关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 Empire of Emptiness

Empire of Emptiness.pdf

Empire of Emptiness

drolmaling 2013-02-22 评分 0 浏览量 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Empire of Emptinesspdf》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含EmpireofEmptinessBUDDHISTARTANDPOLITICALAUTHORITYINQINGCHINAPATRICIABERGER符等。

EmpireofEmptinessBUDDHISTARTANDPOLITICALAUTHORITYINQINGCHINAPATRICIABERGEREmpireofEmptinessYangtzeRiverLiaoRiverEmpireofEmptinessBuddhistArtandPoliticalAuthorityinQingChinaPatriciaBergerUniversityofHawai‘iPressHonoluluUniversityofHawai‘iPressAllrightsreservedPrintedintheUnitedKingdomLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataBerger,PatriciaAnnEmpireofemptiness:BuddhistartandpoliticalauthorityinQingChinaPatriciaBergerpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(alkpaper)Art,BuddhistChinaBuddhistartandsymbolismChinaArt,ChineseQingdynasty,–ArtandstateChinaHistoryQingdynasty,–BuddhismChinaTibetInfluenceITitleNCB''dcPublicationofthisbookhasbeenaidedbyagrantfromtheMillardMeissPublicationFundoftheCollegeArtAssociationUniversityofHawai‘iPressbooksareprintedonacidfreepaperandmeettheguidelinesforpermanenceanddurabilityoftheCouncilonLibraryResourcesDesignedbyDavidAlcorn,AlcornPublicationDesign,Graeagle,CaliforniaPrintedbyButlerandTanner,LtdContentsAcknowledgmentsviiIntroduction:RainingFlowersChapterLikeaCloudlessSkyChapterWhenWordsCollideChapterArtfulCollectingChapterRememberingtheFutureChapterPiousCopiesChapterResemblanceandRecognitionNotesGlossaryBibliographyIndexColorplatesfollowpagevAcknowledgmentsTheoriginsofthisbooklieinMongolia,whereIfirsttraveledinwithmygoodfriendandcolleagueTereseBartholomew,curatorofHimalayanartattheAsianArtMuseuminSanFranciscoWewereonaselfpropelledmissiontopersuadethenewlydemocraticMongoliangovernmenttoallowustoorganizeanexhibitionoftheirnationaltreasures,whicheventuallyopenedattheAsianArtMuseuminasMongolia:TheLegacyofChinggisKhanMostoftheobjectsintheexhibitiondatedtotheseventeenth,eighteenth,andnineteenthcenturies,aperiodduringwhichMongoliawascloselytied,firstasrivalsandlaterasallies,totheManchuQingempireWerapidlylearnedthatnohistoryoflaterMongolianart,particularlyBuddhistart,couldbeconstructedwithoutalsowritingtheentwinedhistoryofQingcourtrelationswithitsInnerAsiancoloniesThatisoneoftheaimsofthispresentbookManyMongolshelpedusinthisinitialproject,includingNEnkhbayar,thendeputyministerofculture(andsubsequentlyprimeminister)andhisablesta,andNTsultem,agreatpainterinhisownrightandMongolia’spremierarthistorianIn,Tsultem’sdaughter,TUranchimeg,anarthistorian,accompaniedmyhusbandCharlesDruckerandmetoAmurbayasqulantu(Amarbayasgalant),aQingimperialmonasteryestablishedinneartheMongolianRussianborderItwastherethatthegermofthispresentbookwasbornunderthebenigngazeoftheVenerableGurudewa,themonastery’simmenselylearnedheadlama,whoalloweduscompleteaccesstothisstillremarkablesiteandtohisdailyaudiencesMyprojecttodisentanglethecomplexusesofartintheBuddhistpracticesandInnerAsiandiplomacyoftheQingcourtrapidlyfocusedonBeijingandthecollectionsofthePalaceMuseumThemuseum’stalented,devotedstahavebeenatremendoushelp,especiallyformerViceDirectorYangXin,whoarrangedtohaveLuoWenhua,aspecialistinTibetanart,showmeseveralofthemainBuddhistchapelswithintheForbiddenCityIhavekeptinconstantcontactwithLuo,whohasmysinceregratitudeforhismanysubstantialcontributionstothisstudyMythanksalsotocuratorsYuHuiandShanGuoqiang,forgenerouslyarrangingmetoseeanumberofpaintingscriticaltothisproject,andtothedirectorofinformationservices,LiShaoyi,whohasbeeninvaluableinprovidingphotographsofobjectsfromthepalacecollectionsSignificantnumbersofobjectscrucialtothisstudyweretakentoTaiwanin,andIalsothankmembersofthestaoftheNationalPalaceMuseum,amongthemregistrarSungHoulingandarchivistHoLienlien,forallowingmeaccesstotheirextensivephotographicarchive,library,andcollectionsClosertohome,theUniversityofCalifornia,Berkeley,whereIbeganteachingin,hasbeenasourceofinspirationandsubstantialfinancialsupportThisprojectcouldnothavebeencompletedwithoutseveralJuniorFacultyResearchgrants,aHumanitiesResearchFellowship,allprovidedbytheuniversity’sCouncilonResearch,andaCareerDevelopmentgrant,whichallowedmetowriteunimpededduringasabbaticalinMycolleaguesintheDepartmentoftheHistoryofArt,amongthemGregoryLevine,JoannaWilliams,MargarettaLovell,AnneWagner,andTJClark,havebeenanexemplarysourceofalwaysbenevolentadviceandcounselThanksarealsoduetoanynumberofgraduatestudentswhohavereadthroughorlistenedtoearlierdraftsofthismanuscriptandcontributedperceptivelytoitsrevisionAmongthemareShanaBrown,CharlotteCowden,LarissaviiHeinrich,CatherineKarnitis,SooKim,SungLimKim,MayukoKinouchi,JLeePatterson,andSharonYamamotoMyspecialthanksgotoMeilingWilliamsforgenerouslyhelpingmeworkthroughthethicketofQianlong’sinnumerableedicts(thoughwhatevererrorsremainintranslationsarestrictlymine)Anyresearchprojectgoesthroughinnumerabletransformationsbeforebeingcommittedfinallytovaluablepaperandink,andasamanuscriptgrowsandevolves,sotoodoesitsauthorThisbookbeganasastudyofQingcourtartbutitrapidlybecameapparentthatsuchastudywouldnotbepossiblewithoutconfrontingManchumultilingualismheadonByveryfortunatecoincidence,inIlearnedfromFredericWakemanthatMarkElliott,thenaprofessorofhistoryattheUniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara,wouldbeoeringacourseinManchuviaclosedcircuittelevisionCynthiaCol,astudentinChinesereligionattheGraduateTheologicalUnion,andIbothleapedatthechancetolearnthisrarelytaughtlanguageIhavebothElliottandColtothankforteachingmethatdistancelearningdoesnothavetobealienatingbutcancreatecommunitiesovertheairwavesandviatheWorldwideWebEmboldenedbythisnewlanguageadventure,ColandIbothbeganstudyingTibetanunderthetutelageofStevenGoodman,whoseinsightsintotheTibetanlanguageandTibetanBuddhistimageshavebeenarevelationtomeIthankhimforlonghoursspentporingoverRolpayDorje’stexts,allowingmeaclearerglimpseofaculturethatwasasignificantpartofthecomplextapestryofQingcourtlifeandkeytounderstandingitsproductionanduseofBuddhistartMythanksarealsoduetoanynumberofreaderswhopatientlyreadthroughdraftsofchaptersandprovidedthebenefitoftheirexpertiseAmongthemareStephenTeiser,whoinvitedmetopresentachaptertothePrincetonBuddhistWorkshop,SusanNaquin,SarahFraser,PamelaCrossley,RaoulBirnbaum,RichardVinograd,andseveralotheranonymousreaderswhoreviewedthemanuscriptfortheUniversityofHawai‘iPressandformyowndepartmentatBerkeleyThanksalsotomembersoftheVisualizationGroupfirstfundedbyMargaretMilesoftheGraduateTheologicalUnionandhostedbyhercolleagueJudithBerlingThisgroup,whichhasincludedReindertFalkenberg,RichardPayne,BruceWilliams,HankGlassman,MarthaStortz,andothers,hasprovidedaninteractiveforumforthediscussionofvisualizationasapracticeusedinmanydierentreligioustraditionsOnamorepracticalnote,theUniversityofHawai‘ieditorialteam,headedbythewonderfulPatriciaCrosby,hasshepherdedthisprojectthroughitsmanystageswithgraceandeciencyMythankstoCrosbyandManagingEditorAnnLudemanfordeemingthisprojectworthyofthePress’resourcesinthefirstplaceandforseekingsubventionstoenhancetheproductionvaluesofthebookMyveryspecialthanksarealsoduetoDonYoder,editorextraordinaire,forhisgentle,thoughtful,andthoroughcopyeditingofmyfinaldraftIntheend,theabilitytoworkonanylengthyprojectdependsonthesaintlinessofone’simmediateandextendedfamily(nonhumanmembersincluded)MyhusbandCharlesDruckerhasbeenasoundingboard,abroadshoulder,andanenthusiasticcompanionthroughout,alwaysreadywithcameras,computers,Russianjeeps,andperceptivecommentsOurdaughterLaura,thoughtenderinyears,madedozensofscansofobjects,printedoutchapters,andkeptgoodcheerwhilecreativelymanningherowncameraevenonthehottest,muggiestdaysinBeijingandChengdeForalltheseyearsofsupportandfortheirunflaggingconvictionthat,oneday,themanuscriptwouldbedone,IthankthemThisbookisforthemviiiAcknowledgmentsEmpireofEmptinessIntroduction:RainingFlowersOgreatKing,listentohowYourbodywillbeadornedWiththethirtytwosignsOfagreatbeingThroughproperhonoringofstupas,Honorablebeings,Superiors,andtheelderlyYouwillbecomeaUniversalMonarch,YourglorioushandsandfeetmarkedwithadesignofwheelsNâgârjuna,PreciousGarland,transJereyHopkinsIn,Hongli,theQianlongemperoroftheManchuQingdynasty,hadhimselfpaintedintotheroleofBuddhism’sgreatestlayman,theLicchavimerchantVimalakîrti(Plate)Theartist,acourtpainternamedDingGuanpeng,tooknochanceswiththisimportantcommissionHechoseacompositionthathadbeeninusesinceasearlyasthefifthcenturytoillustratethesutrainwhichVimalakîrtitakesastarringrole:theVimalakîrtinirdeßa(TeachingsofVimalakîrti)Likemanyotherearlyillustrationsofthestory,Ding’sBu’ertu(“NotTwo,”or“NondualityPicture”)seatsthesavantmerchantVimalakîrtiontherightfacinghisvisitorandpartnerindebate,Mañjußrî,thebodhisattvaofwisdomThetopicoccupyingthemisnondualityandtheapprehensionofemptinessThemomentinthestoryDinggivesusappearsinthesutra’sseventhchapter,whenabeautifulgoddess,alongtimeresidentofVimalakîrti’shouse,appearsandthrowsflowersoverthegatheredcompanysurroundingMañjußrîTheserainingblossomsglidegracefullyoverthemanyspirituallyadvancedbodhisattvaswhoarepresent,buttheystickconspicuouslytoeveryoneelseMostannoyedandvisiblysoinDing’spaintingistheBuddha’sdiscipleÇâriputra,whotriesfutilelytoshaketheflowersoWhenthegoddessaskswhatheandhismonasticbrothersaredoing,heanswers:“Goddess,theseflowersarenotproperforreligiouspersonsandsowearetryingtoshakethemo”Thegoddesssaid,“Donotsaythat,reverendÇâriputraWhyTheseflowersareproperindeed!SuchflowershaveneitherconstructualthoughtnordiscriminationButtheelderÇâriputrahasbothconstructualthoughtanddiscrimination”Shortlyafterthispointedandembarrassingexchange,Çâriputra(whoplaystheworrywortandbuttofVimalakîrti’sjibesthroughoutthisoftencomicalsutra)asksthegoddesshow,ifsheissuchanadvancedbeing,shefindsherselfstilloccupyingtheinferiorbodyofawomanNotwastingtoomanywords,thegoddessswitchesbodieswithÇâriputra,leavinghimaghastInabriefbuteectivedefenseofthenotionthatallformsareimpermanent,transitory,andillusory,shewrylyasks:“ReverendÇâriputra,whatpreventsyoufromchangingoutofyourfemalestate”AndÇâriputraisforcedtoconcede:“Idonotknowwhattotransform!”Ding’scompositionmirrorsancientandauthoritativeversionsofthescenethatunderscorethethemeofnondualityinaseeminglyparadoxicalway:bydividingeverythingneatlyintotwosAswasoftenthecaseinhispractice,thepaintercreativelyinterpretsaworkalreadyintheemperor’scollection,ahandscrollthatmayhavebeendonebytheJindynastypainterMaYunqing(whowashimselfinspiredbytheNorthernSongpainterLiGonglin)Ding’srenditionisalsocomplicatedandenrichedbyhisdeploymentoftwoormoredisjunctivestylesofrepresentationThecombinationoftheemperor’sdistinctiveanddisturbinglypresentfacewiththebland,anonymousfacesandagitated,archaisticlinethatdescribesthegarmentsofthegatheredcrowd,whichcaststheknowingviewerbacktomomentsandmonumentsinBuddhism’sspecificallyChinesepast,ultimatelyhintsatthedissolutionofadierenttwoamythic,Indianpast(or,perhapsmoreaptly,amomentinthehistoryofChineseart)andaQingdynastypresentintooneTheeectivenessofDing’spaintingdepends,ofcourse,onthetextofthesutra,atextnotprovidedfortheviewertoconsultbutwhichendsfamouslybycastingtheusefulnessoflanguageintodoubtItisthisculminatingmomentthatQianlongalludestoinhispoeticinscriptionVimalakîrtiandMañjußrîhavebeendiscussingemptinessinatypicallylong,floridexchangeOeringaninsightfulsummation,MañjußrîseemstohavecapturedtheessenceofitThefloorisnowVimalakîrti’sand,inabrillianttourdeforce,hechoosestoremainsilentamomentofspeechlesseloquencesoprofoundthatithascometobecalledthe“lion’sroar,”themomentwhenabodhisattvareachesthetenth,finalstageofdevelopmentQianlongwrites:VimalakîrtisilentlyrestedMañjußrîsaid,“Skillful!”Thisistrulyenteringnonduality,NotspeakingiswhatrightconductoughttobeButunderstandinginsilence,Seizingshadowyform,whatisemptybecomesfullSayhowcanyoumakeapicturelikethisThesoundwehearisalaugh:“Ha,ha!”MañjußrîcapitulatesincompleteadmirationandthedebatecomestoanendwitheverylistenerraisedupseverallevelsontheenlightenmentpathQianlong’selegantandveryprivatepictorialconceit,whichhekeptatBishushanzhuang,theManchusummerretreatatChengde(alsoknownasReheorJehol),northeastofBeijing,musthavebeendoublypiquanttothosefavoredfewwhohadseenitthereForitwasinChengde,amongotherselectsites,thatQianlongplayedoutbeforeanaudienceofprivilegedChinese,Mongolian,andotherInnerAsiansubjectsoneofhismorefamous,iflimited,publicrolesasanemanationofMañjußrî,thebodhisattvaofwisdomanddenizenofChina’sownWutaishanThusalreadysecurelyidentifiedwithMañjußrîinthemindsofhisguests,inthispaintinghechoosestheguiseofVimalakîrti,alaymansoadvancedthat,byeschewingspeech,heoutshoneoneofthegreatestbodhisattvas,whomhehappenstoembodyhimselfWhatbetterwaytorepresentnondualityandthecontingencyofformTheenlightenedlaymanVimalakîrtioccupiedQianlong’sprivatemusingsthroughouthislife,butnevermoresothaninthes,adecadeduringwhich,inhislatethirtiesandforties,hedevotedconsiderableenergytoBuddhistpracticeandpatronageHistenvolumesofcollectedChineselanguagepoemsrevealhereturnedtothesubjectofthegoddess’“rainofflowers”manytimesover,asin,whenhewroteapoemtitled“HallofRainingFlowers”(“Yuhuashi”)Inithereiteratedhisdesireto“manifestemptiness,”justasVimalakîrtihaddone:IntroductionDuringthethreemonthsofspringIcametoapeaceful,quietlodgingWhere,forfivedays,IpracticedpureamusementsEachtimeIchantedItookaturnandDiscriminationreturnedOntheothersideofthewindow,thevaporousshadowofakingfisherIenterandsitinsolitudeinthecypress’sshadeToputVimalakîrti’sinvestigationstothetest,SothatImightyetmanifestemptiness“HallofRainingFlowers”(andtheVimalakîrtinirdeßaitself)pivotsontheshiftingqualityofthingsas“thevaporousshadowofakingfisher”strikesaresponsivechordthatpushesQianlongintosolitudetotestVimalakîrti’ssilentmethodYetthepoemandDingGuanpeng’spaintingboththrowintoreliefoneofthemostsignificantparadoxesinQianlong’spractice(infact,inthepracticeofBuddhismingeneral):Theconstructionofapathtoenlightenmentandtheapprehensionofemptinessmusttakeplaceinasensoryworldfilledwithdesirable,fascinatingthingsQianlong’sownenthusiasticengagementwiththematerialworldiswellknownandhasbeentheobjectofconsiderable(oftennegative)critiqueJudgingfromtheoutpouringfromhiscourtworkshops,thisemperorwasobsessedwiththingsandcouldnotorwouldnotstopproliferatingandcollectingsubstantial,tangible,materialobjectsinalltheirdiscriminatingshapesandsizesAfloodofwhathasbeenvariouslycharacterizedasexcessiveornamentorbloatedoverdecoration,evergrowingcollectionsofworksofartandcraftinallthemediaoftheday,productionsinwhichonemediummasqueradedasanother,miniatureandgiganticobjectsalloccupiedhisdelightedgazeupuntiltheendofhisverylonglifeinHisregularand,bymostevidence,sincereBuddhistpracticewasconsumedbytheconstructionofchainsoftemples,eachconceptuallylinkedtoanearliermodel,andbythedesignandfabricationofhugepantheonsofhundredsofcarefullyindividualizeddeities,theproductionof“corrected”replicasofsomeofthemostcharismaticiconsofthepast,andthecompositionandpublicationofedictsandinscriptionstolaunchhisprojectsproperlyintohistoryQianlong’screativeuseofformstookonanespeciallysignificanttwistwhen,betweenand,heoversawandfundedtheconstructionofameditationchapel,thePavilionofRainingFlowers(Yuhuage),inthenorthwesternsectoroftheForbiddenCityThisundisguisedhomagetothewisdomofVimalakîrti’sshapeshiftinghouseholdgoddess,whousedtheimpermanentformsofflowerstotestwhowaswhoatVimalakîrti’shouse,wasfilledwithhundredsofTibetanstylesculptures,threedimensionalmandalas,andthangkas(Tibetanstylehangingscrolls),allassembledandputintoorderbyQianlong’sTibetoMongolianguru,theZhangjiaKhutukhtuandNationalPreceptor,RolpayDorje,alsoknownbytheSanskrittranslationofhisname,Lalitavajra(–)ThePavilionofRainingFlowerswasintentionallyreconstructedasa“towerofforms”thatwasreallynotwhatitseemed,sinceitconcealedfourseparatefloorsofimages,outliningacarefullygraduated,foursteppathtoenlightenment,behindafacadethatpromisedonlythreeThisprojectmarkedlyassertedthetransienceandphenomenalityofmaterialform,yetitalsosimultaneouslypromotedtheviewthatformhasvaluenotsimplyassupportfortheunenlightened,stumblingseekerForm,inthePavilionofRainingFlowers,isalsoinextricablyenmeshedwithitsowntranscendenceintheparadoxoftheDoubleTruth:theidentityofsamsara(thephenomenalworldofthesenses)andnirvana,theultimate,irreversiblegoalofBuddhistpracticeinwhichthetrue,contingentnatureofthingsisrevealedTherichTibetanstylecontentsofthePavilionofRainingFlowersposeanintriguingculturalcounterpointtoDingGuanpeng’sChinesestyleportraitofQianlongasVimalakîrtiTheVimalakîrtinirdeßa,oneofthemostinfluentialandenduringtextsinChineseBuddhism,haslongbeenbelovedIntroductionasatractthatjustifiesthelayman’spathasaworthyalternativetocelibatemonasticismDespitehisworldliness,VimalakîrtiisenlightenedandthemasterofwhatRobertThurmanhastranslatedas“liberativetech

用户评论(0)

0/200

精彩专题

上传我的资料

每篇奖励 +1积分

资料评分:

/49
仅支持在线阅读

意见
反馈

立即扫码关注

爱问共享资料微信公众号

返回
顶部

举报
资料