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首页 语篇语言学教材.pdf

语篇语言学教材.pdf

语篇语言学教材.pdf

上传者: shiran254947100 2013-03-05 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《语篇语言学教材pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含DiscourseAnalysisforLanguageTeachersMICHAELMcCARTHYaCambridgeLanguageTeach符等。

DiscourseAnalysisforLanguageTeachersMICHAELMcCARTHYaCambridgeLanguageTeachingLibraryDiscourseAnalysisforLanguageTeachersCAMBRIDGELANGUAGETEACHINGLIBRARYAseriescoveringcentralissuesinlanguageteachingandlearning,byauthorswhohaveexpertknowledgeintheirfieldInthisseries:MeetiaLanguageLcatningeditedbyJaneArnoldApproachesandMethodsinLanguageTeachingbyJackCRichardsadTheodoreSRodgenAppropriateMethodologyandSocialContextbyAd*HollidayBeyondTrainingbyJackCRichardsCdahaiveActionResearchForEnglishLanguageTeachersbyAnneBumCollaborativeLanguageLearningandTeachingeditedbyDadNunanCommunicativeLanguageTeachingbyWilliamLiftlewoodDesigningTasksfortheCommuniativeClassroombyDavidNunanDevelopingReadingSkillsbyFranpiseGrelletDevelopmentsinEnglishforSpecificPurposesbyTonyDudleyEvansandMaggieloStJohnDiscourseAnalysisforLauguageTeachersbyMichaelMcCarthyDiscourseandLanguageEducationbyEvelynHatchEnglishforAcademicPurposesbyRRJordanEnglrshforSpecificPurposesbyTomHutchinsonandAlanWatersEstablishingSelfAccess:FromTheorytoPtacticebyDavidGardnerandLindsayMillerForeignandSecondLanguageLearningbyWilliamLitthoodLanguageLearninginInterculturalPerspectiveeditedbyMichaelByramandMichaelFhingTheLanguageTeachingMatrixbyJackCRichardsLiwigulgeTestConstructionandEvaluationbyJCharlesAlderson,CarolineClaphamadDianneWallLearnerantrednessasLanguageEducationbyIanTudorManagingCurricularInnovationbyNumaMarkeeMaterialsDevelopmentinLanguageTeachingeditedbyBrianTomlinsonPsychologyforLangauageTeachersbyMarionWilliamsandRobertLBurdenResearchMethddsinLanguageLearningbyDavidNunanSecondLanguageTeacherEducationeditedbyJackCRichardsandDavidNunanSocietyandtheLanguageClassroomeditedbyHywelColemanTeacherLearninginLanguageTeachingeditedbyDonaldFreemanandJackCRichardsTeachingtheSpokenLanguagebyGillirrnBrownandGeorgeYlsleUnderstandingResearchinSecondLanguageLearningbyJamesDeanBrownVocabulary:Description,AcquisitionandPedagogyeditedbyNorbertSchmittandMichaelMcCartbyVocabulary,Semantics,andLanguageEducationbyEvelynHatchandCherylBroumVoicesfromtheLanguageClassroomeditedbyKathleenMBaileyadDavidNununDiscourseAnalysisforLanguageTeachersMichaelMcCarthyCAMBRIDGEUNIVERSITYPRESSPUBLISHEDBYTHEPRESSSYNDICATEOFTHEUNIVERSITYOFCAMBRIDGEThePiaBuilding,TmpingtonStreet,Cambridge,UnitedKingdomCAMBRIDGEUNIVERSITYPRESSTheEdinburghBuildmg,CambridgeCRU,UKWestthStraet,NewYorlqNY,USASeatfwdRoad,Oakteigh,VIC,AustraliaRuizdeAlardn,Wd,SpainDockHouse,TheWaterfront,CapeTown,SouthAfricaCambridgeUniversityPressThisbookisincopyrightSubjezttostatutoryexceptionandtotheprovisionsofrelevantcolleaivclicensingagrccmenta,noreproductionofanypartmaytakeplacewithoutthewrittenpermissionofCambridgeUniversityPressFirstpublishedTenthprintingAwialoguerecordforthisbookisavaikrblefimtheBritishLi'myLibraryofCongresscaialogrcccurdwbwPrintedintheUnitedKingdomattheUniversityh,CambridgeISBNhardcoversISBNpaperbackDedicationToJohnHarringtonAcknowledgementsPrefaceChapterWhatisdiscourseanalysisAbriefhistoricaloverviewFormandfunctionSpeechactsanddiscoursestructuresThescopeofdiscourseanalysisSpokendiscourse:modelsofanalysisConversationsoutsidetheclassroomTalkasasocialactivityWrittendiscourseTextandinterpretationLargerpatternsintextConclusionChapterDlscwrseanalyslrandgrammarIntroductionGrammaticalcohesionandtextualityReferenceEllipsisandsubstitutionConjunctionThemeandrhemeTenseandaspectConclusionChapterDiscounceanalysisandvocabularyIntroductionLexicalcohesionLexisintalkContentsTextualaspeasoflexicalcompetenceVocabularyandtheorganisingoftextSignallinglamtextualpatternsRegisterandsignallingvocabularyModalityConclusionChapferDlircoumanalyrir,andphonologyIntroductionPronunciationRhythmWordstressandprominenceTheplacingofprominenceIntonationalunitsTonesandtheirmeaningsTypesoftonesGrammaticalapproachesAttitudinalapproachesInteractiveapproachesKeyPitchacrossspeakersSummaryConclusionChapterSpokenlanwawIntroductionAdjacencypairsExchangesTurndingTransactionsandtopicsTransactionsTopicsInteractionalandtransactionaltalkStories,anecdotes,jokesOtherspokendiscoursetypesSpeechandgrammarConclusionChapterWtmnIanguageIntroductionTexttypesSpetchandwritingUnitsinwrittendiscourseClauserelationsGettingtogripswithlaqgerwsPatternsandthelearnerCultureandrhetoricDiscourseandthereaderConclusionGuldanceforReaderactivitiesReferencesIndexAcknowledgementsThanksareduetoJimLawley,ofAvila,Spain,forpermissiontouseconversationaldatareproducedinChapter,toRogerSmith,GillMeldrumandHilaryBooofCELE,UniversityofNottingham,forassistancewiththegatheringofwrittendata,andtothelateMichaelGriffiths,SeniorPrisonOfficeratHMPrison,Cardiff,forpermissiontouseaninterviewwithhim,partofwhichistranscribedinChapterTheauthorandpublishersaregratefultotheauthors,publishersandotherswhohavegivenpermissionfortheuseofcopyrightmaterialIthasnotbeenpossibletotracethesourcesofallthematerialusedandinsuchcasesthepublisherswouldwelcomeinformationfromcopyrightownersEdwardArnoldfortheextractfromMAKHalliday()AnIntroductiontoFunctionalGrammaronpp,TheBirminghamPostforthearticleonpBritishNuclearForumfortheadvertisementonpCambridgelNewmarketTownCrierforthearticleonpCambridgeUniversityPressfortheextractfromBrownandYule()DiscourseAnalysisonpp,CambridgeWeeklyNewsforthearticleonpp,,CollinsELTfortheextractsfromtheCollinsCOBUlLDEnglishLanguageDictionaryonptheConsumers'AssociationfortheextractsfromWhichonpp,,,,ElidaGibbsfortheadvertisementonpAFirthfortheextractonpFordMotorCompanyfortheadvertisementonpHeadwayPublicationsforthearticlefromMoneycareonpHuntingSpecialisedProducts(UK)LtdfortheadvertisementonpImperialChemicalIndustriesplcandCogentsfortheadvertisementforLawnsmanMosskilleronpInternationalCertificateConferenceandPadagogischeArbeitsstelledesDVVfortheextractsonpp,,,,DJohnsonforthearticlefromTheGuardianonpLongmanGroupUKLtdfortheextractfromDCrystalandDDavy()AdvancedConversationalEnglishonpNewStatesmanSocietyfortheextractsfromNewSocietyonpp,,andNewsweekInternationalfortheextractsfromNewsweekonpp,TheObserverfortheextractsonpp,,,,,OxfordUniversityPressfortheextractfromJMcHSinclairandRMCoulthard()TowardsanAnalysisofDiscourseonpJSvartvikfortheextractfromSvartvikandQuirk()ACorpusofEnglishConversationonpptheUniversityofBirminghamonbehalfofthecopyrightholdersfortheextractsfromtheBirminghamCollectionofEnglishTextonpp,WorldPressNetworkfortheextractsfromNewScientistonpp,AnylanguageteacherwhotriestokeepabreastwithdevelopmentsinDescriptiveandAppliedLinguisticsfacesaverydifficulttask,forbooksandjournalsinthefieldhavegrowninnumberatabewilderingrateoverthelasttwentyyearsAtthesametime,withthepressurescreatedbythedrivetowardsprofessionalisationinfieldssuchasELT,ithasbecomemoreandmoreimportantthatlanguageteachersdokeepuptodatewithdevelopmentswithin,andrelevantto,theirfieldOnesuchareaisdiscourseanalysisArisingoutofavarietyofdisciplines,includinglinguistics,sociology,psychology,andanthropology,discourseanalysishasbuiltasignificantfoundationforitselfinDescriptive,andlatterly,Applied,LinguisticsThevariousdisciplinesthatfeedintodiscourseanalysishavesharedacommoninterestinlanguageinuse,inhowrealpeopleusereallanguage,asopposedtostudyingartificiallycreatedsentencesDiscourseanalysisisthereforeofimmediateinteresttolanguageteachersbecausewetoohavelonghadthequestionofhowpeopleuselanguageuppermostinourmindswhenwedesignteachingmaterials,orwhenweengagelearnersinexercisesandactivitiesaimedatmakingthemproficientusersoftheirtargetlanguage,orwhenweevaluateapieceofcommerciallypublishedmaterialbeforedecidingtouseitExperiencedlanguageteachers,ingeneral,havesoundinstinctsastowhatisnaturalandauthenticinlanguageteachingandwhatisartificialorgoescountertoallsensibleintuitionofhowlanguageisusedTheyalsoknowthatartificialitycanbeusefulattimes,inordertosimplifycomplexlanguageforinitialteachingpurposesButtheycannothopetohaveaninstinctivepossessionofthevastamountofdetailedinsightthatyearsofcloseobservationbynumerousinvestigatorshasproduced:insightintohowtextsarestructuredbeyondsentencelevelhowtalkfollowsregularpatternsinawiderangeofdifferentsituationshowsuchcomplexareasasintonationoperateincommunicationandhowdiscoursenorms(theunderlyingrulesthatspeakersandwritersadhereto)andtheirrealisations(theactuallanguageformswhichreflectthoserules)inlanguagedifferfromculturetocultureTheaimofthisbookistosupplysuchinsightinacondensedformMineisnotthefirstintroductiontodiscourseanalysisChaptermentionssevetalindispensablereadingsthatanyonewishingtopursuethesubjectshouldtackleButitisthefirsttoattempttomediateselectivelyaPrefacewiderangeofresearchspecificallyforthepracticalneedsoflanguageteachersInthisrespectitisdistinctlydifferentfromconventionalintroductionsItdoesnotsetouttoreporteverythingaboutdiscours~nalysis,fornoteverythingisofrelevancetolanguageteachersDecisionshavethereforebeenmadealongthewaytoexcludediscussionofmaterialthatmaybeveryinterestinginitself,butoflittlepracticaladaptabilitytothelanguageteachingcontextForinstance,withinpragmatics,thestudyofhowmeaningiscreatedincontext(whichthussharesanundefinedfrontierwithdiscourseanalysis),theconversationalmaximsofHPGrice()havebeenveryinfluentialTheseareasetoffourcommonsensenormsthatallspeakersadheretowhenconversing(cg'berelevant''betruthful')InadecadeofEnglishlanguageteachingsincetheyfirstcametomynotice,Ihavenevermetanoccasionwherethemaximscouldbeusefullyapplied,althoughinmyteachingofliterarystylistics,theyhavehelpedmystudentsunderstandsomeofthetechniqueswritersusetounderminetheirreaders'expectationsGrice,therefore,doesnotfigureinthisbookBut,aswithanyintroduction,thesiftingprocessisultimatelysubjective,andreadersmayfindthatthingshavebeenincludedthatdonotseemimmediatelyrelevanttotheirneedsasteachersothersalreadywelltutoredindiscourseanalysiswillwishthatcertainnamesandareasofinvestigationhadbeenincludedorgivenmoreattentionItismyhope,nonetheless,thatmostreaderswillfindtheselectionoftopicsandnameslistedintheindextobeafairandrepresentativerangeofmaterialIalsohopethatlanguageteachenwillfindthestructureofthebook,atwopartframeworkbasedon(a)thefamiliarlevelsofconventionallanguagedescription,and(b)theskillsofspeakingandwriting,unforbiddingandusableThebooktriestoillustrateeverythingwithrealdata,spokenandwritten,inthetruespiritofdiscourseanalysisInthecaseofspokendata,IhavetriedtomixmyowndatawiththatofotherssothatreadersmightbedirectedtowardsusefulpublishedsourcesiftheyhavenoaccesstodatathemselvesBecausealotofthedataismyown,IapologisetononBritishreadersifitoctasionallyseemsratherBritocentricinitssubjectmatterThespeakersandwritersofthenonnativespeakerdatado,however,includeGerman,Italian,Hungarian,Turkish,Brazilian,Spanish,Chinese,KoreanandJapaneselearnersThebookdoesnotstopattheoryanddescription,butitdoesnotgosofarastellingitsreadershowtoteachThisisbecause,firstandforemost,discourseanalysisisnotamethodforteachinglanguagesitisawayofdescribingandunderstandinghowlanguageisusedButitisalsobecausethereareasmanywaysofadaptingnewdevelopmentsindescriptiontotheeverydaybusinessofteachingastherearelanguageteachersSo,althoughIoccasionallyreportonmyownteaching(especiallyinChaptersand),andpresentdatagatheredfrommyownEFLclasses,itwillbeforyou,thePrefacereader,ultimatelytodecidewhetherandhowanyofthisarrayofmaterialcanbeusedinyoursituationInpreparingabookofthiscomplexity,manyppkhaveinevitablyhadahandTheoriginalinspirationcamefrmcightatofrespondingtotheinsatiableintellectualcuriosityofMAstudents'atthcUniversityofBirmingham,mostofwhomwerepractising~~~~~andalmostallofwhomaskedformoreondiscourseanalysisw'hmevertheyhadthechanceAnequalnumberofundergraduateswhostudiedlanguageaspartoftheirEnglishdegreealsohelpedtoshapethebook,Inaddition,severalyearsofgivinginservicecourseslb~~sinWestGermanyandFinlandhavesuggestednewareasanddmqjmedgksaderactivities,whichhavebeentriedoutoncourseparticipants,Inpaw,theenthusiasmofthePILCgroupsoftheLanguageCentresoftheFinnishUniversitiesintheyearsmustbementionedasoneoftheunfailingsourcesofinspirationtogetthebookdoneImustalsomentionmycolleaguesintheInternationalCertificateConference(ICC),whoseannualpilgrimagetoChorley,LancashireinthelastfewyearshasmetwiththepenanceofbeingsubjectedtothematerialasitdevelopedparticularthanksheregotoTonyFitzpatrickofVHSFrankfurt,forhisconstantsupportColleaguesattheUniversitiesofBirminghamandNottinghamwhohaveencouragedandinspiredmearealmosttoonumeroustomention,butparticularthanksgotoDavidBrazil(whoalsocheckedtheintonationinChapter),MikeHoey,TimJohns,MartinHewingsandMalcolmCoulthardforcommentsatseminarsandininformalchatsatBirmingham,andtomynewcolleagues(butoldfriendsandassociates)atNottingham,RonCarterandMargaretBerry,whohavealreadybeensubjectedtosomeofthematerialandencouragedmyworkMynewstudentsatNottinghamhavealsoprovidedfeedbackonmorerecentversionsofthematerialButaboveall,withoutthesupportofJohnSinclairofBirminghamandhisinfinitelycreativeideasandcomments,thenotionthattherewaseveranythinginterestinginlanguageotherthansentenceswouldprobablyneverhaveenteredmyheadSomuchfortheuniversityenvironmentthatspawnedthebookThemostimportant,singleinfluenceonitsfinalshapehasbeenmyeditor,MichaelSwan,whosegoodhumouredscepticismastowhetheracademicshaveanythingworthsayingtolanguageteachersoutthereintherealworldhasbeenbalancedbyanopenmind,razorsharpcommentsonthetextandanunflaggingwillingnesstoenterintointellectualdebate,allofwhichhavebeenachallengeandareasontokeepgoingtothebitterendAnnemarieYoungatCUP,whocommissionedthisbook,hasneveoomplainedwhenIhavemisseddeadlinesandhasalwaysmademefeelthattheenterprisewasworthitShetoohasmadeinvaluablecontributionstothebookasithastakenshapeBrigitViney,whohaseditedthemanuscript,PrefacehasalsomademanyusefulsuggestionsastohowitmightbemademorereaderfriendlyandhaspurgedanumberofinconsistenciesandinfelicitiesthatlurkedthereinOnthehomefront,mypartner,JeanneMcCarten,hasofferedtheprofessionalexpertiseofapublisherandthepersonalsupportthatprovidesastablefoundationforsuchanundertakingherpenancehasbeenanunfairshareofthewashingupwhileIpoundedthekeysofourcomputerLizEvans,JulietteLeveringtonandEnidPerrinhavealldonetheirbitofkeypoundingtotypeupvariousversionsofthemanuscript,andIthankthem,tooButfinally,Iwanttothankaprimaryschoolteacherofmine,JohnHarringtonofCardiff,who,intheperspectiveoftherecedingpast,emergesmoreandmoreasthepersonwhostartedeverythingformeineducationalterms,andtowhomthisbookisrespectfully,andaffectionately,dedicatedCambridge,March'Ionlysaid"if"!'poorAlicepleadedinapiteoustoneThetwoQueenslookedateachother,andtheRedQueenremarked,withalittleshudder,'Shesayssheonlysaid"if"''Butshesaidagreatdealmorethanthat!'theWhiteQueenmoaned,wringingherhands'Oh,eversomuchmorethanthat!'LewisCarroll:tvughtheLookingmAbriefhistoricaloverviewDiscourseanalysisisconcernedwiththestudyoftherelationshipbetweenlanguageandthecontextsinwhichitisusedItgrewoutofworkindifferentdisciplinesinthesandearlys,includinglinguistics,semiotics,psychology,anthropologyandsociologyDiscourseanalystsstudylanguageinuse:writtentextsofallkinds,andspokendata,fromconversationtohighlyinstitutionalisedformsoftalkAtatimewhenlinguisticswaslargelyconcernedwiththeanalysisofsinglesentences,ZelligHarrispublishedapaperwiththetitle'Discourseanalysis'(Harris)Harriswasinterestedinthedistributionoflinguisticelementsinextendedtexts,andthelinksbetweenthetextanditssocialsituation,thoughhispaperisafarcryfromthediscourseanalysiswearehsedtonowadaysAlsoimportantintheearlyyearswastheemergenceofstmioticsandtheFrenchstructuralistapproachtothestudyofnarrativeInthes,DellHymesprovidedasociologicalperspectivewiththestudyofspeechinitssocialwmng(egHymes)ThelinguisticphilosopherssudrasAustin(),Searle()andGrice()werealsoinfluentialintbestudyoflanguageassocialaction,reflectedinspeechacttheoryandtheformulationofconversationalmaxims,alongsidetheemergenceofWhatisdiscourseanalysispragmatics,whichisthestudyofmeaningincontext(seeLevinsonLe

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