION^kwah,jgkyah,^|^kyo,SJ^^kyau,j^Skyauk,^kyaung,gjoSkyaut,^krah,^kwah,J^kaiiCombinationswhichallowoftwoseriesoftones,theopenandtheclosedare:jD^kak,kakDoSkat,katjD(Skap,kapncSkow,k'owj^Skook,kkocSkwee,kway^^Skoon,knj^Skoom,kmeSkay,keSSkeuk,keukSoSkeiit,keut^'keQp,keup^keu,kedjgScgi^Sc^Bc^cjdSkang,kangjDoSkan,kanj:>Skam,kamjkam,kam^koong,kong,ookoot,kotj^Skoop,kop^koom,kom^^kai,k'aiSSkeung,keung^jSkeun,ketlnSSkeum,keumjgSkyak,kyakgi>Skyook,kyok^^kyeuk,kyeukg^kwak,kwakg'kwai,kw'aiCombinationswhichallowofthreeseriesoftones,closed,openandmediateare:BBkeek,kyik,kekBBkeeng,kying,kengBcBkeet,kit,ket^okeet,kit,ketB'i^keen,kin,kenBSkeep,kip,kepBSkeem,kim,kem^keoo,keo,keowS^Bkyeek,kyik,kyek,cokeem,kim,kemTwokindsofCoupletsexistintheShanlanguagewhichCoupletsmaybedesignatedasProperandPhonetic*^ProperCoupletsarethoseinwhichtwowordsofthesameINTRODUCTIONorrelatedsignificationareusedtoexpressasingleidea,ascc,Ic,o,tobegood,cBlyiS,c,Ic,toarrestThiskindofCoupletshasbeentreatedinChapterXIVoftheShanGrammariPhoneticCouplets(gdoiSaresyllableshavingnomeaninginthemselves,whicharejoinedtoawordforthesakeoftheadditionalsoundthattheyproduceTheyarenotinveryfrequentuseandareconfinedprincipallytotheconversationofoldwomenandchildrenWhentheyareemployed,itisgenerallythroughtheinfluenceofanger,adesireforfun,orsomefeelingwhichseekstoexpressitselfinamanywordedformThePhoneticCoupletalwayshasthesameconsonantsasthesyllabletowhichitisjoined,thevariationbeingonlyinthevowelsemployedThevowelofthewordwhichtakesthecouplethasanaffinityforsomeonevowelorcertainvowelsandfornoothersIfithasanaffinityformorethanonevowel,generallysomeparticularvowelisinmorecommonusethantheothersThusthevowelinthesyllablejd|kah,c,tobescarce,maybefollowedbythevowel,as|JkahkeeOntheotherhandkee,fie,toopen,takesforaphoneticcouplet,aso^ikeekahyj)kootakesj|sSkay,kemaytakeJD,,Sorcjd^,butJDjisthecommonlyusedcouplet,j'kai,ka'itakesoC*|kau,maytakeJD|,,orsB,buto^isthecommonlyusedcoupletjdkang,jdSkang,^keeng,S^Skying,,gSkaung,mayaswords,attracttothemselvessyllablescontainingeachother'svowelswithoneexceptionSSkyingofthemediateseriesmaytakeasacouplet,syllablescontainingtheothervowelsofthisgroup,butisitselfneverusedasaphoneticcoupletBesides,keengoftheclosedseries,whenusing>oasaphoneticcoupletchoosesthatpronunciationofthesyllablewhichbelongstotheclosedseries,asjoSkangandnotkangwhileSSkyingorkengchoosethatpronunciationofthesyllablewhichbelongstotheoj>enseries,asjoSkangandnotkangINTRODUCrnONThusj:)SbothintheclosedserieskangandintheopenserieskangmaytakeSkeeng(thecommonlyusedform),keng,andj^kaung,asjd^Skangkeengorkangkeeng,jdSkangkengorkangkeng,andjSjoS,kangkaungoricSngkaungSkeengusuallytakesSkeng,as^^keengkeng,butmaytakejdSkangorjySkaungvSSkyingusuallytakesjoSkang,butmaytakeSBkeengorJ^SkaungSSkengusuallytakes^keeng,butmaytakejdkangorjdBkaungj^SkaungusuallytakesBSkeng,butmaytakedSkangorSkeengTheseremarksaretrueofallclosedsyllablesendingino,'$,S,andSjsSkow,ko'wtakeskeooBokeootakesjdokowSSkeo,keowtakes>ok'owjDcpkvveetakesjd'kaijDCpkwaytakeso'kaiskeungusuallytakesjdSkang,andJSkefingtakesJ^Skang,butbothmaytakeBbkeeng,BSkengorjdSkaungSkailtakes,keeThecoupletcommonlytakenbyawordisindicatedintheDictionarybyprefixing(*jAkindofdoublephoneticcoupletisformedbyusingafterthewordanopensyllableformedofitsinitialconsonantandthevowelee,andthenrepeatingthewordanditsnaturalphoneticcoupletTheopensyllableisalwaysofthethirdtonewhatevermaybethetoneoftheworditself,asooB(So:)BcoB,hsookhseehsookhsak,c,c,c,c,coccgScS,laukleelauklek,c,So,sc,oIncompoundsubstantiveandverbalforms,thephoneticcoupletisseparatedfromitsprincipalwordbytherepetitionofthefirstsyllableofthecompoundword,aswS,m^kkengo,o,atamarind,becomesJb,SiDjoS,makkengmakkang'>^g^INTRODUCTIONpinhoo,Im,c,tohaveholes,becomesScjj^|ppinhoopinhah,Im,c,lui,cItmaybethatthesephoneticcoupletsaretheemptysignsofdeadwords,butIinclinetothink,thattheyhavegrownoutofthetonalcharacterofthelanguagetosupplyademandforaslightlymoreemphaticformofexpressionthananyaffordedbysimplewordsTheShanlanguagehasabsorbedalargenumberofwordsForeignwordsfromforeignsourcesstTheBurmanOnlythosewordsofBurmanoriginwhicharedomesticatedinthelanguage,slsitisusedintheShanprincipalities,havebeenrecognizedintheDictionaryAmongtheShanimmigrantsofBurmatheuseofBurmanwordsinaShanformismuchmoreextensivethanintheShancountryTheabsorptionofsuchalargenumberofBurmanwordsisdueprincipallytotheinfluenceoftheBurmanconquest,throughwhich,BurmanofficialswerestationedinallpartsoftheShancountryformanyyearsInmanyborderprincipalities,likeYawnghwe,BurmanonlvistaughtinthemonasteriesandhenceisslowlysupersedingtheShan,ndThePaliThenumberofPaliwordsisverylargeThesehavebeenintroducedthroughthesacredbooksofBuddhismOnlyapartofthewordsmetwithinvariousShanbooksexaminedbythewriter,havebeeninsertedInmostcases,thedefinitiongivenbytheRevdDrJudsoninhisBurmanandEnglishDictionary,liasbeenfollowed,becausethewriterhasnocriticalknowledgeofthePalilanguageTheBurmanformofthePaliwordhasalwaysbeeninsertedaftertheShanform,inorderthattheremightbenodifficultyintheidentificationofthewordOicasionallydifferencesexistintheShantransliteratioBofBurmeseandPaliwords,buttheyareconfinedmostlytotheinterchangeoftheliquids,Q,andCOSrdTheChineseFewwordsinuseamongthecentralandsouthernShanprincipalitiesarederivedfromthislanguagebutintheprincipalitieswhichborderonChina,wordshavebeenabsorbedinthesamemannerandforthesamereasonasinprincipalitiesborderingonBurmaABBREVIATIONSnnounprpronounprapronominaladjectiveaadjectiveaauxadjectiveauxiliaryVverbadvadverbprep,prepositionconjconjunctionintinterjectionVpart,verbalparticlenumnumeraltrans,transitiveintransinstransitivefigfigurativelypronpronouncednaturaltonegravetonestraightforwardtonehightoneemphatictonecircumflex,loweringslightlyattheendcclosedseriesoopenseriesmmediateseriesCSChineseShanKKhamtibusedinbooksonlySHANDICTIONARYOThefirstletteroftheShanAlphabet,andthefirstConsonantintheclassofgutturalsX,c,n*^,c,anythingslimy,ropy,mucilaginousdrool,spittleflowingfromthemouthco,c,c,Vtodrool,tohanginlongropythreads,asanyviscoussubstanceliftedupoocEic,c,Vthesame,alsotodropslowly,asaropysubstanceCO*c,c,Vtorundown,asamucilaginoussubstance,toflowwithoutbreaking<:S,c,c,Vthesameco',c,Ic,VtowateratthemouthdO,c,V,*R,c,totrade,traffic,buyandsellooScS^i^y'aSS,c,^,c,o,lo,VtotradefromonebazaartoanotherS>',c,Ic,Vtoearnone'slivingbytrade>'^,c,c,Vtotradeinmerchandise,sometimesedibiescmly,jd'>jdo'jS,c,c,c,Ic,vthesame"oSjdcSS,c,c,c,m,vtotradeinclothing',c,lo,Vtotrade,sellorexchangegoodsv^cdooS,c,lo,c,o,ftogotoonemaricetafteranotherfortrade'og'O^f,c,lo,c,Ic,Vtotradebygoingtogetherincompany''oSjooS,c,lo,c,Ic,Vtotrsideinpartnership"o'o^c^jcy^S,c,lo,So,Ic,vtotradeeitherinpartnership,orbygoingtogetherinacompany'^j>S,c,loSo,Ic,Vthesam^>"^

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