下载

1下载券

加入VIP
  • 专属下载特权
  • 现金文档折扣购买
  • VIP免费专区
  • 千万文档免费下载

上传资料

关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 人参国外研究

人参国外研究.pdf

人参国外研究

晓风2010在路上
2013-02-17 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《人参国外研究pdf》,可适用于外语资料领域

PharmacologyThemainactiveagentsinPanaxginsengareginsenosides,whicharetriterpenesaponinsThemajorityofpublishedresearchonthemedicinalactivityofPanaxginsenghasfocusedonginsenosidesThesearethecompoundstowhichsomeginsengproductsarenowstandardizedResearchreviews,postulatethatextractsofPanaxginsengaffectthehypothalamuspituitaryadrenalaxisandtheimmunesystem,whichcouldaccountformanyofthedocumentedeffectsAnimalmodelsandinvitrostudiesmentionedinthesereviews,indicatethatPanaxginsengenhancesphagocytosis,naturalkillercellactivity,andtheproductionofinterferonimprovesphysicalandmentalperformanceinmiceandratscausesvasodilationincreasesresistancetoexogenousstressfactorsandaffectshypoglycemicactivityEfficacyPanaxginsengisusedprimarilytoimprovepsychologicfunction,exerciseperformance,immunefunction,andconditionsassociatedwithdiabetes(Table)TraditionalChinesemedicineandmanycurrentresearchstudiesoftenuseproductsthatcombineginsengwithotherherbalmedicinesorvitaminsBecauseoftheuseofcombinationproductsandthelimitationsofsomestudiesonginseng(eg,poorHerbalremediesknownas“ginseng”arebasedontherootsofseveraldistinctspeciesofplants,mainlyKoreanorAsianginseng(Panaxginseng),Siberianginseng(Eleutherococcussenticosus),andAmericanginseng(Panaxquinquefolius)AllofthesespeciesareintheAraliaceaeplantfamily,buteachhasitsownspecificeffectsonthebodyGinsengproductsarepopularlyreferredtoas“tonics,”atermthathasbeenreplacedby“adaptogens”inmuchofthealternativemedicineliteratureTheterm“adaptogen”connotesanagentthatpurportedly“increasesresistancetophysical,chemical,andbiologicalstressandbuildsupgeneralvitality,includingthephysicalandmentalcapacityforwork”(p)OverthecounterPanaxginsengproductsincludeCelestialSeasoningsGinseng,CentrumHerbalsGinseng,KoreanGinsengExtractfromNature’sWay,NatureMade’sChineseRedPanaxGinseng,Pharmaton’sGinsana,andPhytoPharmica’sGinsengPhytosomePanaxginsengisoneofthemostcommonlyusedandhighlyresearchedspeciesofginsengThisspecies,whichisnativetoChina,Korea,andRussia,hasbeenanimportantherbalremedyintraditionalChinesemedicineforthousandsofyears,whereithasbeenusedprimarilyasatreatmentforweaknessandfatigueTheherbalremediesreferredtoas“ginseng”arederivedfromtherootsofseveralplantsOneofthemostcommonlyusedandresearchedoftheginsengsisPanaxginseng,alsocalledAsianorKoreanginsengThemainactivecomponentsofPanaxginsengareginsenosides,whichhavebeenshowntohaveavarietyofbeneficialeffects,includingantiinflammatory,antioxidant,andanticancereffectsResultsofclinicalresearchstudiesdemonstratethatPanaxginsengmayimprovepsychologicfunction,immunefunction,andconditionsassociatedwithdiabetesOverall,Panaxginsengappearstobewelltolerated,althoughcautionisadvisedaboutconcomitantusewithsomepharmaceuticals,suchaswarfarin,oralhypoglycemicagents,insulin,andphenelzinePanaxginsengdoesnotappeartoenhancephysicalperformanceProductswithastandardizedginsenosideconcentrationareavailable(AmFamPhysician:Copyright©AmericanAcademyofFamilyPhysicians)PanaxginsengDAVIDKIEFER,MD,andTRACIPANTUSO,BSUniversityofArizonaCollegeofMedicine,Tucson,ArizonaCOMPLEMENTARYANDALTERNATIVEMEDICINESeepagefordefinitionsofstrengthofevidencelevelsDownloadedfromtheAmericanFamilyPhysicianWebsiteatwwwaafporgafpCopyright©AmericanAcademyofFamilyPhysiciansFortheprivate,noncommercialuseofoneindividualuseroftheWebsiteAllotherrightsreservedmethodologicquality,researchfocusingonhealthyvolunteers,smallsamplesize,unstandardizedginsengpreparations,varyingdoses),itisdifficulttodrawconclusionsaboutsomeoftheclinicaleffectsofginsengManyresearchtrialshavebeenperformedonthestandardizedPanaxginsengextractGinsana(G)EFFECTSONPSYCHOLOGICFUNCTIONTrialsinvestigatingtheeffectsofPanaxginsengonvariouspsychologicparametershaveshownpositiveeffects,noeffects,orbothInonestudyofhealthyvolunteersolderthanyears,theadministrationofmgperdayofthestandardizedginsengproductGerimaxforeightweeksresultedinbetterandfastersimplereactionsandabstractthinking,butnochangeinconcentration,memory,orsubjectiveexperienceTheresultsoftwosmallstudies,,eachincludingaboutyoung,healthyvolunteerswhoreceivedmgofGdailyforeightweeks,showedimprovementincertainpsychomotorfunctions(ie,betterattention,processing,andauditoryreactiontime),socialfunctioning,andmentalhealthHowever,someoftheeffectspresentatthefourthweekdisappearedbytheeighthweekAstudyofpostmenopausalwomenwhowererandomizedtoreceiveplaceboorginsengforweeksshowedimprovementsinthreesubsetsofaPsychologicalGeneralWellBeingindexEvidencelevelA,randomizedcontrolledtrial(RCT)Inaddition,asmallstudyofhealthyyoungvolunteerswhoreceivedasinglemgdoseofginsengfoundimprovementincognitiveperformance,secondarymemoryperformance,speedofperformingmemorytasks,andaccuracyofattentionaltasksHowever,anotherstudyshowednoeffectonpositiveaffect,negativeaffect,ortotalmooddisturbanceinyounghealthyvolunteerswhotooktomgperdayofGforeightweeksEFFECTSONPHYSICALPERFORMANCEMostoftheclinicalstudiesinvestigatingthevalueofPanaxginsenginenhancingphysicalperformancehaveshownnoclinicaleffectOnestudyontheuseofmgperdayofGinhealthyadultwomenshowednochangeinphysicalworkperformance,energymetabolicresponses,oroxygenuptakeSimilarly,astudyofhealthymenwhotookormgofGdailyforeightweeksfoundnochangeinphysiologicorpsychologicresponsestosubmaximalormaximalexerciseEvidencelevelB,lowerqualityRCTInanotherstudy,adifferentproductstandardizedtopercentginsenosidesandadministeredatmgperdaywasgiventohealthyyoungadultsfordaysNoergogeniceffectsweredemonstrated,includingnochangeinmaximaloxygenconsumption,exercisetime,workload,plasmalactatelevel,hematocrit,orheartrateEFFECTSONIMMUNESYSTEMAstudyofhealthyvolunteersdemonstratedthatdailyadministrationofmgofAMERICANFAMILYPHYSICIANwwwaafporgafpVOLUME,NUMBEROCTOBER,TABLEKeyPointsAboutPanaxginsengEfficacyPsychologicfunctioning:effectiveconflictingevidencePhysicalperformance:ineffectiveImmunesystem:effectiveDiabetes:modesteffectevidencelimitedAdverseeffectsNausea,diarrhea,euphoria,insomnia,headaches,hypertension,hypotension,mastalgia,vaginalbleeding,bloodpressureabnormalitiesInteractionsCautionadvisedaboutconcomitantusewithphenelzine(Nardil),warfarin(Coumadin),oralhypoglycemics,insulin,orcaffeine,andaboutuseinpatientswithhypertensionorbleedingDosageStandardizedextract:mgperdayDryroot(teaformorchewed):togperdayCost$to$foraonemonthsupplyatadosageofmgperdayBottomlineAsafe,welltoleratedherbalmedicinethatmaybeusedforavarietyofmedicalconditionsTheAuthorsDAVIDKIEFER,MD,isafellowinthePrograminIntegrativeMedicineattheUniversityofArizonaCollegeofMedicine,TucsonDrKieferreceivedhismedicaldegreefromtheUniversityofWisconsinMedicalSchool,Madison,andcompletedafamilypracticeresidencyatSwedishFamilyMedicine,SeattleTRACIPANTUSO,BS,isavolunteeratthePrograminIntegrativeMedicineShegraduatedfromLoyolaMarymountUniversity,LosAngelesAddresscorrespondencetoDavidKiefer,MD,PrograminIntegrativeMedicine,UniversityofArizonaCollegeofMedicine,POBox,Tucson,AZ(email:dskseataolcom)ReprintsarenotavailablefromtheauthorsGforweeksenhancedtheefficacyofpolyvalentinfluenzavaccineThepatientswhoreceivedginsenghadalowerincidenceofinfluenzaandcolds,higherantibodytiters,andhighernaturalkillercellactivitylevelsAnotherstudyinhealthyvolunteersshowedenhancedchemotaxis,phagocytosis,increasedtotallymphocytecount,andincreasednumbersofThelpercellsinthosewhoreceivedGinadosageofmgtwicedailyforeightweeksInastudyofpatientswithacuteexacerbationofchronicbronchitiswhoweretreatedwithantibioticsorantibioticsplusginseng,thoseintheginsenggroupshowedfasterbacterialclearanceEFFECTSONDIABETESTheeffectsofPanaxginseng,giveninadosageoformgperdayforeightweeks,werestudiedinpatientswithnewlydiagnosednon–insulindependentdiabetesThestudyshowedimprovedfastingbloodglucoselevels,elevatedmood,andimprovedpsychophysicalperformanceonanumbereddiagramtestThemgdosealsoresultedinimprovedhemoglobinACvaluesADDITIONALUSESInpatientswitherectiledysfunction,useofginsengimprovederectilefunction,sexualdesire,andintercoursesatisfactionPanaxginsengalsoappearstohaveanticancereffectsInaprospectivecohortstudyof,personsolderthanyears,theriskofcancerwasshowntobelowerinthosewhousedginseng(relativerisk:)AdverseEffects,DrugInteractions,andContraindicationsInterpretationofdocumentedadverseeffectsanddruginteractionscanbedifficultbecauseofthevarietyofavailableginsengformulations,andbecausetheexactamountofginsengintheseproductsmaynotbeidentifiedPanaxginsenggenerallyiswelltolerated,anditsadverseeffectsaremildandreversibleAssociatedadverseeffectsincludenausea,diarrhea,euphoria,insomnia,headaches,hypertension,hypotension,mastalgia,andvaginalbleeding,,Panaxginsengmayinteractwithcaffeinetocausehypertension,anditmaylowerbloodalcoholconcentrationsItalsomaydecreasetheeffectivenessofwarfarin(Coumadin)ConcomitantuseofPanaxginsengandthemonoamineoxidaseinhibitorphenelzine(Nardil)mayresultinmaniclikesymptoms,ContraindicationstotheuseofPanaxginsengincludehighbloodpressure,acuteasthma,acuteinfections,andnosebleedsorexcessivemenstruationTheseeffectsappeartooccurprimarilywithhighdosagesorprolongeduseGinsengalsocauseshypoglycemicactivity,andcautionshouldbeexercisedinusingginsengproductsinpatientswithdiabetesbecauseofpossibleinteractionswithoralhypoglycemicagentsandinsulinOnesourcerecommendsavoidingtheuseofginsengproductsinchildrenandinwomenwhoarepregnantorlactating,untilmorerigorousstudiesprovesafetyinthesegroupsDosageMostpublishedresearchstudieshaveusedastandardizedPanaxginsengextractinadosageofmgperdayOthersources,,recommendtogofdryrootperdayonashorttermbasis,withtheginsengtakeninteaformorchewedCapsuleformulasaregenerallygiveninadosageoftomgperday,usuallyindivideddosesStandardizationistotheginsenosidecontent,whichisusuallyrecommendedtobetopercentAccordingtoonesource,percentisanimportantstandardlevelGinsengiscommonlytakenforlongperiods,Onesource(p)recommendsatwoweekginsengfreeperiodeverytwotothreeweeksforsomepersonsTheauthorsindicatethattheydonothaveanyconflictsofinterestsSourcesoffunding:nonereportedPanaxginsengOCTOBER,VOLUME,NUMBERwwwaafporgafpAMERICANFAMILYPHYSICIANPanaxginsengREFERENCESRobbersJE,TylerVETyler’sHerbsofchoice:thetherapeuticuseofphytomedicinalsNewYork,NY:HaworthHerbalPress,MahadyGB,GyllenhallC,FongHH,FarnsworthNRGinsengs:areviewofsafetyandefficacyNutrClinCare:WorldHealthOrganizationWHOmonographsonselectedmedicinalplantsGeneva:WorldHealthOrganization,VoglerBK,PittlerMH,ErnstETheefficacyofginsengAsystematicreviewofrandomisedclinicaltrialsEurJClinPharmacol:CasoMarascoA,VargasRuizR,SalasVillagomezA,BegonaInfanteCDoubleblindstudyofamultivitamincomplexsupplementedwithginsengextractDrugsExpClinRes:PieralisiG,RipariP,VecchietLEffectsofastandardizedginsengextractcombinedwithdimethylaminoethanolbitartrate,vitamins,minerals,andtraceelementsonphysicalperformanceduringexerciseClinTher:KennedyDO,ScholeyAB,WesnesKAModulationofcognitionandmoodfollowingadministrationofsingledosesofGinkgobiloba,ginseng,andaginkgoginsengcombinationtohealthyyoungadultsPhysiolBehav:WesnesKA,WardT,McGintyA,PetriniOThememoryenhancingeffectsofaGinkgobilobaPanaxginsengcombinationinhealthymiddleagedvolunteersPsychopharmacology:SorensenH,SonneJAdoublemaskedstudyoftheeffectsofginsengoncognitivefunctionsCurrTherResClinExp:D’AngeloL,GrimaldiR,CaravaggiM,MarcoliM,PeruccaE,LecchiniS,etalAdoubleblind,placebocontrolledclinicalstudyontheeffectofastandardizedginsengextractonpsychomotorperformanceinhealthyvolunteersJEthnopharmacol:EllisJM,ReddyPEffectsofPanaxginsengonqualityoflifeAnnPharmacother:WiklundIK,MattssonLA,LindgrenR,LimoniCEffectsofastandardizedginsengextractonqualityoflifeandphysiologicalparametersinsymptomaticpostmenopausalwomen:adoubleblind,placebocontrolledtrialSwedishAlternativeMedicineGroupIntJClinPharmacolRes:CardinalBJ,EngelsHJGinsengdoesnotenhancepsychologicalwellbeinginhealthy,youngadults:resultsofadoubleblind,placebocontrolled,randomizedclinicaltrialJAmDietAssoc:BahrkeMS,MorganWREvaluationoftheergogenicpropertiesofginseng:anupdateSportsMed:EngelsHJ,SaidJM,WirthJCFailureofchronicginsengsupplementationtoaffectworkperformanceandenergymetabolisminhealthyadultfemalesNutrResUnitedStates:EngelsHJ,WirthJCNoergogeniceffectsofginseng(PanaxginsengCAMeyer)duringgradedmaximalaerobicexerciseJAmDietAssoc:AllenJD,McLungJ,NelsonAG,WelschMGinsengsupplementationdoesnotenhancehealthyyoungadults’peakaerobicexerciseperformanceJAmCollNutr:ScaglioneF,CattaneoG,AlessandriaM,CogoREfficacyandsafetyofthestandardizedGinsengextractGforpotentiatingvaccinationagainsttheinfluenzasyndromeandprotectionagainstthecommoncoldcorrectedDrugsExpClinRes:ScaglioneF,FerraraF,DugnaniS,FalchiM,SantoroG,FraschiniFImmunomodulatoryeffectsoftwoextractsofPanaxginsengCAMeyerDrugsExpClinRes:ScaglioneF,WeiserK,AlessandriaMEffectsofthestandardizedginsengextractG®inpatientswithchronicbronchitis:anonblinded,randomised,comparativepilotstudyClinDrugInvestNewZealand:SotaniemiEA,HaapakoskiE,RautioAGinsengtherapyinnoninsulindependentdiabeticpatientsDiabetesCare:HongB,JiYH,HongJH,NamKY,AhnTYAdoubleblindcrossoverstudyevaluatingtheefficacyofkoreanredginsenginpatientswitherectiledysfunction:apreliminaryreportJUrol:YunTK,ChoiSYNonorganspecificcancerpreventionofginseng:aprospectivestudyinKoreaIntJEpidemiol:CoonJT,ErnstEPanaxginseng:asystematicreviewofadverseeffectsanddruginteractionsDrugSaf:ErnstETheriskbenefitprofileofcommonlyusedherbaltherapies:ginkgo,StJohn’swort,ginseng,echinacea,sawpalmetto,andkavapublishederratumappearsinAnnInternMed:AnnInternMed:BrinkerFJHerbcontraindicationsdruginteractions:withextensiveappendicesaddressingspecificconditions,herbeffects,criticalmedications,andnutritionalsupplementsdedSandy,Ore:EclecticMedicalPublications,JohnsonLPPocketguidetoherbalremediesMalden,Mass:BlackwellScience,HallT,LuZ,YatPN,FitzloffJF,ArnasonJT,AwangDV,etalEvaluationofconsistencyofstandardizedAsianginsengproductsintheginsengevaluationprogramHerbalGram:RetrievedAugust,,fromwwwherbalgramorgwholefoodsmarketherbalgramarticleviewaspa=BlumenthalMGermanFederalInstituteforDrugsandMedialDevicesCommissionETheCompleteGermanCommissionEmonographs:therapeuticguidetoherbalmedicinesAustin,Tex:AmericanBotanicalCouncil,:AMERICANFAMILYPHYSICIANwwwaafporgafpVOLUME,NUMBEROCTOBER,

VIP免券下载文档

用户评价(0)

关闭

新课改视野下建构高中语文教学实验成果报告(32KB)

抱歉,积分不足下载失败,请稍后再试!

提示

试读已结束,如需要继续阅读或者下载,敬请购买!

文档小程序码

使用微信“扫一扫”扫码寻找文档

1

打开微信

2

扫描小程序码

3

发布寻找信息

4

等待寻找结果

我知道了
评分:

/4

人参国外研究

VIP

在线
客服

免费
邮箱

爱问共享资料服务号

扫描关注领取更多福利