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首页 Software Testing An ISTQB-ISEB Foundation Guide

Software Testing An ISTQB-ISEB Foundation Guide.pdf

Software Testing An ISTQB-ISEB …

kevin0000010
2013-02-13 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Software Testing An ISTQB-ISEB Foundation Guidepdf》,可适用于IT/计算机领域

SoftwareteStingAnISTQB–ISEBFoundationGuideSecondEditionBrianHambling(Editor),PeterMorgan,AngelinaSamaroo,GeoffThompsonandPeterWilliamsThisbestsellingsoftwaretestingtitleistheofficialtextbookoftheISTQB–ISEBFoundationCertificateinSoftwareTestingItcoverstheupdatetotheexamsyllabusandisidealforthosewithsomeexperienceofsoftwaretestingwhowishtocementtheirknowledgewithindustryrecognisedtechniquesandtheoryThebookincludesselfassessmentexercises,sampleexaminationquestionsandworkedexamples•Thebestsellingsoftwaretestingtitle•TheofficialtextbookoftheISTQB–ISEBFoundationCertificateinSoftwareTesting•CompleteoverviewoftoolsandtechniquesAbouttheAuthorsTheauthorsareallexperiencedISEBexaminationsettersandmarkersandknowtheISTQB–ISEBsyllabusindepthTheeditorBrianHamblinghasexperiencedsoftwaredevelopmentfromadeveloper’s,aprojectmanager’sandaqualitymanager’sperspectiveinacareerspanningoveryearsYoumightalsobeinterestedin:SoFTwarETESTIng:anISEBIntermediateCertificateBrianHamblingandAngelinaSamarooInvaluableforanyoneinvolvedintestingandwouldliftthegameofmostVVTstaff(includingdesignersdoingtheir‘informal’reviewsandtests)andtheirprojectmanagersItissuccinctlyandclearlywrittenwithnononsenseAnunreservedforvalueformoneyITTrainingMagazine(reviewofpreviousedition)InformationTechnologysoftwAretesting:AnISTQBISEBFoundationGuideBrianHambling(Editor)SoftwareteStingAnISTQB–ISEBFoundationGuideSecondEditionBrianHambling(Editor)SoftwareTestinglayoutindd::SoftwareTestingndEdition:Layout:PMPagexSOFTWARETESTINGAnISTQB–ISEBFoundationGuideSecondEditionSoftwareTestingndEdition:Layout:PMPageiBCSTHECHARTEREDINSTITUTEFORITOurmissionasBCS,TheCharteredInstituteforIT,istoenabletheinformationsocietyWepromotewidersocialandeconomicprogressthroughtheadvancementofinformationtechnology,scienceandpracticeWebringtogetherindustry,academics,practitionersandgovernmenttoshareknowledge,promotenewthinking,informthedesignofnewcurricula,shapepublicpolicyandinformthepublicOurvisionistobeaworldclassorganisationforITOur,strongmembershipincludespractitioners,businesses,academicsandstudentsintheUKandinternationallyWedeliverarangeofprofessionaldevelopmenttoolsforpractitionersandemployeesAsleadingITqualificationbody,weofferarangeofwidelyrecognisedqualificationsFurtherInformationBCSTheCharteredInstituteforIT,FirstFloor,BlockD,NorthStarHouse,NorthStarAvenue,Swindon,SNFA,UnitedKingdomT()F()wwwbcsorgcontactusSoftwareTestingndEdition:Layout:PMPageiiSOFTWARETESTINGAnISTQB–ISEBFoundationGuideSecondEditionBrianHambling(Editor),PeterMorgan,AngelinaSamaroo,GeoffThompsonandPeterWilliamsSoftwareTestingndEdition:Layout:PMPageiiiiv©BritishInformaticsSocietyLimitedTherightofBrianHambling,PeterMorgan,AngelinaSamaroo,GeoffThompsonandPeterWilliamstobeidentifiedasauthorsofthisworkhasbeenassertedbytheminaccordancewithsectionsandoftheCopyright,DesignsandPatentsActAllrightsreservedApartfromanyfairdealingforthepurposesofresearchorprivatestudy,orcriticismorreview,aspermittedbytheCopyrightDesignsandPatentsAct,nopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,exceptwiththepriorpermissioninwritingofthepublisher,orinthecaseofreprographicreproduction,inaccordancewiththetermsofthelicencesissuedbytheCopyrightLicensingAgencyEnquiriesforpermissiontoreproducematerialoutsidethosetermsshouldbedirectedtothepublisherAlltrademarks,registerednamesetcacknowledgedinthispublicationarethepropertyoftheirrespectiveownersBCSandtheBCSlogoaretheregisteredtrademarksoftheBritishComputerSocietycharitynumber(BCS)PublishedbyBritishInformaticsSocietyLimited(BISL),awhollyownedsubsidiaryofBCS,TheCharteredInstituteforIT,FirstFloor,BlockD,NorthStarHouse,NorthStarAvenue,Swindon,SNFA,UKwwwbcsorgISBNBritishCataloguinginPublicationDataACIPcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailableattheBritishLibraryDisclaimer:TheviewsexpressedinthisbookareoftheauthorsanddonotnecessarilyreflecttheviewsofBCSorBISLexceptwhereexplicitlystatedassuchAlthougheverycarehasbeentakenbytheauthorsandBISLinthepreparationofthepublication,nowarrantyisgivenbytheauthorsorBISLaspublisherastotheaccuracyorcompletenessoftheinformationcontainedwithinitandneithertheauthorsnorBISLshallberesponsibleorliableforanylossordamagewhatsoeverarisingbyvirtueofsuchinformationoranyinstructionsoradvicecontainedwithinthispublicationorbyanyoftheaforementionedTypesetbyLapizDigitalServices,Chennai,IndiaPrintedatCPIAntonyRoweLtd,Chippenham,UKSoftwareTestingndEdition:Layout:PMPageivvFiguresandtablesviiAbbreviationsixAuthorsxiINTRODUCTIONNatureandpurposeofthebookPurposeofFoundationTheCertifiedTesterFoundationLevelsyllabusRelationshipofthebooktothesyllabusHowtogetthebestoutofthisbookTHEFUNDAMENTALSOFTESTINGBackgroundIntroductionWhysoftwarefailsKeepingsoftwareundercontrolWhattestingisandwhattestingdoesGeneraltestingprinciplesFundamentaltestprocessThepsychologyoftestingCodeofethicsSummaryReferencesLIFECYCLESIntroductionSoftwaredevelopmentmodelsTestlevelsTesttypesMaintenancetestingSummarySTATICTESTINGIntroductionBackgroundtostatictechniquesReviewsandthetestprocessStaticanalysisbytoolsSummaryCONTENTSSoftwareTestingndEdition:Layout:PMPagevTESTDESIGNTECHNIQUESIntroductionThetestdevelopmentprocessTheideaoftestcoverageCategoriesoftestcasedesigntechniquesSpecificationbased(blackbox)techniquesStructurebased(whitebox)techniquesExperiencebasedtechniquesChoosingtesttechniquesSummaryTESTMANAGEMENTIntroductionRiskandtestingTestorganisationTestapproaches(teststrategies)TestplanningandestimationTestprogressmonitoringandcontrolIncidentmanagementConfigurationmanagementSummaryTOOLSUPPORTFORTESTINGIntroductionWhatIsatesttoolTesttoolsIntroducingatoolintoanorganisationSummaryTHEEXAMINATIONTheexaminationRevisiontechniquesReviewIndexviCONTENTSSoftwareTestingndEdition:Layout:PMPageviviiFigureSyllabusmapFigureEffectofanerrorFigureResourcestriangleFigureEffectofidentificationtimeoncostoferrorsFigureFundamentaltestprocessFigureIterationofactivitiesFigureWaterfallmodelFigureVmodelforsoftwaredevelopmentFigureIterativedevelopmentFigureTopdowncontrolstructureFigureBottomupintegrationFigureStagesofaformalreviewFigureFormalityofreviewsFigureStatetransitiondiagramofthehillwalker’swatchFigureStatetransitiondiagramFigureUsecaseexampleFigureFlowchartforasequentialprogramFigureFlowchartforaselection(decision)structureFigureFlowchartforaniteration(loop)structureFigureFlowchartrepresentationforExampleFigureControlflowgraphshowingsubgraphsasnodesFigureControlflowgraphwithsubgraphsexpandedFigureFlowchartforProgramCoverageExampleFigureThehybridflowgraphFigurePathsthroughthehybridflowgraphFigurePathsthroughthehybridflowgraphFigurePathsthroughthehybridflowgraphFigureFlowchartforExerciseFigureControlflowgraphforExerciseFigureLevelsofindependenttestingFigureTestplansintheVmodelFigureiTestingExecutiveDashboardFigureIncidentsplannedraisedFigureTesttoolpaybackmodelFigureHotelsystemarchitectureFigureAnintegratedsetoftoolsFigureTestexecutiontoolspaybackmodelFigureTestharnessformiddlewareFigureTesttoolimplementationprocessFIGURESANDTABLESSoftwareTestingndEdition:Layout:PMPageviiTableComparativecosttocorrecterrorsTableSTforthehillwalker’swatchTableFeaturesofindependenttestingTableTestplansectionsTableTestsummaryreportoutlineTableTestincidentreportoutlineTableConfigurationtraceabilityTableHotelsystemextract()TableHotelsystemextract()TableExitcriteriaTableTypesoftesttoolFIGURESANDTABLESviiiSoftwareTestingndEdition:Layout:PMPageviiiixABBREVIATIONSAUTApplicationUnderTestBACSBankersAutomatedClearingServicesCASEComputerAidedSoftwareEngineeringCMMiCapabilityMaturityModelIntegrationDLLDynamicLinkLibraryFTPFundamentalTestProcessGUIGraphicalUserInterfaceISEBInformationSystemsExaminationBoardISTQBInternationalSoftwareTestingQualicationsBoardMISRAMotorIndustrySoftwareReliabilityAssociationRADRapidApplicationDevelopmentRUPRationalUnifiedProcessSDLCSoftwareDevelopmentLifeCycleSIGiSTSpecialInterestGroupinSoftwareTestingSQLStructuredQueryLanguageSTStateTableTPITestProcessImprovementUMLUnifiedModelingLanguageXMLExtensibleMarkupLanguageSoftwareTestingndEdition:Layout:PMPageixSoftwareTestingndEdition:Layout:PMPagexxiAUTHORSBrianHamblinghasexperiencedsoftwaredevelopmentfromadeveloper’s,projectmanager’sandqualitymanager’sperspectiveinacareerspanningoveryearsHehasworkedinareasasdiverseasrealtimeavionics,legacysystemsmaintenanceandebusinessstrategiesHecontributedtothedevelopmentofsoftwarequalitystandardswhileattheMinistryofDefenceandlaterbecametheheadofsystemsandsoftwareengineeringatTheUniversityofGreenwichHewastechnicaldirectorofImagoQAandgeneralmanagerofMicrogenIQA,aspecialistcompanyprovidingconsultancyinsoftwaretestingandqualityassuranceprimarilytothefinancialservicessectorHeisnowconcentratingonwritingPeterMorganisafreelancetestingpractitionerHehasbeenworkingasahandsontesterforanumberofyears,oftenonprojectswithovertestersHehasworkedfororganisationsincludingFujitsuServices,NationwideBuildingSociety,HutchisonGandBTSyntegraHeisamemberoftheInformationSystemsExaminationBoard(ISEB)softwaretestingaccreditationandexaminationpanels,andhaspresentedpapersatseveraltestingconferences,includingEuroSTARHehasadegreefromtheLondonSchoolofEconomicsandisanactivememberofBCSandespeciallyitsSpecialInterestGroupinSoftwareTesting(SIGiST)AngelinaSamaroobeganhercareerinthedefencesector,wheresheworkedontheTornadoADVInshewasawardedCharteredEngineerstatusbytheRoyalAeronauticalSocietyEarlyinhercareershetookaninterestindevelopingstaff,managingthetrainingofnewengineersacrossthecompany,tothestandardslaiddownbytheIEE(nowtheIET)SheisaninstructorfortheISEBFoundationandPractitionerCoursesinSoftwareTestingShehasalsoinstructeddelegatesinotheraspectsoftesting,suchasunittesting,useracceptancetestingandmanagingtestingprojects,intheUK,Europe,NorthAmericaandAustraliaGeoffThompsonhasbeeninvolvedintestingfornearlyyears,specialisinginteststrategy,testmanagementandprocessimprovementHeiscurrentlyconsultancydirectoroftheconsultingorganisationExperimentusLtdHehasbeeninvolvedindevelopingsoftwaretestingqualificationssince,workingfirstwithISEBandthenwithISTQB(InternationalSoftwareTestingQualificationBoard),anorganisationhefoundedinHeisthechairoftheUKTestingBoard,chairoftheTMMiFoundationManagementExecutive,andisalsothevicechairmanoftheBCSSIGiSTCommitteeHewasawardedtheUKTestExcellenceAwardinSoftwareTestingndEdition:Layout:PMPagexiPeterWilliamspreviouslyworkedinmethodsandsystemsimprovementbeforemovingintosystemsdevelopmentandsubsequentlysoftwaretestingHehasbeenaselfemployedcontracttestmanagerorconsultantinbothfinancialservicesandthepublicsectorHehasevaluatedtestprocessesandsubsequentlyimplementedimprovements,atvariousorganisations,includingtestmanagementandexecutiontoolsasappropriateHehasanMScincomputingfromtheOpenUniversityandischairmanoftheExaminationsPanelfortheISEBFoundationCertificateinSoftwareTestingxiiAUTHORSSoftwareTestingndEdition:Layout:PMPagexiiINTRODUCTIONNATUREANDPURPOSEOFTHEBOOKTheInformationSystemsExaminationBoard(ISEB)ofBCS(wwwbcsorgukiseb)instigatedtheFoundationCertificateinSoftwareTestinginsincethenover,FoundationCertificateshavebeenawardedAnintermediatelevelqualificationwasintroducedinasasteptowardsthemoreadvancedPractitionerqualificationTheInternationalSoftwareTestingQualificationsBoard(ISTQB)(wwwistqborg)wassetupintoofferasimilarcertificationschemetoasmanycountriesaswishedtojointhisinternationaltestingcommunityTheUKwasafoundingmemberofISTQBand,in,adoptedtheISTQBFoundationCertificateSyllabusasthebasisofexaminationsfortheFoundationCertificateintheUKTheFoundationCertificateisnowanentryqualificationfortheISTQBAdvancedCertificateTheCertifiedTesterFoundationLevelSyllabushasbeenupdatedandreleasedinaversion,andthisbookrelatestotheversionofthesyllabusThisbookhasbeenwrittenspecificallytohelppotentialcandidatesfortheISTQB–ISEBCertifiedTesterFoundationLevelexaminationThebookisthereforestructuredtosupportlearningofthekeyideasinthesyllabusquicklyandefficientlyforthosewhodonotplantoattendacourse,andtosupportstructuredrevisionforanyonepreparingfortheexamInthisintroductorychapterwewillexplainthenatureandpurposeoftheFoundationLevelandprovideaninsightintothewaythesyllabusisstructuredandthewaythebookisstructuredtosupportlearninginthevarioussyllabusareasFinallyweofferguidanceonthebestwaytousethisbook,eitherasalearningresourceorasarevisionresourcePURPOSEOFFOUNDATIONTheCertifiedTesterFoundationLevelCertificateisthefirstlevelofahierarchyofISTQB–ISEBcertificatesinsoftwaretesting,andleadsnaturallyintothenextlevel,knownastheIntermediateCertificateinSoftwareTesting,whichinturnleadsontotheISTQBAdvancedLevel,followedbythevariousISTQBExpertLevelexaminationsSoftwareTestingndEdition:Layout:PMPageTheFoundationLevelprovidesaverybroadintroductiontothewholedisciplineofsoftwaretestingAsaresultcoverageoftopicsisvariable,withsomeonlybrieflymentionedandothersstudiedinsomedetailThearrangementofthesyllabusandtherequiredlevelsofunderstandingareexplainedinthenextsectionTheauthorsofthesyllabushaveaimeditatpeoplewithvaryinglevelsofexperienceintesting,includingthosewithnoexperienceatallThismakesthecertificateaccessibletothosewhoareorwhoaimtobespecialisttesters,butalsotothosewhorequireamoregeneralunderstandingoftesting,suchasprojectmanagersandsoftwaredevelopmentmanagersOnespecificaimofthisqualificationistopreparecertificateholdersforthenextlevelofcertification,buttheFoundationLevelhassufficientbreadthanddepthofcoveragetostandaloneTHECERTIFIEDTESTERFOUNDATIONLEVELSYLLABUSSyllabuscontentandstructureThesyllabusisbrokendownintosixmainsections,eachofwhichhasassociatedwithitaminimumcontacttimethatmustbeincludedwithinanyaccreditedtrainingcourse:)Fundamentalsoftesting(minutes))Testingthroughoutthesoftwarelifecycle(minutes))Statictechniques(minutes))Testdesigntechniques(minutes))Testmanagement(minutes))Toolsupportfortesting(minutes)TherelativetimingsareareliableguidetotheamountoftimethatshouldbespentstudyingeachsectionofthesyllabusThesetimingsarefurtherbrokendownforeachtopicwithinasectionEachsectionofthesyllabusalsoincludesalistoflearningobjectivesthatprovidescandidateswithaguidetowhattheyshouldknowwhentheyhavecompletedtheirstudyofasectionandaguidetowhatcanbeexpectedtobeaskedinanexaminationThelearningobjectivescanbeusedtocheckthatlearningorrevisionisadequateforeachtopicInthebook,whichisstructuredaroundthesyllabussections,wehavepresentedthelearningobjectivesforeachsectionatthebeginningoftherelevantchapter,andthesummaryattheendofeachchapterconfirmshowthoselearningobjectiveshavebeenaddressedFinally,eachtopicinthesyllabushasassociatedwithitalevelofunderstanding,representedbythelegendK,K,KorK:LevelofunderstandingKisassociatedwithrecall,sothatatopiclabelledKcontainsinformationthatacandidateshouldbeabletorememberbutnotnecessarilyuseorexplainSOFTWARETESTINGSoftwareTestingndEdition:Layout:PMPageLevelofunderstandingKisassociatedwiththeabilitytoexplainatopicortoclassifyinformationormakecomparisonsLevelofunderstandingKisassociatedwiththeabilitytoapplyatopicinapracticalsettingLevelofunderstandingKisassociatedwiththeabilitytoanalyseasituationorasetofinformationtodeterminewhatactiontotakeThelevelofunderstandinginfluencesthelevelandtypeofquestionsthatcanbeexpectedtobeaskedaboutthattopicintheexaminationMoredetailaboutthequestionstyleandabouttheexaminationisgiveninChapterExamplequestions,writtentothelevelandintheformatsusedintheexamination,areincludedwithineachchaptertoprovidegenerousexaminationpracticeSyllabusmapThesyllabuscanusefullybeviewedasamindmap,asshowninFigureInthisrepresentationthemainsectionsofthesyllabus,correspondingtochaptersinthebook,providethefirstleveloforderingThenextlevelprovidesthebreakdownintotopicswithineachsectionInmostcasesthesyllabusbreakstopicsdownevenfurther,butthislevelofbreakdownisomittedfromthediagramforclarityFigureenablestheentiresy

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